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J Affect Disord ; 340: 420-426, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37573889


BACKGROUND: Restricting access to suicide methods is one of the most effective suicide prevention approaches. METHODS: Trends in method specific suicide rates (2014-2021) in India were calculated using National Crime Records Bureau data (NCRB) by sex and geographical region. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to empirically identify any changes in suicide trends. RESULTS: Suicide rates by hanging increased from 6.08 to 10.0 per 100,000 population among males and from 2.55 to 3.56 per 100,000 among females over the study period. Insecticide poisoning suicide rates also increased from 1.51 to 2.73 per 100,000 among males and from 0.74 to 1.14 per 100,000 among females. Suicide by self-immolation decreased over the study period among both sexes. In general, these national trends were mirrored among different regions. Joinpoint regression indicated an increase in suicide by hanging (annual percentage change (APC) of 12.3 among males between 2018 and 2021 and 4.9 among females between 2014 and 2021) and an increase in male suicide by insecticide poisoning between 2014 and 2021 (APC of 4.2) while a decrease in self-immolation rates was noted among males (APC of -12.7 between 2014 and 2021) and females (APC of -16.5 between 2016 and 2021). LIMITATION: The NCRB data might underestimate true suicide rates. CONCLUSION: Hanging suicides and insecticides poisoning suicides observed an increasing trend between 2014 and 2021. Self-immolation rates decreased during the study period which might be, in part, associated with the initiative to provide clean cooking fuel to households. Ban on lethal pesticides must be prioritised which might help lower insecticide poisoning suicide rates.

Inseticidas , Suicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Índia/epidemiologia
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 6(9): e1873, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37574721


BACKGROUND: Afghanistan is in an epidemiological transition, as cancer is the second leading cause of mortality due to non-communicable diseases. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive perspective on the overall cancer situation in Afghanistan by discussing the top five most common cancers, their incidence variations, risk factors, and preventive measures. The limited number of cancer studies conducted in Afghanistan highlights the importance of the present review. RECENT FINDINGS: This article provides an overview of cancer burden in Afghanistan in 2020. It utilizes IARC-generated GLOBOCAN 2020 data for one, three, and five-year prevalence rates, the estimated number of new cancer cases, and mortality rates by age group in Afghanistan. According to GLOBOCAN, the top five common cancers in both sexes in Afghanistan were breast (n = 3173, 14.3%), stomach (n = 2913, 7.8%), lung (n = 1470, 6.6%), cervix uteri (n = 1200, 5.4%), and colorectum (n = 1084, 4.9%). CONCLUSION: This study provides a brief overview of the general cancer situation in Afghanistan, and a more in-depth analysis of the five common cancers identified. Effective therapies, awareness, and prevention initiatives targeting lifestyle, immunization, early diagnosis, and environmental risk factors are essential for addressing the impact of population growth and aging on cancer incidence in Afghanistan. Further research and extensive studies are needed to better understand cancer burden in the country.

Neoplasias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Afeganistão , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias/terapia
Clin Oral Investig ; 27(9): 5661-5670, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37542681


OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide epidemiological and clinical data on patients with orofacial clefts in Lower Saxony in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 404 patients with orofacial clefts treated surgically at the University Medical Center Goettingen from 2001 to 2019 were analyzed in this retrospective study. Prevalence of orofacial clefts in general, orofacial clefts as manifestation of a syndrome, sex distribution, and prevalence of different cleft types was evaluated and associated with the need for corrective surgery, family history, pregnancy complications, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The prevalence of orofacial clefts for Goettingen in Lower Saxony was 1:890. 231 patients were male and 173 were female. CLP was most common (39.1%) followed by CP (34.7%), CL (14.4%), CLA (9.9%), and facial clefts (2%). The left side was more frequently affected and unilateral cleft forms occurred more often than bilateral ones. Almost 10% of the population displayed syndromic CL/P. 10.9% of all patients had a positive family history regarding CL/P, predominantly from the maternal side. Pregnancy abnormalities were found in 11.4%, most often in the form of preterm birth. Comorbidities, especially of the cardiovascular system, were found in 30.2% of the sample. 2.2% of patients treated according to the University Medical Center Goettingen protocol corrective surgery was performed in form of a velopharyngoplasty or residual hole closure. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological and clinical profile of the study population resembled the expected distributions in Western populations. The large number of syndromic CL/P and associated comorbidities supports the need for specialized cleft centers and interdisciplinary cleft care.

Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo
NCHS Data Brief ; (471): 1-8, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37367034


Deaths due to suicide and homicide, often referred to collectively as violent deaths, have been a leading cause of premature death to people aged 10-24 in the United States (1-3). A previous version of this report with data through 2017 showed that suicide and homicide rates for people aged 10-24 were trending upward (4). This report updates the previous report using the most recent data from the National Vital Statistics System and presents trends from 2001 through 2021 in suicide and homicide rates for people aged 10-24 and for age groups 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24.

Homicídio , Suicídio , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Distribuição por Idade , Violência , Distribuição por Sexo
Front Public Health ; 11: 1143278, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37333568


Violence is defined as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation." Encompassed in this definition are multiple, interrelated forms of violence, including interpersonal firearm death and injury, but also the systems, policies, and practices enacted by those with power to advantage some groups while depriving others of meaningful opportunities for meeting their basic needs-known as "structural violence". Yet dominant violence prevention narratives too often ignore or deemphasize the deeply intertwined threads of structural violence with other forms of violence, leading to policies and practices that are frequently insufficient, and often harmful, for reducing interpersonal firearm violence and building community safety, particularly in minoritized and structurally marginalized communities. We highlight ways in which limited scrutiny of structural violence, the omission of its defining characteristics-power and deprivation-from functional characterizations and frameworks of interpersonal firearm violence, and the inadequate distribution of power and resources to those most impacted by violence to self-determine narratives of and solutions to interpersonal firearm violence grossly impacts how interpersonal firearm violence is collectively conceived, discussed, and addressed. Expanding dominant narratives of interpersonal firearm violence, guided by the wisdom and determination of those most impacted, such that the goal of prevention and intervention efforts is not merely the absence of violence but rather the creation of a community safety and health ecosystem is essential to meet this critical moment in firearm violence research and prevention.

Ecossistema , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Distribuição por Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Violência/prevenção & controle
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 44: 100350, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37356826


PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human respiratory tract pathogen causing pneumococcal diseases in majority of children and adults. The capsule is a significant virulence factor of Pneumococci which determines the bacterial serotype and is the component used for synthesis of pneumococcal vaccines. This cross-sectional study aimed to isolate Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical samples and determine the occurrence of its circulating serotypes in Assam, North East India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 80 clinical samples were collected from June 2019 to May 2020 from patients clinically suspected from pneumococcal infection and also included samples routinely sent to bacteriology laboratory. Isolation and identification of S. pneumoniae was performed using conventional culture and molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were monitored. Capsular serotyping was performed using PCR of cpsA gene followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Majority of the cases suspected of pneumococcal infection belong to the paediatric group aged less than 5 years. Out of 80 samples, 10 (12.50%) were found to be positive by PCR of recP gene. Culture was positive in 80% (8/10) of the total positives. Co-trimoxazole resistance was seen in 33.33% of the isolate from sputum. Serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C and 19F were detected in our region, out of which 6C is a non-vaccine serotype. CONCLUSION: Continued surveillance is needed to monitor trends in non-vaccine serotypes that may emerge as highly associated with antibiotic resistance. Also, the need to continuous monitoring of the antibiotic susceptibility of S. pneumoniae in North eastern parts of India is of outmost importance.

Hospitais , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Distribuição por Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Sorotipagem , Distribuição por Sexo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência , Estudos Transversais , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Índia/epidemiologia
Rev Neurol ; 76(11): 343-350, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231547


INTRODUCTION: Huntington disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. OBJECTIVE: Describe the geographical, age and sex distribution of HD in the Valencia Region (VR) and determine its prevalence and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study for the period 2010-2018. Confirmed cases of HD were identified through the Rare Disease Information System of the VR. Sociodemographic characteristics were described, and the prevalence and mortality rate were obtained. RESULTS: 225 cases were identified, 50.2% women. 52.0% lived in the province of Alicante. 68.9% were verified by their clinical diagnosis. The median age at diagnosis was 54.1 years, 54.7 years in men and 53.0 years in women. The prevalence in 2018 was 1.97/100,000 inhabitants (95%; CI: 0.39-2.37), showing a no significant increasing trend, overall and by sex. 49.8% died, 51.8% men. The median age at death was 62.7 years, being lower in men than in women. The mortality rate in 2018 was 0.32/100,000 inhabitants (95%; CI: 0.32-2.28), with no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence obtained was within the range estimated by Orphanet (1-9/100,000). A difference between sexes was observed in the diagnosis age. Men are the group with the highest mortality and the earliest age of death. It is a disease with high mortality with an average of 6.5 years between diagnosis and death.

