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1.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102482, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673233

RESUMO

Dirofilaria spp. nematodes are accidental parasites of humans causing mild to serious, superficial or visceral infections. Superficial dirofilariosis is rather common in Europe and is typically manifested as subcutaneous form. Herein we report 46 new cases of human dirofilariosis (19 patients with subcutaneous, 18 patients with ocular, 4 patients wih genital, 2 patients with submucosal, 2 patients with pulmonary and 1 patient with intramuscular form of infection) that were recorded from the beginning of 2015 to May 2021 on the Balkan Peninsula with a goal to update the prevalence of this parasitosis and point out potential problems in diagnosis and treatment. Besides, given the high possibility of misinterpretation as tumor, our second aim was to encourage the inclusion of this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules. Although quite common forms, subcutaneous and ocular dirofilariosis can be very often misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations. Therefore, raising awareness of clinicians about this zoonosis is needed as well as closer collaboration between physicians and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose , Zoonoses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Península Balcânica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sérvia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
2.
Health Promot Int ; 36(6): 1530-1538, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942003

RESUMO

Psychological distress in university students represents a rising public health concern. The complexity of this phenomenon calls for a more in-depth scrutiny, in order to address the wide diversity of mental health issues that may arise in this population. The instrument designed for the purpose of measuring the student-specific distress is needed. An appropriate tool is the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms 62 (CCAPS-62), multidimensional scale widely used at many universities. The objective of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt and psychometrically validate CCAPS-62 in Serbian student population. A total of 1326 Belgrade University students were recruited from twelve different faculties. Considering the possible culturally conditioned differences in the quality of distress both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. The results of the exploratory factor analysis supported the eight-factor model with the item composition of the factors different to a certain extent from the original version. This measurement model was verified by confirmatory factor analysis. Findings demonstrated good internal consistency for the total scale as well as for the eight subscales applied among Serbian students. Implications are discussed with respect to the cultural context of mental health concerns in student population.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sérvia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960002

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to estimate the exposure and characterize the risk for the child population of Serbia to Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from milk and milk-based food. A total of 3404 samples comprising milk and different milk-based food samples were collected from various regions of Serbia from 2017 to 2019. Evaluation of AFM1 exposure was carried out using the deterministic method, whereas risk characterization was evaluated using the margin of exposure (MOE) and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Detection rates for AFM1 in milk and milk-based food samples ranged between 2% and 79%, with the highest incidence (79%) and mean level (22.34 ± 0.018 ng kg-1) of AFM1 being detected in pasteurized and UHT milk. According to the three consumption estimates, the values of estimated daily intake (EDI) were higher for toddlers as compared with children aged 3-9 years. Children aged 1-3 years had the highest risk of exposure to AFM1 in milk, with an estimated daily intake of 0.164 and 0.193 ng kg-1 bw day-1 using lower bound (LB) and upper bound (UB) exposure scenarios, respectively. Such difference could result from the higher consumption to weight in younger children. Based on the estimated daily intake (EDI) found in this study, the risk of AFM1 exposure due to consumption of milk and milk-based food was low since the MOE values obtained were >10,000. In addition, the risk of HCC cases/year/105 individuals of different age groups showed that the value of HCC, using potency estimates of 0.0017 (mean), was maximum (0.00034) in the age group 1-3 years, which indicates no health risk for the evaluated groups. The present study revealed the importance of controlling and preventing AFM1 contamination in milk through continuous monitoring and regular inspection to reduce the risk of AFM1 exposure, especially in children.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina M1/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Aflatoxina M1/efeitos adversos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Laticínios/análise , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sérvia
5.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 399-407, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730304

RESUMO

Since drug companies are driven by the need to produce profit they are unwilling to make large investments in the development of new drugs if there is no market large enough to justify such investment. For this reason, veterinarians face a major obstacle - the veterinary drug market is not very profitable, which sometimes leads to not having a licensed drug available for treatment in veterinary practice. In this case, the cascade procedure allows veterinarians to, under certain circumstances, prescribe human approved drugs. The aim of our study was to analyze the pattern of human approved drugs prescription for 150 medical records of dogs participating in the survey. The results show that antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed drugs for animals (50%) of all human approved drugs, and beta-lactams (38.6%) were the most widely used antibiotic classes. The most common general conditions for therapeutic use of antimicrobials in this study were digestive, skin and respiratory disorders. Our study shows that the frequency of bacterial culture, susceptibility testing and cytology was very low. Even though the off-label use of human approved drugs in animal practice is regulated by law, the results of this study indicate the need for more specific strategies and guidelines for such use. This may represent a potential for improvement by raising veterinarians' awareness toward more prudent use of human drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Veterinários , Uso Off-Label , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Zootaxa ; 5003(1): 1-64, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811338

