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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(1): e32533, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607847

RESUMO

Since the 1950s, hypoxia has been recognized as a crucial characteristic of cancer cells and their microenvironment. Indeed, hypoxia promotes the growth, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells. In the early 1990s, we found that as many phenomena in hypoxia can occur through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). HIF1α is known as an angiogenesis converter in hypoxia, which promotes tumorigenesis, development, immune escape, recurrence, etc; This page goes into great detail on how HIF1α is activated during hypoxia and how the 2 signaling channels interact. It specifically emphasizes the significance of reactive oxygen species, the function of the PI3K/the serine/threonine kinase Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin cascade, and outlines the similarities between the 2 important factors (reactive oxygen species and PI3K/the serine/threonine kinase Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin cascade), nuclear factor κB, for HIF1α Important implications, in an effort to offer fresh views for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and HIF1α research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Hipóxia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Serina , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671557

RESUMO

Ultrashort cationic lipopeptides (USCLs) are promising antimicrobial agents that may be used to combat pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. USCLs consist of a few basic amino acid residues and at least one lipid moiety, usually a fatty acid chain. Generally, USCLs are potent antimicrobials but their major shortcoming is a relatively high cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Glycopeptide antibiotics (e.g. vancomycin) are essential in combating bacterial infections and are popular in medicinal practice. However, literature concerning the effect of glycosylation of peptides on their antimicrobial activity is rather scarce. For the first time, this study highlights the effect of USCLs glycosylation on in vitro biological activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of glycosylation of a series of USCLs on antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Straight-chain fatty acids (C14, C16, C18) were attached to the N-terminal amino group of tripeptides-SRR-NH2, RSR-NH2 and RRS-NH2. Two groups of the lipopeptides were synthetized, the first with unmodified L-serine (USCLs) and the other with L-serine O-glycosylated by N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine to produce new class of glycosylated ultrashort cationic lipopeptide (gUSCLs). Both USCLs and gUSCLs were tested against planktonic and biofilm cultures of ESKAPE strains (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.) and Candida glabrata, and hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and cytotoxicity against the HaCaT cell line was examined. Generally, USCLs and gUSCLs proved to be active against all the tested strains. The highest activity displayed was by lipopeptides containing the C18 fatty acid. Antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities were mainly correlated with amino acid sequence (position of serine/glycosylated serine) and hydrophobicity of molecule and were found to be highly strain-dependent. In general, glycosylation did not guarantee an increased antimicrobial activity or a decreased hemolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, in some cases, gUSCLs proved to be superior to their USCLs analogs. The most pronounced differences were found for peptides with C18 fatty acid and serine at the first and second position against both planktonic cells and biofilm of C. glabrata, as well as the second and third position against S. aureus. It is noteworthy that gUSCLs were also more active against biofilm than were USCLs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Lipopeptídeos , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Lipopeptídeos/química , Glicosilação , Staphylococcus aureus , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Serina
3.
Nature ; 613(7945): 759-766, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631611

RESUMO

Protein phosphorylation is one of the most widespread post-translational modifications in biology1,2. With advances in mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics, 90,000 sites of serine and threonine phosphorylation have so far been identified, and several thousand have been associated with human diseases and biological processes3,4. For the vast majority of phosphorylation events, it is not yet known which of the more than 300 protein serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinases encoded in the human genome are responsible3. Here we used synthetic peptide libraries to profile the substrate sequence specificity of 303 Ser/Thr kinases, comprising more than 84% of those predicted to be active in humans. Viewed in its entirety, the substrate specificity of the kinome was substantially more diverse than expected and was driven extensively by negative selectivity. We used our kinome-wide dataset to computationally annotate and identify the kinases capable of phosphorylating every reported phosphorylation site in the human Ser/Thr phosphoproteome. For the small minority of phosphosites for which the putative protein kinases involved have been previously reported, our predictions were in excellent agreement. When this approach was applied to examine the signalling response of tissues and cell lines to hormones, growth factors, targeted inhibitors and environmental or genetic perturbations, it revealed unexpected insights into pathway complexity and compensation. Overall, these studies reveal the intrinsic substrate specificity of the human Ser/Thr kinome, illuminate cellular signalling responses and provide a resource to link phosphorylation events to biological pathways.


