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1.
Arch. med ; 21(1): 225-237, 2021/01/03.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148448

RESUMO

Objetivos: sobre el marco de la pandemia del COVID-19 y la consecuente cuarentena, esta investigación tuvo por objetivo recolectar las principales intervenciones -"facilitadores"- que han realizado los psicólogos clínicos durante la cuarentena (4 meses). Materiales y métodos: es un estudio cualitativo, donde se seleccionó una muestra de 30 psicólogos psicoterapeutas de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), de ambos sexos, con 10 a 30 años de experiencia clínica y de diferentes filiaciones terapéuticas, a través de un muestreo no probabilístico, intencional, basado en el conocimiento del investigador sobre la población de profesionales bajo estudio.Se privilegió la experiencia clínica, a la edad, género y modelo terapéutico. Se les formuló una pregunta concreta acerca de ¿cuáles fueron las principales intervenciones que realizaron con sus pacientes a la altura de 4 meses de cuarentena (20 al 30 de julio de 2020), enumerando y explicando un mínimo de 5 (cinco). Resultados: los facilitadores fueron agrupados en categorías por similitudes de intervención y contenido explicativo. De los 150 obtenidos, uniendo las diferentes y descartando las reiteraciones, se seleccionaron 15. Conclusiones: las intervenciones unen filosofía reflexiva de vida y acciones concretas para cambiar, apoyándose en algunos puntos comunes como la perspectiva de atribución de significado positivo por sobre las cosas, personas o situaciones, el empoderamiento y la seguridad, evitar climas beligerantes, crear y hacer proyectos a futuro, mejorar las relaciones con el entorno conviviente, reducir la incertidumbre y niveles de agresión, incertidumbre, angustia y ansiedad..Au


Objectives: on the framework of the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent quarantine, this research aimed to collect the main interventions - "facilitators" - that clinical psychologists have carried out during the quarantine (4 months). Materials end methods: it is a qualitative study, where a sample of 30 professionals from the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) was selected, of both sexes, with between 10 and 30 years of clinical experience and different therapeutic affiliations, through a sampling non-probabilistic, intentional, based on the researcher's knowledge of the population of professionals under study. The clinical experience, age, gender and therapeutic model was privileged. They were asked a specific question about what were the main interventions they carried out with their patients at the height of 4 months of quarantine? (July 20 to 30, 2020), listing and explaining a minimum of 5 (five). Results: the facilitators were grouped into categories by similarities of intervention and explanatory content. Of the 150 obtained, joining the different ones and discarding the reiterations, 15 were obtained. Conclusions: the interventions unite reflective philosophy of life and concrete actions to change, relying on some common points such as the perspective of attribution of positive meaning over things, people or situations, empowerment and security, avoid belligerent climates, create and carry out projects for the future, improve relationships with the living environment, reduce uncertainty and levels of aggression, uncertainty, anguish and anxiety..Au


Assuntos
Humanos , Enquadramento Psicológico , Infecções por Coronavirus
2.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(6): 1300-1308, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779117

RESUMO

Visual search is facilitated by statistical learning of repeated search contexts, termed 'contextual cueing'. Repeated displays are thought to enhance attentional guidance, but this has been challenged by the absence of search-slope differences between repeated and novel displays. Here we use eye-tracking to resolve this paradox by calculating a measure of when during search the contextual cueing benefit emerges. In 24 human participants we observe typical reaction time and fixation count benefits for repeated contexts, but no slope differences between repeated and novel search contexts. Eye-tracking showed that the attentional guidance benefit emerged over time, occurring later for larger set sizes, and producing similar response time benefits for small and large set sizes. We argue that repeated and novel contexts have similar slopes because learning benefits are confined to target-adjacent regions of roughly equivalent area across set sizes. This finding rules out one of the strongest pieces of evidence against an attentional account of contextual cueing.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Enquadramento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 197: 104868, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473381