TITLE: La enfermedad de Huntington en la Comunitat Valenciana.Introducción. La enfermedad de Huntington (EH) es un trastorno raro neurodegenerativo caracterizado por movimientos coreicos involuntarios, trastornos conductuales y psiquiátricos, y demencia. Objetivo. Describir la distribución geográfica, etaria y por sexo de la EH en la Comunitat Valenciana (CV), y determinar su prevalencia y mortalidad. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal en el período 2010-2018. Se identificaron, a través del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Raras de la CV, los casos confirmados de EH. Se describieron las características sociodemográficas, y se obtuvieron la prevalencia y la tasa de mortalidad. Resultados. Se identificaron 225 casos, un 50,2% mujeres. El 52% residía en la provincia de Alicante. Un 68,9% se verificó por su diagnóstico clínico. La mediana de edad en el momento del diagnóstico fue 54,1 años, 54,7 en los hombres y 53 en las mujeres. La prevalencia en 2018 fue de 1,97/100.000 habitantes ­intervalo de confianza al 95% (IC 95%): 0,39-2,37­. El 49,8% falleció, un 51,8% hombres. La mediana de edad en el momento del fallecimiento fue de 62,7 años, y fue inferior en los hombres que en las mujeres. La tasa de mortalidad en 2018 fue de 0,32/100.000 habitantes (IC 95%: 0,32-2,28) y no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, ni en conjunto ni por sexos, durante el período de estudio. Conclusiones. La prevalencia obtenida estaba dentro del rango estimado por Orphanet (1-9/100.000). Se observó una diferencia por sexos en la edad de diagnóstico. Los hombres son el grupo de mayor mortalidad y de edad de fallecimiento más temprana. Es una enfermedad con alta mortalidad, con una media de 6,5 años entre el diagnóstico y el fallecimiento.

Doença de Huntington , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Huntington/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 10(2): 1-6, MAYO 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-219701


El acoso escolar es un fenómeno que está presente en las aulas. Las competencias emocionales que desarrollan los niños en su crecimiento pueden tener relación con la participación en este proceso. La empatía es una competencia que se ve afectada en agresores y víctimas. Este trabajo analizó si existen diferencias en el nivel de empatía en función de los participantes del acoso escolar (víctimas y acosadores). Además, se estudiasi hay diferencias en empatía en función del sexo de la persona hacia quien va dirigida la acción empática y de quién la ejerce. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 180 niños siendo el 50% chicas y 50% chicos de entre 10 y 12 años, encontrando la media en 11,23 años y la desviación típica de .914. reclutados en cinco colegios de la provincia de Alicante (Petrel, Ibi y Alicante), en España. Los niños respondieron al Cuestionario de Índice de Empatía para Niños y Adolescentes (Index of Empaty for Children and Adolescents, IECA) para evaluar la empatía y al Test Bull-S paraevaluar los posibles perfiles de agresor y víctima en las aulas. Los agresores y las víctimas obtuvieron un menor índice de empatía con respecto a la media global de la muestra; aunque no hubo diferencia en empatía entre agresores y víctimas. Las chicas puntuaron más alto en empatía que los chicos. Las chicas mostraron ser más empáticas con las chicas, que con los chicos. Se concluye que las competencias emocionales pueden verse afectadas en personas involucradas en situaciones de acoso. Por tanto, se debe dar prioridad a programas de prevención basados en mejorar las competencias emocionales y así evitar el problema del acoso escolar antes de que ocurra. (AU)