Assuntos
Serina , Treonina , Humanos , Serina/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação
4.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 362023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611015

RESUMO

Human transthyretin (TTR) is a homo-tetrameric plasma protein associated with a high percentage of ß-sheet forming amyloid fibrils. It accumulates in tissues or extracellular matrices to cause amyloid diseases. Free energy simulations with thermodynamic integration based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to analyze the effects of the His88 â†’ Ala and Ser mutations on the stability of human TTR. The calculated free energy change differences (ΔΔG) caused by the His88 â†’ Ala and His88 â†’ Ser mutations are -1.84 ± 0.86 and 7.56 ± 0.55 kcal/mol, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with prior reported experimental values. The simulation results show that the H88A mutant is more stable than the wild type, whereas the H88S mutant is less stable than the wild type. The free energy component analysis shows that the contribution to the free energy change difference (ΔΔG) for the His88 â†’ Ala and His88 â†’ Ser mutations mainly arise from electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, respectively. The electrostatic term stabilizes the H88A mutant more than the wild type, but the van der Waals interaction destabilizes the H88S mutant relative to the wild type. Individual residue contributions to the free energy change show neighboring residues exert stabilizing and destabilizing influence on the mutants. The implications of the simulation results for understanding the stabilizing and destabilizing effect and its contribution to protein stability are discussed.


Assuntos
Alanina , Pré-Albumina , Humanos , Pré-Albumina/genética , Pré-Albumina/química , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo , Alanina/genética , Serina/genética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estabilidade Proteica , Termodinâmica
5.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677970

RESUMO

The interplay of high-resolution rotational spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computations plays an invaluable role in the investigation of biomolecule building blocks in the gas phase. However, quantum-chemical methods suffer from unfavorable scaling with the dimension of the system under consideration. While a complete characterization of flexible systems requires an elaborate multi-step strategy, in this work, we demonstrate that the accuracy obtained by quantum-chemical composite approaches in the prediction of rotational spectroscopy parameters can be approached by a model based on density functional theory. Glycine and serine are employed to demonstrate that, despite its limited cost, such a model is able to predict rotational constants with an accuracy of 0.3% or better, thus paving the way toward the accurate characterization of larger flexible building blocks of biomolecules.


Assuntos
Glicina , Serina , Análise Espectral
6.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280378, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported an association between chronic renal failure and hearing impairment. Yet, the exact mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and D-serine in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) complicated with hearing impairment and further investigated the correlation between FGF23/D-serine and hearing impairment. METHODS: A total of 90 subjects, including 30 MHD patients complicated with hearing impairment, 30 MHD patients with normal hearing, and 30 controls, were included in this case-control study. Relevant data were obtained by questionnaire survey, audiometric test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine FGF23 level, and high-performance liquid chromatography to determine D-serine level. RESULTS: MHD patients showed abnormally high expression of FGF23 and D-serine, where FGF23 and D-serine levels were significantly higher in the group with hearing impairment than in the group with normal hearing and normal controls (all P<0.01). Also, elevated FGF23 and D-serine were identified as risk factors for hearing impairment in ESRD, with ORs of 16.54 (95%CI, 2.75-99.55) and 15.22 (95%CI, 2.59-89.51), respectively. Further Person correlation analysis showed a moderate positive correlation between FGF23 and D-serine (r = 0.683, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study provides potential biomarkers for the early detection of hearing impairment complicated by chronic renal failure, and the reduction of FGF23/D-serine may provide a potential target for the treatment of hearing impairment complicated by chronic renal failure.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Correlação de Dados , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Serina
7.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688758