RESUMO

We investigated 10-month-old infants' and adults' numerical expectations in scenarios where information on self-motion and static object features may give rise to numerically incongruent representations. A red circle or a blue box with yellow stripes appeared on the left side of a screen, moved autonomously sideways and then moved back behind the screen. Next, on the opposite side, an identical object was first brought in view by a hand and then pushed back behind the screen (Experiments 1 and 2). The screen was finally removed, revealing either one or two objects. Infants looked longer at one-object test events, suggesting that they expected to find two objects. Adults were also shown these animations and were asked for their numerical expectations. Contrary to infants, they expected one single object (Experiment 3). Whereas preverbal infants' numerical expectations appeared to be dominated by information on object autonomous and induced motion, adults' expectations were mainly guided by information about object shape, size, and color. These findings were discussed in relation to current models on the development of object individuation processes.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção de Forma , Individuação , Percepção de Movimento , Psicologia da Criança , Adulto , Percepção de Cores , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Orientação , Enquadramento Psicológico , Percepção de Tamanho
4.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 46(7): 667-680, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297775

RESUMO

Perceptual grouping leads to interference when target and distractors are integrated within the same percept. Cognitive control allows breaking this automatic tendency by focusing selectively on target information. Thus, interference can be modulated either by goal-directed mechanisms or by physical features of stimuli that help to segregate the target from distractors. In three experiments, participants had to respond to the left-right direction of a central arrow, flanked by two arrows on each side. Sometimes, instructions requested to also stay vigilant for detecting an infrequent vertical/horizontal displacement of the target, thus loading working memory. Although it has been usually shown that concurrent working memory load hinders target selection, the present research provides evidence that interference may either increase or decrease depending on whether dual tasking draws attention to the grouping (horizontal displacement) or to an orthogonal dimension (vertical displacement), revealing counterintuitive benefits of working memory load. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Emoções , Memória de Curto Prazo , Enquadramento Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Puberdade , Percepção Social , Velocidade de Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(3): 829-849, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285308

RESUMO

Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by persistent betting even in face of accruing debts and psychosocial hardship. Gambling Disorder behavior has been linked to conditioning, cognitive distortions and superstitious behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that during response-outcome analytical tests (ROAT), non-gambling individuals are precluded from response extinction when failure feedback is suppressed, and develop superstitious behaviors and illusion of control instead. Gambling can be regarded as a ROAT paradigm in which disordered gamblers (DGs) fail to compute failure feedback; hence they do not perceive the independence between response and outcome. In order to investigate early phenomena on response and outcome processing in DGs, we developed two short ROAT versions, one with a controllable outcome and one with an uncontrollable outcome, both with explicit failure feedback. Twenty DGs and twenty healthy controls were assessed using this novel paradigm. Compared to controls, DGs reported higher distress during the controllable ROAT, less self-confidence in the uncontrollable ROAT, and more random responses and less use of analytical strategies in both tests, evidencing potential deficits in cognitive control. In contrast to previous findings, DGs did not demonstrate more superstitious beliefs, or illusion of control, and were generally more skeptical than controls regarding the controllability of both ROAT versions. Taken together, our findings provide some support for deficits in cognitive control in GD that precede illusion of control and superstitious behaviors.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Recompensa , Superstições/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Autoimagem , Enquadramento Psicológico , Meio Social
6.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(10): 2106-2111, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Goal orientation tends to shift from predominantly striving for gains to maintenance and loss avoidance across adulthood. A dominant hypothesis states that age-related increases in losses drive the motivational shift. The present study tests this hypothesis and an alternative, namely that perceived accumulation of resources/assets and discrepancy between the actual and desired state underlie the stronger maintenance and loss-avoidance orientation in older than younger adults. METHODS: Data from N = 182 U.S. adult participants on Amazon Mechanical Turk (preregistered; 50.0% female; 19-77 years, M = 45.1, SD = 15.86) comprise measures of demographics, goal orientation in 16 selected life domains as well as perceived accumulation, losses, actual-desired discrepancy in the same domains. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling analyses showed that, as expected and confirming prior research, gain orientation decreased and maintenance orientation increased with age. Moreover, both perceived losses and accumulation of resources/assets increased with age, while the actual-desired discrepancy decreased. Larger perceived accumulation and smaller actual-desired discrepancies were associated with stronger maintenance orientation. Regardless of age, a smaller actual-desired discrepancy was also associated with stronger loss-avoidance orientation. Contrary to predictions, perceived losses were negatively associated with gain orientation, but not significantly associated with maintenance or loss-avoidance orientation. DISCUSSION: Results replicate the shift in goal orientation across adulthood. Speaking against the loss hypothesis, perceived accumulation of resources/assets and actual-desired discrepancy seem to play an important role in determining goal orientation over adulthood, while the role of perceived losses may be less significant than commonly assumed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Objetivos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Orientação , Enquadramento Psicológico
7.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(2): 280-295, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219303