RESUMO

We present a checklist of 86 valid freshwater mollusc species of Serbia (65 gastropods and 21 bivalves) belonging to 19 families (15 gastropods and four bivalves). The list is based on our latest research and includes data from published sources and personal communications. The most diverse family among gastropods is Planorbidae (16 species), while Sphaeriidae are most diverse within the bivalves (10 species). Ten species are local endemics (all of them gastropods), while eight are introduced species (three gastropods and five bivalves). The Danube River and its smaller tributaries harbour the most diverse gastropod community, with a total of 61 species (41 gastropods and 20 bivalves). The snail Theodoxus transversalis (Pfeiffer, 1828) and the bivalve Unio crassus Philipson, 1788 are listed as EN (endangered) on the global (IUCN) level, while the snail Plagigeyeria gladilini Kuer, 1937 and the bivalves Pseudanodonta complanata (Rossmssler, 1835) and Sphaerium rivicola (Lamarck, 1818) are considered as VU (vulnerable) species. Of those IUCN taxa, only U. crassus is listed as protected on the national level (along with 12 mostly local endemic gastropod species). In comparison with the previous checklist of gastropods by Karaman Karaman (2007), a total of seven species are added here: Belgrandiella serbica Gler 2008, Bythinella istoka Gler Pei 2014, B. nonveilleri Gler 2008, B. pesterica Gler 2008, Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758), Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Mller, 1774) and Armiger crista (Linnaeus, 1758). In view of global and regional trends in taxonomy, ecology and invasive biology, an even richer diversity of the Serbian freshwater malocofauna can be expected.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Água Doce , Animais , Rios , Sérvia , Caramujos
7.
Zootaxa ; 5047(3): 273-299, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810846

RESUMO

The glomerid genus Trachysphaera Heller, 1858 in Serbia is revised, based on recently collected specimens and historical material. Six species are presently recorded from Serbia, viz., Trachysphaera corcyraea (Verhoeff, 1900), T. cristangula (Attems, 1943), T. schmidtii Heller, 1858, and T. similicostata (Radu Ceuca, 1951), all new to the fauna of the country, as well as T. costata (Waga, 1857a) and T. lobotarsus (Attems, 1943). All of these species are richly illustrated and mapped. To verify the identity of some species, historical material from the Natural History Museum in Vienna, including syntypes, is also studied, and two lectotypes have been designated. Some misidentifications from the literature have been corrected. Trachysphaera acutula (Latzel, 1884) syn. n., T. cultrifera (Verhoeff, 1906) syn. n. and T. multiclavigera (Verhoeff, 1898) syn. n. are all considered as junior subjective synonyms of T. schmidtii. Trachysphaera attemsi Golovatch, 1976 syn. n. is transferred from the list of synonyms of T. costata to the list of synonyms of T. corcyraea. One species, T. similicostata, is resurrected from synonymy. Relationships between some congeners and the taxonomic problems within the genus are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Sérvia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259062, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705857