RESUMO

D-amino acids, the important components of the bacterial cell walls, are valuable molecular and genetic markers of bacterial-derived organic material in the environment. D-serine, a racemization product of L-serine is one such amino acid present in various prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is a well-recognized regulator of various activities in the human nervous system. In plants, it has a role in the nitrogen cycle regulation and pollen tube growth. Serine enantiomers are present in different concentrations and few bacterial strains are reported to contribute to D-serine in the environment. During the present study, soil samples from different places in North India were collected and processed to isolate and screen the bacteria on M9 minimal media (Himedia) for D-serine synthesis. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC Silica gel 60 F 254 (20 × 20 cm, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and Mass spectroscopic analysis (Bruker MICROTOF II spectrometer) studies, etc were performed. D-serine-producing isolates were characterized as per standard procedures. Bacterial isolate A1C1 with maximum D-serine (0.919 ± 0.02 nM) synthesis under optimal growth conditions (37°C ± 0.5, 150 ± 0.5 RPM, and 7 ± 0.5 pH) was identified as Bacillus tequilensis based on 16sRNA sequencing. The isolate could be a valuable serine racemization tool for various industrial and environmental applications.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Serina , Humanos , Serina/análise , Serina/química , Serina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674722

RESUMO

The 3rd class of BRAF (B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase) variants including G466, D594, and A581 mutations cause kinase death or impaired kinase activity. It is unlikely that RAF (Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase) inhibitors suppress ERK (Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase) signaling in class 3 mutant-driven tumors due to the fact that they preferentially inhibit activated BRAF V600 mutants. However, there are suggestions that class 3 mutations are still associated with enhanced RAS/MAPK (RAS Proto-Oncogene, GTPase/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) activation, potentially due to other mechanisms such as the activation of growth factor signaling or concurrent MAPK pathway mutations, e.g., RAS or NF1 (Neurofibromin 1). A 75-year-old male patient with squamous-cell cancer (SqCC) of the lung and with metastases to the kidney and mediastinal lymph nodes received chemoimmunotherapy (expression of Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1 (PD-L1) on 2% of tumor cells). The chemotherapy was limited due to the accompanying myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and pembrolizumab monotherapy was continued for up to seven cycles. At the time of progression, next-generation sequencing was performed and a c.1781A>G (p.Asp594Gly) mutation in the BRAF gene, a c.1381C>T (p.Arg461Ter) mutation in the NF1 gene, and a c.37C>T (p.Gln13Ter) mutation in the FANCC gene were identified. Combined therapy with BRAF (dabrafenib) and MEK (trametinib) inhibitors was used, which resulted in the achievement of partial remission of the primary lesion and lung nodules and the stabilization of metastatic lesions in the kidney and bones. The therapy was discontinued after five months due to myelosuppression associated with MDS. The molecular background was decisive for the patient's fate. NSCLC patients with non-V600 mutations in the BRAF gene rarely respond to anti-BRAF and anti-MEK therapy. The achieved effectiveness of the treatment could be related to a mutation in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. The loss of NF1 function causes the excessive activation of KRAS and overactivity of the signaling pathway containing BRAF and MEK, which were the targets of the therapy. Moreover, the mutation in the FANCC gene was probably related to MDS development. The NGS technique was crucial for the qualification to treatment and the prediction of the NSCLC course in our patient. The mutations in two genes-the BRAF oncogene and the NF1 tumor suppressor gene-were the reason for the use of dabrafenib and trametinib treatment. The patients achieved short-term disease stabilization. This proved that coexisting mutations in these genes affect the disease course and treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Genes da Neurofibromatose 1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Serina/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675238