RESUMO

We investigated participants' task set preparation by measuring changes in pupil diameter during a blank interval as they prepared for an easy (i.e., prosaccade) or difficult (i.e., antisaccade) trial. We used occasional thought probes to gauge "on-task" thoughts versus mind wandering. In both studies, participants' pupil diameters were larger when anticipating an antisaccade, relative to a prosaccade, trial. In contrast, their self-reported mind wandering depended upon whether the thought probes occurred after their target detection response (Experiment 1) or occurred in lieu of target detection (Experiment 2). In the latter case, self-reported mind wandering echoed the pupil diameter changes in demonstrating greater off-task behavior when preparing for a prosaccade trial. More important, trial type effects in pupil diameter emerged only when participants reported being "on-task," but disappeared during periods of mind wandering. These results demonstrate that changes in pupil diameter reflect the degree of preparatory control exerted for an upcoming trial, but only when attention is actively focused on the upcoming task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Enquadramento Psicológico , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 29(2): 93-104, 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197818

RESUMO

Research investigation concerning potential motivators and psychological influences on health and physical exercise participation have increased worldwide in the last two decades. In contrast, few investigations have analysed this phenomenon in older people living in different contexts. Older adults suffer a notable diminution of physical functions that may be followed by psychological disorders and are detrimental to their affective and social relationships. Therefore, it is of great importance to find strategies that increase the participation of older adults' in regular exercise. A systematic review of 945 studies was conducted. All of the 27 studies reviewed, that met the inclusion criteria, have undertaken mixed-method, qualitative and qualitative approaches. The data were extracted based on the following variables: the methodology and the instrument/questionnaire used, the type of article, number of participants, duration and intensity of the interventions, profile of the older adults, most relevant findings and the country where the study was developed. The instruments used in the studies, were mainly semi-structured interviews, discussion groups and questionnaires, focusing mainly on the United States and Canada. The knowledge of psychological and environmental factors is a key aspect relevant to both the social and physical aspects and has a strong influence on older people's commitment to exercise, influencing their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators of adherence to a physical exercise programme for older adults


Las investigaciones sobre los posibles factores motivadores e influencias psicológicas sobre la salud y la participación en el ejercicio físico han aumentado en todo el mundo en las últimas dos décadas. En contraste, pocas investigaciones han analizado este fenómeno en adultos mayores que viven en varios contextos. Los adultos mayores sufren una disminución notable de las funciones físicas que pueden ser seguidas por trastornos psicológicos y un detrimento de las relaciones afectivas y sociales. Por lo tanto, es de suma importancia encontrar estrategias para aumentar la participación regular de los adultos mayores en prácticas de ejercicio físico dirigido. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de 945 estudios. Todos los 27 estudios revisados, que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, han adoptado métodos mixtos, cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los datos se extrajeron de acuerdo con las siguientes variables: metodología científica, el instrumento / cuestionario utilizado, tipo de artículo, número de participantes, duración e intensidad de las intervenciones, perfil del colectivo de adultos mayores, los hallazgos más relevantes y el país donde se realizó el estudio. Los instrumentos utilizados en los estudios fueron principalmente entrevistas semiestructuradas, grupos de discusión y cuestionarios, centrados principalmente en Estados Unidos y Canadá. El conocimiento sobre los factores psicológicos y ambientales es un aspecto clave que se encuentra adyacente tanto a los aspectos físicos como a los sociales y tiene una influencia relevante en el ejercicio y el bienestar de los adultos mayores. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar las barreras y los facilitadores a la hora de realizar un programa de ejercicio físico para adultos mayores