RESUMO

This study aimed to generate a linguistic equivalent of the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) in the Serbian language and examine its psychometric characteristics. Data were collected from September to December 2020 among the general population of three cities in Republic of Serbia and Republic of Srpska, countries where the Serbian language is spoken. Participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, followed by the CSS and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The CSS was validated using the standard methodology (i.e., forward and backward translations, pilot testing). The reliability of the Serbian CSS was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega coefficients and convergent validity was evaluated by correlating the CSS with PSS. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the Serbian CSS. This study included 961 persons (52.8% males and 47.2% females). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Serbian CSS was 0.964 and McDonald's omega was 0.964. The Serbian CSS with 36 items and a six-factorial structure showed a measurement model with a satisfactory fit for our population (CMIN/DF = 4.391; GFI = 0.991; RMSEA = 0.025). The CSS total and all domain scores significantly positively correlated with PSS total score. The Serbian version of the CSS is a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used in assessing COVID-19-related distress experienced by Serbian speaking people during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future epidemics and pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idioma , Pandemias , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sérvia
9.
Work ; 70(2): 419-431, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that work often causes stress in employees and even in occupational safety experts. Occupational stress can lead to serious health consequences for employees. As the job of occupational safety experts is very responsible, they are more exposed to workplace stress and more vulnerable to its consequences. This study resulted with expertise on the work related stress of safety experts in Croatia and Serbia. OBJECTIVE: This study examined workplace stress of occupational safety experts in Croatia and Serbia. METHODS: Surveys were used to collect original data and statistical methods were used for data processing and analysis. RESULTS: There was a correlation between the level of stress on safety expert's jobs and stress levels related to the status of safety experts as dependent variables and the organization profile related with safety experts' employment as independent variables. Stress of safety experts related to activities and the status of safety experts were of medium level. CONCLUSION: There is a need for preventive protection from stress in this profession. Continuous education of safety experts plays a key role in stress prevention, not only for the safety experts but it also plays a key role in stress management throughout the organization.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Croácia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
10.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 56, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional knowledge is key for sustainability, but it is rapidly disappearing. Pig keeping in forests and marshes is an ancient, once widespread, now vanishing practice, with a major economic and ecological potential. The knowledge of pig keepers and the foraging activity of pigs are hardly documented. METHODS: We studied the knowledge of traditional pig keepers (svinjars) on wild plants and pig foraging on the Sava-Bosut forest-marsh complex in Serbia. We conducted picture-based interviews about 234 locally common and/or salient plant species, and participatory fieldwork (11 days) and visual observation (21 days) on pig foraging. RESULTS: 181 wild plant species were known by svinjars and 106 taxa were consumed by pigs. Svinjars knew well and could name most regularly foraged species. 98 species were reported by svinjars as foraged and 56 as not eaten. 28 species were observed by the authors as eaten regularly, while 21 were nibbled and 17 avoided. Contradictory information on foraging was rare both among svinjars (8 species) and between svinjars and researchers (7 species); several of these species were rare. Leaves of 92, fruits or seeds of 21 and 'roots' of 20 species were reported or observed as eaten, usually with high seasonality. Svinjars were overall observant, but knew little about some less salient species (e.g. Veronica, Circaea). The most common forages (reported and/or observed) were fruits (Quercus, fleshy fruits), grasses (Agrostis, Glyceria), herbs (Ranunculus ficaria, Circaea), nutritious 'roots' (Carex spp., Iris), young shrub leaves (Crataegus, Carpinus) and 'tame' plants growing in the sun (Persicaria dubia, Erigeron annuus). Traditional, now extinct pig breeds were reported as less selective and more 'knowledgeable' about plants, as they received less additional fodder. Svinjars learnt their knowledge since childhood, from community members, but long-term personal observations and everyday encounters with pigs were also important sources of knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: A deeper understanding of pig foraging could contribute to using pigs in nature conservation management, resource management and organic farming, and to a better understanding of wild boar foraging. The knowledge of svinjars is a disappearing intangible cultural heritage of European importance. Knowledge holders deserve recognition, and legal and financial support to continue this tradition.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Florestas , Áreas Alagadas , Ração Animal , Animais , Herbivoria , Conhecimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sérvia , Suínos
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1286-1292, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of COVID-19 has had an impact on global healthcare as well as on radiotherapy practice in many countries. This study aimed to identify clinical characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected cancer inpatients, as well as what impact this infection had on radiation treatment of the patients. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, we included cancer inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection during the radiotherapy or chemoradiation in April 2020 in National Cancer Research Center in Serbia. Data were obtained from the medical records between 1 April and 1 July 2020. RESULTS: A total of 49 COVID-19 infected cancer inpatients were included. The most frequently reported cancers were head and neck cancers, in twenty-three patients (46.8%). Lymphopenia was present in 77.5% of the patients. Red blood cells, haemoglobin and platelets were significantly lower during incubation or diagnosis of COVID-19. Twenty-seven (55.1%) patients did not finish radiotherapy. The age of patients who finished radiotherapy after COVID-19 infection was significantly lower compared to the patients who did not finish radiotherapy (60.5 ± 7.8 vs. 68.6 ± 11.2; p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infected cancer patients in radiotherapy practice show similar symptoms and demographic characteristics as the general population infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. Patients with head and neck cancers may be susceptible to infection with COVID-19. Old age and male gender may be risk factors for discontinuation of radiotherapy in COVID-19 infected cancer patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sérvia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639551