RESUMO

The most frequent alterations in plasma amino acid concentrations in type 1 and type 2 diabetes are decreased L-serine and increased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) levels. The likely cause of L-serine deficiency is decreased synthesis of 3-phosphoglycerate, the main endogenous precursor of L-serine, due to impaired glycolysis. The BCAA levels increase due to decreased supply of pyruvate and oxaloacetate from glycolysis, enhanced supply of NADH + H+ from beta-oxidation, and subsequent decrease in the flux through the citric acid cycle in muscles. These alterations decrease the supply of α-ketoglutarate for BCAA transamination and the activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in BCAA catabolism. L-serine deficiency contributes to decreased synthesis of phospholipids and increased synthesis of deoxysphinganines, which play a role in diabetic neuropathy, impaired homocysteine disposal, and glycine deficiency. Enhanced BCAA levels contribute to increased levels of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan), insulin resistance, and accumulation of various metabolites, whose influence on diabetes progression is not clear. It is concluded that amino acid concentrations should be monitored in patients with diabetes, and systematic investigation is needed to examine the effects of L-serine and glycine supplementation on diabetes progression when these amino acids are decreased.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico , Glicólise , Glicina/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615652

RESUMO

In an effort to establish reliable thermodynamic data for amino acids, heat capacity and phase behavior are reported for L-cysteine (CAS RN: 52-90-4), L-serine (CAS RN: 56-45-1), L-threonine (CAS RN: 72-19-5), L-lysine (CAS RN: 56-87-1), and L-methionine (CAS RN: 63-68-3). Prior to heat capacity measurements, initial crystal structures were identified by X-ray powder diffraction, followed by a thorough investigation of the polymorphic behavior using differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range from 183 K to the decomposition temperature determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Crystal heat capacities of all five amino acids were measured by Tian-Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval (262-358) K and by power compensation DSC in the temperature interval from 215 K to over 420 K. Experimental values of this work were compared and combined with the literature data obtained with adiabatic calorimetry. Low-temperature heat capacities of L-threonine and L-lysine, for which no or limited literature data was available, were measured using the relaxation (heat pulse) calorimetry. As a result, reference heat capacities and thermodynamic functions for the crystalline phase from near 0 K to over 420 K were developed.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Lisina , Metionina , Cisteína/química , Treonina , Serina
11.
J Med Chem ; 66(1): 285-305, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594670

RESUMO

Being the rate-limiting enzyme within the serine biosynthesis pathway, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is abnormally overexpressed in numerous malignant tumor cells and is a promising target for cancer treatment. Here, we report a series of novel PHGDH inhibitors using a focused compound screening and structural optimization approach. The lead compound D8 displayed good enzymatic inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.8 ± 0.1 µM), high binding affinity (Kd = 2.33 µM), and sensitivity to the cell lines with the PHGDH gene amplification or overexpression. Furthermore, D8 was proven to restrict the de novo serine synthesis from glucose within MDA-MB-468 cells. X-ray crystallographic analysis, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutagenesis experiments on PHGDH revealed the binding site at D175 inside the NAD+-binding pocket. Finally, D8 exhibited excellent in vivo pharmacokinetic properties (F = 82.0%) and exerted evident antitumor efficacy in the PC9 xenograft mouse model.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Serina , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Sítios de Ligação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Acta Trop ; 238: 106801, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563831

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. The disease is a public health concern and presents clinical manifestations that can cause death, disability, and mutilation. The parasite has promastigote (vector) and amastigote (vertebrate host) forms and kinase enzymes are involved in this differentiation process. In the present investigation, we show, for the first time, evidence of a serine/arginine protein kinase in Leshmania braziliensis (LbSRPK). Our results show that amastigotes express more LbSRPK than promastigotes.  Analogues of SRPIN340 (a known inhibitor of SRPK) were evaluated for their leishmanicidal activity and two of them, namely SRVIC22 and SRVIC32 showed important leishmanicidal activity in vitro. SRVIC22 and SRVIC32 were able to reduce the infection rate in macrophages and the number of intracellular amastigotes by 55 and 60%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the existence of two different amino acid residues in the active site of LbSRPK compared to their human homologue (Tyr/Leu-and Ser/Tyr), which could explain the absence of leishmanicidal activity of SRPIN340 on infected macrophages. In order to enhance leishmanicidal activity of the analogues, optimizations were proposed in the structures of the ligands, suggesting strong interactions with the catalytic site of LbSRPK. Although the evidence on the action of inhibitors upon LbSRPK is only indirect, our studies not only reveal, for the first time, evidence of a SRPK in Leishmania, but also shed light on a new therapeutic target for drug development.