Pesquisas sobre possíveis fatores motivadores e influências psicológicas na saúde e participação em exercícios físicos aumentaram em todo o mundo nas últimas duas décadas. Por outro lado, poucas investigações analisaram esse fenômeno em idosos que vivem em vários contextos. Os idosos sofrem uma diminuição notável nas funções físicas que podem ser seguidas por distúrbios psicológicos e um prejuízo para as relações afetivas e sociais. Portanto, é de extrema importância encontrar estratégias para aumentar a participação regular de idosos em práticas direcionadas de exercícios físicos. Uma revisão sistemática de 945 estudos foi realizada. Todos os 21 estudos revisados, que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, adotaram métodos mistos, quantitativos e qualitativos. Os dados foram extraídos de acordo com as seguintes variáveis: metodologia científica, instrumento / questionário utilizado, tipo de artigo, número de participantes, duração e intensidade das intervenções, perfil do grupo de idosos, achados mais relevantes e país onde o estudo foi realizado. Os instrumentos utilizados nos estudos foram principalmente entrevistos semiestruturadas, grupos de discussão e questionários, focados principalmente nos Estados Unidos e no Canadá. O conhecimento de fatores psicológicos e ambientais é um aspecto fundamental, adjacente aos aspectos físicos e sociais, e tem uma influência relevante no exercício e no bem-estar dos idosos. O objetivo deste estudo foi explorar as barreiras e facilitadores na realização de um programa de exercícios físicos para idosos


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Motivação , Atividade Motora , Enquadramento Psicológico
9.
Span. j. psychol ; 23: e20.1-e20.11, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196595

RESUMO

Transgressions occur frequently in romantic relationships, and how they are perceived is influenced by the type of transgression that occurred. By means of an experimental study of 399 participants (75.9% women and 24.1% men) aged 18 to 64 years old (Mage = 31.20, SD = 10.48), we examined the relationship between the type of sexual transgression (infidelity versus coercion), and perceived severity, strategies individuals would use in response to the transgression, and the probability they would leave the relationship, as well as levels of dependence and commitment. Results revealed higher perceived severity (p < .001, η2p = .24) and probability of leaving the relationship (p < .001, η2p = .39) in the infidelity scenario (versus coercion). Meanwhile, women (compared to men) rated sexual transgressions as more severe (p < .001, η2p = .04) and reported a higher probability of leaving the relationship (p < .001, η2p = .03), as well as a higher use of active conflict resolution strategies (exit, p = .048, η2p = .01, and voice, p < .001, η2p = .06) and lower use of passive strategies (loyalty, p < .001, η2p = .08). Finally, high levels of commitment and dependence predicted lower perceived severity (commitment, p < .001, 95% CI [-.72, -.20]; dependence, p < .001, 95% CI [-1.73, -.85]) and lower probability of leaving the relationship (commitment, p = .048, 95% CI [-.55, -.01]; dependence, p < .001, 95% CI [-1.66, -.73]) in coercion (versus infidelity) transgressions. These results highlight the normalization of sexual coercion in romantic relationships, which is not viewed as negatively as infidelity, and that commitment and dependence contribute to minimizing the negative impressions of it


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/classificação , Relações Extramatrimoniais/psicologia , Coerção , Codependência Psicológica/classificação , Conflito Psicológico , Divórcio/psicologia , Atitude , Enquadramento Psicológico
10.
Buenos Aires; Teseo; 2020. 140 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1147384