Bullying is a phenomenon that is present in the classroom. The emotional competences that children develop as they grow up may be related to their participation in this process. Empathy is a competence thatis affected in aggressors and victims. This paper analysed whether there are differences in the level of empathy depending on the participants in bullying (victims and bullies). In addition, we studied whether there are differences in empathy according to the gender of the person towards whomthe empathic action is directed and who is exercising it. The sample consisted of 180 children, 50% girls and 50% boys between 10 and 12 years of age, with a mean of 11.23 years and a standard deviation of .914, recruited from five schools in the province of Alicante (Petrel, Ibi and Alicante),Spain. The children responded to the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA) questionnaire to assess empathy and to the Bull-S test to assess possible aggressor and victim profiles in the classroom. Bullies and victims scored lower on empathy than the overall sample mean, although there was no difference in empathy between bullies and victims. Girls scored higher on empathy than boys. Girls were more empathetic towards girls than boys. It is concluded that emotional competences may be affected in people involved in bullying situations. Therefore, priority should be given to prevention programmes based on improving emotional competences in order to prevent the problem of bullying before it occurs. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Empatia , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudos Transversais , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 267, 2023 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37072723


BACKGROUND: Mental health disorders (MHD) impose a considerable burden on public health systems. With an increasing worldwide trend in urbanization, urban mental health stressors are affecting a larger population. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiology of mental health disorders in the citizens of Tehran using the Tehran Cohort Study (TeCS) data. METHODS: We utilized data from the TeCS recruitment phase. A total of 10,247 permanent residents of Tehran metropolitan (aged 15 years and older) were enrolled in the study from March 2016 to 2019 via systematic random sampling from all 22 districts of Tehran. The participant's demographic, socioeconomic, and medical characteristics were evaluated by conducting comprehensive interviews. The standardized Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire version 28 was utilized to assess the mental status of the patients according to four central mental health disorders. RESULTS: Almost 37.1% of Tehran residents suffered mental health problems (45.0% of women and 28.0% of men). The greatest incidence of MHDs was seen in the 25-34 and over 75 age groups. The most common mental health disorders were depression (43%) and anxiety (40%), followed by somatization (30%) and social dysfunction (8.1%). Mental health disorders were more frequent in the southeast regions of the city. CONCLUSIONS: Tehran residents have a significantly higher rate of mental health disorders compared to nationwide studies, with an estimated 2.7 million citizens requiring mental health care services. Awareness of mental health disorders and identifying vulnerable groups are crucial in developing mental health care programs by public health authorities.

Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Nível de Saúde , Distribuição por Idade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , População Urbana , Previsões , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Logísticos , População Rural , Amostragem , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
Front Public Health ; 11: 1113222, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37064715


Despite a steady decrease in suicide rates in the United States, the rate among Black males has increased in recent decades. Moreover, suicide is now positioned as the third leading cause of death in this population, signaling a public health crisis. Enhancing the ability for future suicide prevention scholars to fully characterize and intervene on suicide risk factors is an emerging health equity priority, yet there is little empirical evidence to robustly investigate the alarming trends in Black male suicide. We present fundamental areas of expansion in suicide prevention research focused on establishing culturally responsive strategies to achieve mental health equity. Notably, we identify gaps in existing research and offer future recommendation to reduce suicide death among Black males. Our perspective aims to present important and innovative solutions for ensuring the inclusion of Black males in need of suicide prevention and intervention efforts.

Negro ou Afro-Americano , Equidade em Saúde , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Idade , Causas de Morte , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos , Saúde Mental , Racismo Sistêmico
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5959, 2023 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37045886


To evaluate the characteristics of violent injury cases in Sichuan Province, China. Overall, 4866 violent injury cases in Sichuan province, China from 2014 to 2017 were included. The injury evaluation report was used to classify and summarize the injury information, case and injury characteristics, and to describe the characteristics for each risk factor. The majority of cases were males (n = 3851, 79.14%), aged 20-60 (n = 3867, 79.47%), and living in rural areas (n = 3094, 65.55%). Many cases occurred in public areas (n = 3351, 74.19%) and in the evening (n = 1005, 29.49%). Passion was the main motive for the violent injuries (n = 2098, 82.11%) and the main types of injuries were those to the brain, face, and auricula (n = 3075, 63.21%). Blunt instruments (n = 2951, 64.86%) were most commonly used to inflict injury, and the injury evaluation determined that the majority of injuries were simple (n = 2669, 54.85%) and slight (n = 1685, 34.63%). For cases resulting from passion and money, blunt instruments were more commonly used, while sharp instruments were more commonly used for injuries resulting from emotion and revenge (p < 0.05). Compared with grievous injuries, public and entertainment areas and the use of blunt instruments were risk factors for slight injuries. The use of blunt instruments was a risk factor for simple injuries. The cases of violent injury in the Sichuan Province of China have certain characteristics and causes. In order to reduce the frequency of such cases, corresponding intervention measures should be actively conducted at the identified high risk places, times, and populations.