Assuntos
Arginina Quinase , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmania , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Arginina , Serina , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
13.
Amino Acids ; 55(1): 75-88, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528680

RESUMO

ß-hydroxy amino acids, such as serine, threonine, and phenylserine, are important compounds for medical purposes. To date, there has been only limited exploration of thermostable serine hydroxylmethyltransferase (SHMT) for the synthesis of these amino acids, despite the great potential that thermostable enzymes may offer for commercial use due to their high stability and catalytic efficiencies. ITBSHMT_1 (ITB serine hydroxylmethyltransferase clone number 1) from thermophilic and methanol-tolerant bacteria Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis AL17 was successfully cloned. Biocomputational analysis revealed that ITBSHMT_1 contains Pyridoxal-3'-phosphate and tetrahydrofolatebinding residues. Structural comparisons show that ITBSHMT_1 has 5 additional residues VSRQG on loop near PLP-binding site as novel structural feature which distinguish this enzyme with other characterized SHMTs. In silico mutation revealed that the fragment might have very essential role in maintaining of PLP binding on structure of ITBSHMT_1. Recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli Rosetta 2(DE3) in soluble form and purified using NiNTA affinity chromatography. The purified protein demonstrated the best activity at 80 °C and pH 7.5 based on the retro aldol cleavage of phenylserine. Activity decreased significantly in the presence of 3 mM transition metal ions but increased in the presence of 30 mM ß-mercaptoethanol. ITBSHMT_1 demonstrated Vmax, Km, Kcat, and Kcat/Km at 242 U/mg, 23.26 mM, 186/s, and 8/(mM.s), respectively. The aldol condensation reaction showed the enzyme's best activity at 80 °C for serine, threonine, or phenylserine, with serine synthesis showing the highest specific activity. Biocomputational analysis revealed that high intramolecular interaction within the 3D structure of ITBSHMT_1 might be correlated with the enzyme's high thermal stability. The above data suggest that ITBSHMT_1 is a potential and novel enzyme for the production of various ß-hydroxy amino acids.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/genética , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo
14.
Neurosci Lett ; 792: 136958, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356820

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized behaviorally by cognitive deterioration and emotional disruption, and neuropathologically by amyloid-ß (A ß) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and complement C3 (C3)-expressing neurotoxic, reactive astrocytes. We previously demonstrated that C3 + reactive astrocytes in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of AD patients express serine racemase (SR), which produces the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist D-serine. We show here that C3 + reactive astrocytes express SR in the amygdala of AD patients and in an amyloid mouse model of familial AD (5xFAD). 5xFAD mice also have deficits in cue fear memory recall that is dependent on intact amygdala function. Our results suggest that D-serine produced by reactive astrocytes in the amygdala could contribute to glutamate excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration observed with AD progression.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Astrócitos , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Placa Amiloide , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Serina
15.
Nat Plants ; 9(1): 169-178, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536013

RESUMO

Photorespiration is an essential process juxtaposed between plant carbon and nitrogen metabolism that responds to dynamic environments. Photorespiration recycles inhibitory intermediates arising from oxygenation reactions catalysed by Rubisco back into the C3 cycle, but it is unclear what proportions of its nitrogen-containing intermediates (glycine and serine) are exported into other metabolisms in vivo and how these pool sizes affect net CO2 gas exchange during photorespiratory transients. Here, to address this uncertainty, we measured rates of amino acid export from photorespiration using isotopically non-stationary metabolic flux analysis. This analysis revealed that ~23-41% of the photorespiratory carbon was exported from the pathway as serine under various photorespiratory conditions. Furthermore, we determined that the build-up and relaxation of glycine pools constrained a large portion of photosynthetic acclimation during photorespiratory transients. These results reveal the unique and important roles of glycine and serine in successfully maintaining various photorespiratory fluxes that occur under environmental fluctuations in nature and providing carbon and nitrogen for metabolism.