RESUMO

Desde la Cátedra Libre por el Derecho al Aborto Legal, Seguro y Gratuito de la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, espacio conformado en 2016, se presentan aportes al debate sobre el aborto legal en el campo de la formación "psi". Los diferentes capítulos de esta obra surgen de las discusiones y producciones de distintas actividades (jornadas, talleres, seminarios, etc.). El libro se compone de tres partes: la primera presenta una genealogización de la demanda por el derecho al aborto y los debates en el campo de la psicología a partir de referentes como Graciela Zaldúa, Nina Brugo, Martha Rosenberg, Débora Tajer y Elsa Schvartzman. En la segunda parte se desarrollan dos trabajos: uno analiza el tratamiento del aborto en la formación de grado y otro, las prácticas de interrupción legal del embarazo desde los equipos de salud en el primer nivel de atención. El último apartado presenta la síntesis de producciones de fin de grado de estudiantes de Psicología acerca del tema del aborto. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Psicologia/educação , Psicologia/tendências , Enquadramento Psicológico , Direitos da Mulher/métodos , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/psicologia
11.
Pap. psicol ; 40(3): 190-196, sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186993

RESUMO

Hasta fechas muy recientes, el estudio de las creencias y actitudes ambientales se ha centrado en muestras de participantes adultos. Sin embargo, conocer el nivel de conciencia ambiental infantil es relevante, ya que facilitará que las generaciones futuras asuman las exigencias de la proambientalidad. Este trabajo destaca la importancia de las experiencias ambientales en la infancia para asumir valores y creencias proambientales. Se ofrecen datos sobre el nivel de conciencia ecológica de muestras infantiles en España utilizando tanto la Escala del Nuevo Paradigma Ambiental (NEP) como la Escala de Percepción de Problemas Ambientales (CEPS). Los datos registrados permiten concluir que el nivel de conciencia ecológica de la población infantil española es medio-alto. Además, se propone un modelo en el que se definen cuatro perfiles ecológicos en la infancia: Eco-orientados, naturalistas de salón, utilitaristas y tecno-orientados. Se concluye destacando el valor de las experiencias de contacto con la naturaleza


Until recently, the study of environmental beliefs and attitudes has been focused on adults. However, a better understanding of chil-dren's environmental awareness is needed, since this will make it easier for future generations to assume the demands of pro-environmentalism. This paper highlights the importance of environmental experiences during childhood for the development of pro-environmental attitudes. We discuss different data about Spanish children's ecological awareness, measured with the New Envi-ronmental Paradigm (NEP) scale and the Children's Environmental Perception Scale (CEPS). According to our findings, Spanish children show a medium-high level of ecological awareness. In addition, we propose a model describing four ecological profiles: eco-oriented, lounge naturalists, utilitarians and techno-oriented. We conclude by highlighting the value of experiences of contact with nature for children's pro-environmentalism


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Consciência , Atitude , Psicologia da Criança/educação , Enquadramento Psicológico , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos
12.
Cogn Sci ; 43(11): e12792, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742757