Suicídio , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Causas de Morte , Distribuição por Sexo , Violência , Distribuição por Idade , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37047871


BACKGROUND: Violent deaths (i.e., those due to road traffic injury, homicide, and suicide) are among the most important causes of premature and preventable mortality in young people. This study aimed at exploring inequalities in violent death across income levels between males and females aged 10 to 24 years from the Americas in 2015, the SDG baseline year. METHODS: In a cross-sectional ecological study design, eleven standard summary measures of health inequality were calculated separately for males and females and for each cause of violent death, using age-adjusted mortality rates and average income per capita for 17 countries, which accounted for 87.9% of the target population. RESULTS: Premature mortality due to road traffic injury and homicide showed a pro-poor inequality pattern, whereas premature mortality due to suicide showed a pro-rich inequality pattern. These inequalities were statistically significant (p < 0.001), particularly concentrated among young males, and dominated by homicide. The ample array of summary measures of health inequality tended to generate convergent results. CONCLUSIONS: Significant inequalities in violent death among young people seems to be in place across countries of the Americas, and they seem to be socially determined by both income and gender. These findings shed light on the epidemiology of violent death in young people and can inform priorities for regional public health action. However, further investigation is needed to confirm inequality patterns and to explore underlying mechanisms, age- and sex-specific vulnerabilities, and gender-based drivers of such inequalities.

Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Suicídio , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Distribuição por Sexo , Homicídio , América/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 51(2): 65-75, Marzo - Abril 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-220875


Introducción. El impacto psicológico en las etapas iniciales de la pandemia por COVID-19 y el confinamiento fue mayor en personas con trastornos mentales. En este estudio se exploraron las diferencias en el impacto psicológico según el sexo en personas con trastorno de ansiedad en España. Metodología. Estudio transversal, descriptivo y comparativo de los datos aportados por los participantes en una encuesta online anónima realizada entre el 19 y el 26 de marzo de 2020. El cuestionario ad hoc incluyó datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y variables relacionadas con COVID-19,junto con preguntas sobre estrategias de afrontamiento y las versiones en español de la Escala de Escalas de Depresión Ansiedad Estrés (DASS-21) y la Escala de Impacto del Estresor(IES). Se utilizaron análisis descriptivos bivariados y modelos de regresión logística. Resultados. De los 21.207 participantes, se analizaron1617 (7,6%) personas con trastorno de ansiedad autoinformado [1347 (83,3%) mujeres; 270 (16,7%) varones]. El impacto psicológico fue mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres con diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cada subescala del DASS-21 y subescalas del IES. Después de ajustar por posibles variables de confusión, se observó que ser mujer se asoció con puntuaciones más altas en las subescalas de pensamientos intrusivos y evitativos. Conclusiones. Nuestro estudio sugiere que las mujeres con trastorno de ansiedad son un grupo vulnerable a un mayor impacto negativo en la salud mental y, especialmente, en los síntomas relacionados con el trastorno de estrés postraumático. (AU)

Background. The early psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown is greater in peoplewith mental disorders. This study explored the differences in the psychological impact on people with an anxiety disorder by sex in Spain. Methods. Cross-sectional, descriptive, comparative study of the data provided by participants in an anonymous online survey between March 19 and 26, 2020. Thead hoc questionnaire included sociodemographic, clinical,and variable data related to COVID-19, along with questions about coping strategies, and the Spanish versions ofthe Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) andImpact of Event Scale (IES). Descriptive bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were used. Results. Of the 21,207 participants, 1617 (7.6%) people with self-reported anxiety disorder were analyzed [1347(83.3%) females; 270 (16.7%) males]. The psychological impact was greater on women than men with statistically significant differences in each subscale of the DASS-21and subscales of the IES. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, it was observed that being awoman was associated with higher scores on the intrusiveand avoidant thoughts subscales. Conclusions. Our study suggests that women with ananxiety disorder are a group vulnerable to a greater negative impact on mental health and, especially, symptomsr elated to post-traumatic stress disorder. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Impacto Psicossocial , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Psicologia
Appetite ; 185: 106523, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36871603