RESUMO

(1) Background: Informal patient payments continue to persist in the Serbian health care system, exposing vulnerable groups to private spending on health care. Migrants may in particular be subject to such payments, as they often experience barriers in access to health care. Little is known about migrants paying informally to access health care in Serbia. The study aims to explore pathways of accessing health care, including the role of informal patient payments, from the perspectives of civil servants and non-western migrants in Serbia. (2) Methods: Respondents (n = 8 civil servants and n = 6 migrants) were recruited in Belgrade in 2018, where semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed applying the grounded theory methodological steps. (3) Results: Data reveal different pathways to navigate the Serbian health care system, and ultimately whether paying informally occurs. Migrants appear less prone to paying informally and receive the same or better-quality health care. Locals experience the need to pay informal patient payments, quasi-formal payments and to bring medicine, materials or equipment when in health facilities. (4) Conclusions: Paying informally or using private care in Serbia appear to have become common. Despite a comprehensive health insurance coverage, high levels of out-of-pocket payments show barriers in accessing health care. It is highly important to not confuse the cultural beliefs with forced spending on health care and such private spending should be reduced to not push people into poverty.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde , Teoria Fundamentada , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Percepção , Sérvia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639706

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to examine the capacity development of local self-governments in the field of disaster risk management (DRM). This quantitative research examines the degree of implementation of strategic, legislative, and institutional frameworks, as well as the capacity of local authorities to apply related policies through five analytical scopes: (1) degree of preparedness and legal framework; (2) financial framework; (3) policy aspects; (4) cooperation and partnership; (5) communication. The ability of municipalities and towns to respond to disasters was also analyzed and compared. In this paper, our initial hypothesis was that the effective implementation of the concept of DRM policy in towns of Serbia requires the continual strategic, tactical, and operational transformation of the public administration and public management system in order to strengthen the capacity of local self-governments for disaster prevention, preparation, response, and recovery. This multimethod research was conducted over the period of 2014-2017 and included the following two target groups: (a) heads of disaster sectors in local self-government units (mayor) and (b) employees of the DRM sector in local self-government units. The results of this research will enable decision makers to successfully respond to challenges and help to improve the capacity of local self-governments and public local administrations within the scope of DRM in the Republic of Serbia, based on the principles of prevention and proactive action, coordination, cooperation, partnership, and responsibility.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Cidades , Governo Local , Gestão de Riscos , Sérvia
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640837