RESUMO

Causal judgments are widely known to be sensitive to violations of both prescriptive norms (e.g., immoral events) and statistical norms (e.g., improbable events). There is ongoing discussion as to whether both effects are best explained in a unified way through changes in the relevance of counterfactual possibilities, or whether these two effects arise from unrelated cognitive mechanisms. Recent work has shown that moral norm violations affect causal judgments of agents, but not inanimate artifacts used by those agents. These results have been interpreted as showing that prescriptive norm violations only affect causal reasoning about intentional agents, but not the use of inanimate artifacts, thereby providing evidence that the effect of prescriptive norm violations arises from mechanisms specific to reasoning about intentional agents, and thus casting doubt on a unified counterfactual analysis of causal reasoning. Four experiments explore this recent finding and provide clear support for a unified counterfactual analysis. Experiment 1 demonstrates that these newly observed patterns in causal judgments are closely mirrored by judgments of counterfactual relevance. Experiment 2 shows that the relationship between causal and counterfactual judgments is moderated by causal structure, as uniquely predicted by counterfactual accounts. Experiment 3 directly manipulates the relevance of counterfactual alternatives and finds that causal judgments of intentional agents and inanimate artifacts are similarly affected. Finally, Experiment 4 shows that prescriptive norm violations (in which artifacts malfunction) affect causal judgments of inanimate artifacts in much the same way that prescriptive norm violations (in which agents act immorally) affect causal judgments of intentional agents.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Processos Mentais , Princípios Morais , Normas Sociais , Valores Sociais , Ciência Cognitiva/métodos , Humanos , Intenção , Resolução de Problemas , Enquadramento Psicológico , Pensamento
13.
Cogn Sci ; 43(11): e12796, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742758

RESUMO

From infancy, we recognize that labels denote category membership and help us to identify the critical features that objects within a category share. Labels not only reflect how we categorize, but also allow us to communicate and share categories with others. Given the special status of labels as markers of category membership, do novel labels (i.e., non-words) affect the way in which adults select dimensions for categorization in unsupervised settings? Additionally, is the purpose of this effect primarily coordinative (i.e., do labels promote shared understanding of how we categorize objects)? To address this, we conducted two experiments in which participants individually categorized images of mountains with or without novel labels, and with or without a goal of coordination, within a non-communicative paradigm. People who sorted items with novel labels had more similar categories than people who sorted without labels only when they were told that their categories should make sense to other people, and not otherwise. We argue that sorters' goals determine whether novel labels promote the development of socially coherent categories.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Formação de Conceito , Objetivos , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Associação , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Generalização Psicológica , Humanos , Enquadramento Psicológico
14.
An. psicol ; 35(3): 496-505, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190038

RESUMO

Las organizaciones enfrentan el reto de gestionar una fuerza laboral multigeneracional con características propias que difieren en el valor que le otorgan al trabajo. La incorporación al mercado laboral de las generaciones más jóvenes hace imprescindible el estudio de sus diferentes actitudes hacia el trabajo en comparación con las generaciones antecesoras. El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar a través del constructo de la Ética Protestante las diferencias existentes en las actitudes hacia el trabajo de cuatro generaciones (Baby Boomers, Generación X, Generación Y, y Generación Z). La muestra de 624 participantes ecuatorianos (BB 11.2%; GX 11.2%, GY 58.5% y GZ 19.1%) se agrupó por cohortes. Se aplicó el Cuestionario Multidimensional Ética del Trabajo (MWEP). Los resultados mostraron que los BB y la GX tiene una mayor creencia sobre la importancia del trabajo y más tolerancia a la utilización improductiva del tiempo de trabajo que las generaciones Y y Z. En el aplazamiento de las recompensas la GZ muestra puntuaciones superiores a las obtenidas por los BB, GX y GY. No se encuentran diferencias significativas en las dimensiones de autoconfianza, ocio y moralidad-ética


Enterprises face the challenge of managing a multigenerational workforce which has its characteristics that differ in the value they grant to work. Incorporation of younger generations into the labour market requires to study all their attitudes towards work, contrasting them with previous generations. The purpose of this research was to analyse, through the Protestant Ethic construct, the differences of four age groups in attitudes towards work (Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y, and Generation Z). Cohorts grouped the sample of 624 Ecuadorians (BB 11.2%; Gen X 11.2%, Gen Y 58.5% and Gen Z 19.1%). The Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP) was applied. The results showed that BB and Gen X believe more in the importance of work than generations Y and Z. At the same time, BB and Gen X are more tolerant to the unproductive use of time than generations Y and Z. Gen Z has higher scores than BB, Gen X and Gen Y in the postponement of rewards dimension. Besides, there are no meaningful differences in self-reliance, leisure and morality/ethics dimensions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Emprego/ética , Emprego/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Enquadramento Psicológico , Fatores Etários , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teoria Psicológica , Equador , Comparação Transcultural
15.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(6): 1917-1924, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429059