Current scholarship on orthorexia nervosa remains undecided about the role of body image in this novel eating disorder. This study aimed to explore the role of positive body image in differentiating between healthy orthorexia and orthorexia nervosa and assess how this might differ for men and women. A total of 814 participants (67.1% women; age M = 40.30, SD = 14.50) completed the Teruel Orthorexia scale, as well as measures of embodiment, intuitive eating, body appreciation and functionality appreciation. A cluster analysis revealed four distinct profiles characterized by high healthy orthorexia and low orthorexia nervosa; low healthy orthorexia and low orthorexia nervosa; low healthy orthorexia and high orthorexia nervosa; and high healthy orthorexia and high orthorexia nervosa. A MANOVA identified significant differences for positive body image between these four clusters, as well as that there were no significant differences between men and women for healthy orthorexia and orthorexia nervosa, despite men scoring significantly higher than women on all measures of positive body image. Cluster × gender interaction effects were found for intuitive eating, functionality appreciation, body appreciation and experience of embodiment. These findings indicate that the role of positive body image in healthy orthorexia and orthorexia nervosa may differ for men and women, making these relationships worthy of further exploration.

Imagem Corporal , Dieta Saudável , Saúde , Ortorexia Nervosa , Fatores Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Ortorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudos Transversais , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Alimentar , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Dados , Análise por Conglomerados
Psico USF ; 28(1): 1-12, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf, il
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1431097


The aim of the study was to demonstrate a relationship between the math anxiety (MA) of parents and teachers and the MA of children and the effects on the children's performance in arithmetic. 286 children aged between 7 and 10 years and their parents and mathematics teachers participated in the study. The instruments used were: Math Anxiety Questionnaire; School Performance Test - Arithmetic subtest; Mathematical Anxiety Scale; and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The results showed that advanced age of the teacher was a predictor of high levels of MA, which influenced the children's performance in arithmetic. Low parental education was associated with high MA, however, there were no correlations between parents' and children's MA. A significant difference was found between the MA mean scores for girls and boys, with the girls presenting higher levels of MA. (AU)

O objetivo do estudo foi evidenciar a relação entre a ansiedade matemática (AM) dos pais e dos professores com a AM das crianças e o desempenho destas em aritmética. Participaram do estudo 286 crianças com idade entre 7 e 10 anos e seus respectivos pais e professores de matemática. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Questionário de Ansiedade Matemática, Teste de Desempenho Escolar - Subteste de Aritmética, Escala de Ansiedade Matemática e Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven. Os resultados mostraram que a idade avançada dos professores é um fator preditor para altos níveis de AM, o que influencia no desempenho das crianças em aritmética. A baixa escolaridade dos pais está associada a alta AM, porém não foram encontradas correlações significativas entre AM de pais e crianças. Também foi encontrada uma diferença significativa entre as médias de AM para o sexo feminino e masculino, evidenciando que meninas possuem maiores níveis de AM. (AU)

El objetivo del estudio fue resaltar la relación entre la ansiedad matemática (AM) de padres y docentes con la AM de los niños y su desempeño en aritmética y de los niños. Participaron en el estudio 286 niños entre 7 y 10 años y sus respectivos padres y profesores de matemáticas. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: Cuestionario de AM; Prueba de Rendimiento Escolar: Subprueba aritmética; Escala de AM; Matrices Progresivas Escala Coloreada de Raven. Los resultados mostraron que la edad avanzada de los docentes es un factor predictivo para altos niveles de AM, lo que influye en el rendimiento de los niños en aritmética. La baja educación de los padres se asocia con un alto AM, pero no se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre AM de padres e hijos. Asimismo, se encontró una diferencia significativa entre las medias de AM de niñas y niños, lo que demuestra que las niñas tienen niveles más altos de AM. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Ansiedade , Matemática , Pais , Estudantes , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distribuição por Sexo , Escala Fujita-Pearson , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Escolaridade , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Professores Escolares , Desempenho Acadêmico , Estereotipagem de Gênero , Análise de Mediação , Inferência Estatística , Testes de Inteligência