Assuntos
Glicina , Fotossíntese , Serina/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
16.
Gene ; 855: 147130, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543307

RESUMO

Stroke had emerged as one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability across the globe. Emerging evidence suggests a significant increase in the incidence of stroke with age, which is further expected to increase dramatically owing to an ever-expanding elderly population. The current situation imposes a significant burden on the healthcare system and requires a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and development of novel interventions. It is well established that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the onset of stroke. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), is a key regulator of mitochondria fission, and plays a crucial role during the pathogenesis of stroke. Drp1 protein levels significantly increase after stroke potentially in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) dependent manner. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) facilitate mitochondrial fission and cell death by dephosphorylating the mitochondrial fission enzyme Drp1 at the inhibitory phosphorylation site serine 637. Outer mitochondrial membrane A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins 1 (AKAP 1) and protein kinase A complex (PKA) complex inhibits Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission by phosphorylating serine 637. Drp1 activation promotes the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and therefore leads to apoptosis. In addition, Drp1 activation inhibits mitochondrial glutathione dependent free radical scavenging, which further enhances the ROS level and exacerbate mitochondrial dysfunction. Drp1 translocate p53 to mitochondrial membrane and leads to mitochondria-related necrosis. The current review article discusses the possible mechanistic pathways by which Drp1 can influence the pathogenesis of stroke. Besides, it will describe various inhibitors for Drp1 and their potential role as therapeutics for stroke in the future.


Assuntos
Dinaminas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Humanos , Fosforilação , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Apoptose , Serina/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 641: 84-92, 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525928

RESUMO

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed or abnormally activated in several types of cancers, such as lung and colorectal cancers. Inhibitors that suppress the tyrosine kinase activity of EGFR have been used in the treatment of lung cancer. However, resistance to these inhibitors has become an issue in cancer treatment, and the development of new therapies that inhibit EGFR is desired. We found that calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated serine/threonine phosphatase, is a novel regulator of EGFR. Inhibition of calcineurin by FK506 treatment or calcineurin depletion promoted EGFR degradation in cancer cells. In addition, we found that calcineurin dephosphorylates EGFR at serine (S)1046/1047, which in turn stabilizes EGFR. Furthermore, in human colon cancer cells transplanted into mice, the inhibition of calcineurin by FK506 decreased EGFR expression. These results indicate that calcineurin stabilizes EGFR by dephosphorylating S1046/1047 and promotes tumor growth. These findings suggest that calcineurin may be a new therapeutic target for cancers with high EGFR expression or activation.


Assuntos
Calcineurina , Tacrolimo , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Serina/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fosforilação
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 641: 186-191, 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535077

RESUMO

Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) requires binding of a co-agonist in addition to l-glutamate. d-serine binds to the co-agonist site on GluN1 subunits of NMDARs and modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission. While loss of GluN1 subunits in mice results in neonatal death due to respiratory failure, animals that lack a d-serine synthetic enzyme, serine racemase (SR), show grossly normal growth. However, SR-independent origins of d-serine in the brain remain unclarified. In the present study, we investigated the origin of brain d-serine in mice. Loss of SR significantly reduced d-serine in the cerebral cortex, but a portion of d-serine remained in both neonates and adults. Although d-serine was also produced by intestinal bacteria, germ-free experiments did not influence d-serine levels in the cerebral cortex. In addition, treatment of SR-knockout mice with antibiotics showed a significant reduction of intestinal d-serine, but no reduction in the brain. On the other hand, restriction of dietary intake reduced systemic circulation of d-serine and resulted in a slight decrease of d-serine in the cerebral cortex, but did not account for brain d-serine found in the SR-knockout mice. Therefore, our findings show that endogenous d-serine of non-SR origin exists in the brain. Such previously unrecognized, SR-independent, endogenous d-serine may contribute baseline activity of NMDARs, especially in developing brain, which has minimal SR expression.