RESUMO

Two studies tested whether a mindset manipulation would affect the filtering of distractors from entering visual working memory (VWM). In Study 1, participants completed a concrete mindset manipulation (by repeatedly describing how to perform an action), an abstract mindset manipulation (by repeatedly describing why to perform an action), and a baseline condition (no manipulation). In Study 2, some participants completed a concrete mindset manipulation, whereas others completed an abstract manipulation. Filtering efficiency was estimated by a change-detection task that included a condition with distractors alongside targets. We derived our prediction from construal-level theory (CLT), according to which concrete representations retain information regardless of its relevance, whereas abstract representations retain the relevant and omit the irrelevant elements of an input array. In a task that requires attending to task-relevant targets and ignoring task-irrelevant distractors in a visual array, concrete processing should impair performance relative to abstract processing. We therefore predicted that a concrete mindset would reduce filtering efficiency as compared to an abstract mindset. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that a concrete mindset manipulation reduced filtering efficiency, as compared to both an abstract mindset manipulation (Studies 1 and 2) and the baseline condition (Study 1). These results suggest a new factor that may contribute to both individual differences and situational variation in working memory performance.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Enquadramento Psicológico , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 14(3): 383-390, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119596

RESUMO

Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication has lacked pre-clinical validation for its purported benefits in the treatment of delirium. This laboratory investigation examined the effects of quetiapine on the attentional set shifting task (ASST), a measure of cognitive flexibility and executive functioning, in a rodent model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated neuroinflammation. 19 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly selected to receive intraperitoneal placebo (N = 5), LPS and placebo (N = 7) or LPS and quetiapine (n = 7) and performed the ASST. We measured trials to criterion, errors, non-locomotion episodes and latency to criterion, serum cortisol and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. TNF-α levels were not different between groups at 24 h. Cortisol levels in the LPS + Quetiapine group were reduced compared to LPS + Placebo (P < 0.001) and did not differ from the placebo group (P = 0.15). Analysis between LPS + Quetiapine and LPS + Placebo treated rats demonstrated improvement in the compound discrimination reversal (CD Rev1) (P = 0.016) and the intra-dimensional reversal (ID Rev2) (P = 0.007) discriminations on trials to criterion. LPS + Quetiapine treated rats had fewer errors than LPS + Placebo treated animals in the compound discrimination (CD) (P = 0.007), CD Rev1 (P = 0.005), ID Rev2 (P < 0.001) discriminations. There was no difference in non-locomotion frequency or latency to criterion between the three groups in all discriminations (P > 0.0167). We demonstrated preserved reversal learning, no effect on attentional set shifting and normalized cortisol levels in quetiapine-treated rats in this neuroinflammatory model of delirium. This suggests that quetiapine's beneficial effects in delirium may be related to the preservation of reversal learning and potential downstream effects related to reduction in cortisol production. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Reversão de Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Enquadramento Psicológico , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Comportamento Apetitivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Delírio/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/psicologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fumarato de Quetiapina/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Neuropsychologia ; 131: 1-8, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145908

RESUMO

Studies of set-shifting in adolescent AN present conflicting results, since not all have found differences with regard to controls. To date, no functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies have been carried out in adolescent patients, nor have patients been assessed after weight recovery. In this study, 30 female AN patients aged 12-17 and 16 matched control subjects were assessed both at baseline and after six months and renutrition using a structured diagnostic interview, clinical and neurocognitive scales, and fMRI during a set-shifting task. Adolescent AN patients presented similar performance on different neurocognitive tests and also on a set-shifting task during fMRI, but they showed a lower activation in the inferior and middle occipital and lingual gyri, fusiform gyri and cerebellum during the set-shifting task. No correlations were found between decreased activation and clinical variables such as body mass index, eating or depressive symptoms. After six months of treatment and renutrition in AN patients, there were no differences between patients and controls. These results show that adolescent AN patients have lower activation in relevant brain areas during a set-shifting task, and support the use of fMRI with set-shifting paradigms as a biomarker in future studies.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Enquadramento Psicológico , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Testes Neuropsicológicos
18.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(1): 39-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038484