RESUMO

The territory of the Republic of Serbia is vulnerable to various natural disasters, among which forest fires stand out. In relation with climate changes, the number of forest fires in Serbia has been increasing from year to year. Protected natural areas are especially endangered by wildfires. For Nature Park Golija, as the second largest in Serbia, with an area of 75,183 ha, and with MaB Reserve Golija-Studenica on part of its territory (53,804 ha), more attention should be paid in terms of forest fire mitigation. GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis are indispensable when it comes to spatial analysis for the purpose of natural disaster risk management. Index-based and fuzzy AHP methods were used, together with TOPSIS method for forest fire susceptibility zonation. Very high and high forest fire susceptibility zone were recorded on 26.85% (Forest Fire Susceptibility Index) and 25.75% (fuzzy AHP). The additional support for forest fire prevention is realized through an additional Internet of Thing (IoT)-based sensor network that enables the continuous collection of local meteorological and environmental data, which enables low-cost and reliable real-time fire risk assessment and detection and the improved long-term and short-term forest fire susceptibility assessment. Obtained results can be applied for adequate forest fire risk management, improvement of the monitoring, and early warning systems in the Republic of Serbia, but are also important for relevant authorities at national, regional, and local level, which will be able to coordinate and intervene in a case of emergency events.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Florestas , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Sérvia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(Suppl 2): 794, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National testing strategy, including monitoring and evaluation, is critical in responding to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Community-based voluntary counselling and testing contributes to early HIV diagnoses among key populations. Countries providing community-based testing, should integrate some core data on testing and linkage to care in these services into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems. This study aimed to support the integration of community-based voluntary counselling and testing data into respective national surveillance and M&E systems for those infections. METHODS: Preliminary consensus on indicators for the integration of community-based voluntary counselling and testing data into respective national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems was reached. Pilot studies were conducted in Estonia, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. After pilot activities were implemented, the final consensus on indicators was reached. An analysis of the facilitators and barriers faced during pilot studies was conducted to inform the final recommendations for implementation. RESULTS: The minimum set of six indicators to be integrated into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems were: number of tests, number of clients tested, reactivity rate for tests and clients, positivity (active infection) rates for tests and clients, linkage to care rates for clients with reactive and/or positive test result, proportion of all new diagnoses in a country with first reactive test result at community-based voluntary counselling and testing service. Seven additional indicators were identified. Each indicator should be disaggregated by key population, sex and age group. A list of 10 recommendations for the collection and integration of community-based voluntary counselling and testing data into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems for HIV, sexually transmitted infections and viral hepatitis was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of some community-based voluntary counselling and testing monitoring and evaluation data into national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems in all pilot countries was achieved. The recommendations will support such integration in other European countries. European Centre for Prevention and Control of Diseases included questions from the minimum list of indicators into their Dublin Declaration questionnaire 2020 to contribute to evidence based community testing policies in European countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite Viral Humana , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Sérvia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(Suppl 2): 800, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based voluntary counselling and testing contributes to early HIV diagnoses among key populations. Testing data from such decentralized services is however often not standardized nor linked to national surveillance systems. This study aimed to support the integration of community testing data into respective national surveillance and monitoring and evaluation systems for those infections. We present results from three national pilots, focused on improved data collection and transfer. METHODS:  Within the Joint Action INTEGRATE different pilot activities were planned and implemented according to the local context. In Slovakia, standardised data collection tools were implemented in three community testing services. The data generated was used to calculate the proposed indicators. In Poland, positive test results from the community testing database were linked to the national case-based surveillance database using confirmatory test number, to improve the completeness of behavioural data in the national database. In Serbia, voluntary counselling and testing forms were improved enabling identification of community-based testing. A system to generate unique client identifiers was initiated in the National registry of HIV cases to monitor linkage to care. RESULTS: All three sites were able to estimate most of the agreed indicators. In Slovakia during the study period 675 people were tested for HIV, 410 for hepatitis C and 457 for syphilis, with reactivity rates of 0.4, 2.5 and 1.8%, respectively. For HIV, 66.7% of reactive cases were confirmed and linked to care. In Poland, 28.9% of the community testing sites' records were linked to the national surveillance database (and accounted for 14.3% of all new diagnoses registered here during 2017-2018). Reactivity rate ranged between 1.9% and 2.1%. In Serbia, 80 persons were tested at community sites, from which two had a reactive HIV test result. By linking unique client identifiers from voluntary counselling and testing and National Registry of HIV cases databases, linkage to care within a two-month period was observed for one of two people with reactive HIV test result. CONCLUSIONS:  Pilot activities in the three countries demonstrate that integration of community-based testing data into surveillance systems is feasible and can help improve national surveillance data by providing key information.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
17.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(3): 274-281, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506299

RESUMO

In the present study, 64 golden jackals were examined for intestinal helminths in three regions of Vojvodina, Serbia. Among the examined jackals 57.8% were infected with at least one parasite species. Using the intestinal scraping technique (SCT), eight species of intestinal helminths were found: Alaria alata (7.8%), Toxascaris leonina (9.4%), Toxocara canis (4.7%), Uncinaria stenocephala (20.3%), Echinococcus multilocularis (14.1%), Mesocestoides sp. (42.2%), Taenia pisiformis, and Taenia hydatigena (the overall prevalence of Taenia infection was 6.3%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. leonina in jackals from Serbia. In comparison with the SCT results, coprological tests were less sensitive and specific for parasite identification, as only two nematode species (T. leonina and T. canis) as well as ancylostomatid and taeniid eggs were identified. The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was higher in males (71.9% males, 45% females), but the difference was not statistically significant (χ 2 = 3.76; P = 0.052). Co-infection with two species of intestinal helminths was found in 35% of the examined golden jackal individuals, three-species co-infection was demonstrated in 21.6%, whereas four-species co-infection was detected in 2.7% of the golden jackals examined. Echinococcus multilocularis has previously been recorded in jackals and foxes in Serbia, but only in Vojvodina. Our results corroborate the findings of previous studies, and indicate that the Vojvodina Province, more specifically the Srem region, is probably a high-risk area for E. multilocularis transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Animais , Equinococose , Feminino , Raposas , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Chacais , Masculino , Prevalência , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Iugoslávia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501997