Assuntos
Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Serina , Camundongos , Animais , Serina/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Mamíferos/metabolismo
19.
Diabetologia ; 66(1): 57-69, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178534

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy may improve hyperglycaemia in humans with type 2 diabetes, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. Our objective was to examine the glucometabolic effects of HBO on whole-body glucose disposal in humans with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial located at the German Diabetes Center, 12 male individuals with type 2 diabetes (age 18-75 years, BMI <35 kg/m2, HbA1c 42-75 mmol/mol [6-9%]), randomly allocated by one person, underwent 2-h HBO, once with 100% (240 kPa; HBO) and once with 21% oxygen (240 kPa; control, CON). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps with D-[6,6-2H2]glucose, hepatic and skeletal muscle energy metabolism were assessed by 1H/31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, while high-resolution respirometry measured skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial capacity. All participants and people assessing the outcomes were blinded. RESULTS: HBO decreased fasting blood glucose by 19% and increased whole-body, hepatic and WAT insulin sensitivity about one-third (p<0.05 vs CON). Upon HBO, hepatic γ-ATP concentrations doubled, mitochondrial respiratory control doubled in skeletal muscle and tripled in WAT (p<0.05 vs CON). HBO increased myocellular insulin-stimulated serine-473/threonine-308 phosphorylation of Akt but decreased basal inhibitory serine-1101 phosphorylation of IRS-1 and endoplasmic reticulum stress (p<0.05 vs CON). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: HBO-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity likely results from decreased endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased mitochondrial capacity, possibly leading to low-dose reactive oxygen species-mediated mitohormesis in humans with type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04219215 FUNDING: German Federal Ministry of Health, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, North-Rhine Westfalia Ministry of Culture and Science, European-Regional-Development-Fund, German-Research-Foundation (DFG), Schmutzler Stiftung.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica , Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Oxigênio , Glucose , Serina
20.
Circ Res ; 132(2): e59-e77, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PKA (protein kinase A)-mediated phosphorylation of cardiac RyR2 (ryanodine receptor 2) has been extensively studied for decades, but the physiological significance of PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 remains poorly understood. Recent determination of high-resolution 3-dimensional structure of RyR2 in complex with CaM (calmodulin) reveals that the major PKA phosphorylation site in RyR2, serine-2030 (S2030), is located within a structural pathway of CaM-dependent inactivation of RyR2. This novel structural insight points to a possible role of PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 in CaM-dependent inactivation of RyR2, which underlies the termination of Ca2+ release and induction of cardiac Ca2+ alternans. METHODS: We performed single-cell endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ imaging to assess the impact of S2030 mutations on Ca2+ release termination in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Here we determined the role of the PKA site RyR2-S2030 in a physiological setting, we generated a novel mouse model harboring the S2030L mutation and carried out confocal Ca2+ imaging. RESULTS: We found that mutations, S2030D, S2030G, S2030L, S2030V, and S2030W reduced the endoplasmic reticulum luminal Ca2+ level at which Ca2+ release terminates (the termination threshold), whereas S2030P and S2030R increased the termination threshold. S2030A and S2030T had no significant impact on release termination. Furthermore, CaM-wild-type increased, whereas Ca2+ binding deficient CaM mutant (CaM-M [a loss-of-function CaM mutation with all 4 EF-hand motifs mutated]), PKA, and Ca2+/CaMKII (CaM-dependent protein kinase II) reduced the termination threshold. The S2030L mutation abolished the actions of CaM-wild-type, CaM-M, and PKA, but not CaMKII, in Ca2+ release termination. Moreover, we showed that isoproterenol and CaM-M suppressed pacing-induced Ca2+ alternans and accelerated Ca2+ transient recovery in intact working hearts, whereas CaM-wild-type exerted an opposite effect. The impact of isoproterenol was partially and fully reversed by the PKA inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide and the CaMKII inhibitor N-[2-[N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylaminomethyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide individually and together, respectively. S2030L abolished the impact of CaM-wild-type, CaM-M, and N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide-sensitive component, but not the N-[2-[N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylaminomethyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide-sensitive component, of isoproterenol.


Assuntos
Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina , Serina , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Serina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
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