RESUMO

In the present study, we tested the ability of our computational model of the filled­space illusion to account for data collected in experiments with stimuli comprising single­dot distractors. In three sets of experiments, we investigated this illusory effect as a function of distance between the distractor and lateral terminator of the reference spatial interval of the three­dot stimulus. We found that the model calculations properly predicted all of the observed changes in magnitude of the illusion for stimuli with a single distracting dot placed both within and outside the interval, as well as, for stimuli with two distractors arranged symmetrically relative to the lateral terminator. To additionally test the model, in a fourth set of experiments we performed psychophysical examination of the conventional Oppel­Kundt stimulus with a different number of equally spaced dots subdividing the filled part. Adequate correspondence between the computational and experimental data supports our assumptions concerning the origin of the filled­space illusion.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Ilusões Ópticas/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Enquadramento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuropsychology ; 33(4): 470-481, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Set shifting, or cognitive flexibility, is a core executive function involving the ability to quickly and efficiently shift back and forth between mental sets. Meta-analysis suggests medium-magnitude shifting impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, this conclusion may be premature because the evidence-base relies exclusively on tasks that have been criticized for poor construct validity and may better reflect general neuropsychological functioning rather than shifting specifically. METHOD: A well-characterized sample of 77 children ages 8-13 (M = 10.46, SD = 1.54; 32 girls; 66% Caucasian/non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 43) and without ADHD (n = 34) completed the criterion global-local set shifting task and 2 counterbalanced control tasks that were identical in all aspects except the key processes. RESULTS: The experimental manipulation was successful at evoking set shifting demands during the global-local versus both nonshift control tasks (p < .001; ω2 = .12-.14). Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed that the ADHD group did not demonstrate disproportional decrements in speed shift costs on the shifting versus nonshift control tasks (p = .30; ω2 = .002), suggesting no evidence of impaired set shifting abilities in ADHD. In contrast, the ADHD group made disproportionately more shifting errors than the non-ADHD group (p = .03; ω2 = 0.03) that were more parsimoniously attributable to prerequisite (nonshifting) processes necessary for successful performance on the global-local task. CONCLUSIONS: Children with ADHD's impaired performance on shifting tasks may be attributable to difficulties maintaining competing rule sets and/or inhibiting currently active rule sets prior to shifting. However, when these higher-order processes are executed successfully, there is no significant evidence to suggest a unique set shifting deficit in ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Enquadramento Psicológico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
20.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 54(4): 645-655, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the updating, inhibiting and shifting abilities underlying executive control are important for spoken language production in adults. However, little is known about this in children. AIMS: To examine whether children with and without language impairment differ in all or only some of these executive abilities, and whether they show corresponding differences when these abilities are engaged in language production. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Thirty-three children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 41 typically developing (TD) children (age matched, aged 8-12 years) completed standard executive control tests that measure the updating, inhibiting and shifting abilities. All children were native speakers of Dutch. Moreover, they performed a noun-phrase production task involving picture description within a picture-word interference paradigm. We measured their production accuracy and speed to assess length, distractor and switch effects, which reflect the updating, inhibiting and shifting abilities underlying executive control. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Compared with TD children, the children with SLI had lower scores on all executive control tests. Moreover, they were overall slower and made more errors in the noun-phrase production task. Additionally, the magnitude of the distractor and switch effects was larger for the SLI than for the TD group. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The results suggest that children with SLI have impaired language production and executive control abilities, and that some of the differences in the executive control abilities between SLI and TD groups were reflected in their language production.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Enquadramento Psicológico , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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