RESUMO

The primary focus of this research was the chemical fractionation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and their presence in several industrialised cities in Serbia. Furthermore, their origin, contamination levels, and environmental and human health risks were assessed. The results indicated that the examined soils were characterised by slightly higher Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn levels than those set by European and national regulations. These elevated Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were caused by intensive traffic and proximity to industry, whereas the higher Ni levels were a result of the specific geological substrate of the soil in the study area. The environmental risk was found to be low and there was no enrichment/contamination of the soil with these elements, except in the case of Pb, for which moderate to significant enrichment was found. Lead also poses a potential non-carcinogenic risk to children through ingestion and requires special attention due to the fact that a significant proportion of this element was present in the tested soil samples in a potentially available form. Analysis of the health risks showed that children are more at risk than adults from contaminants and that ingestion is the riskiest exposure route. The carcinogenic risk was within the acceptable limits.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Fracionamento Químico , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Sérvia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 610873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497788

RESUMO

Objectives: Adults aged 65 years and older comprise one fifth of the Serbian population. Many of them have multiple, often diet-related comorbidities. We aimed to investigate their dietary habits by comparing them with younger adults' and to determine the relation of the differing ones to demographic, socioeconomic and health factors. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of 2013 Serbian National Health Survey data on 14,082 adults. Binary logistic regression was used to determine dietary habits associated with older age (≥65 years) compared to younger age (18-64 years) and to assess their independent predictors in older adults. Results: Older adults more often reported everyday breakfast (OR = 2.085, 95%CI = 1.622-2.680) and brown/wholegrain bread consumption (OR = 1.681, 95% CI = 1.537-1.839), while using margarine (OR = 0.578, 95%CI = 0.397-0.839), discretionary salt (sometimes: OR = 0.648, 95%CI = 0.596-0.705, almost always: OR = 0.522, 95%CI = 0.445-0.614) and consuming fish (two or more times a week: OR = 0.465, 95%CI = 0.383-0.566) less frequently than younger adults. This was mainly positively related to urban environment, affluence, higher education and poor health. Conclusion: Using nationally representative data, we found that older adults reported healthier dietary habits compared to younger adults, which requires timely public health action.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Sérvia/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17984, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504218

RESUMO

Habitat fragmentation and loss have contributed significantly to the demographic decline of European wildcat populations and hybridization with domestic cats poses a threat to the loss of genetic purity of the species. In this study we used microsatellite markers to analyse genetic variation and structure of the wildcat populations from the area between the Dinaric Alps and the Scardo-Pindic mountains in Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and North Macedonia. We also investigated hybridisation between populations of wildcats and domestic cats in the area. One hundred and thirteen samples from free-leaving European wildcats and thirty-two samples from domestic cats were analysed. Allelic richness across populations ranged from 3.61 to 3.98. The observed Ho values ranged between 0.57 and 0.71. The global FST value for the four populations was 0.080 (95% CI 0.056-0.109) and differed significantly from zero (P < 0.001). The highest FST value was observed between the populations North Macedonia and Slovenia and the lowest between Slovenia and Croatia. We also found a signal for the existence of isolation by distance between populations. Our results showed that wildcats are divided in two genetic clusters largely consistent with a geographic division into a genetically diverse northern group (Slovenia, Croatia) and genetically eroded south-eastern group (Serbia, N. Macedonia). Hybridisation rate between wildcats and domestic cats varied between 13% and 52% across the regions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Alelos , Animais , Gatos , Croácia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Filogeografia/métodos , República da Macedônia do Norte , Sérvia , Eslovênia
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