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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673888

RESUMO

This study investigates the influences of built environmental (BE) factors, network design, and sociodemographic factors on active school travel (AST). Although numerous studies have explored these relationships, this study is trying to assess this issue with a focus on gender differences. Data from a cross-sectional sample of children from first to sixth grades from 16 public primary schools exclusive for girls and boys (N = 1260) in Shiraz collected in November 2019 was used. The analysis of the data revealed that, on average, boys are more willing to walk than girls, but that the boys' tendency to walk is less elastic with respect to distance. Moreover, it is shown that street connectivity for all distance thresholds has a positive relationship with walking level, but the street network choice parameter decreases the chance of walking within an 800 metre threshold. It is demonstrated the need to take gender differences into account in local planning policies to promote AST in a developing country context.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Instituições Acadêmicas , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Caminhada , Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2212421120, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656862

RESUMO

Historically, a large majority of newly elected members of the National Academy of Science (NAS) and the American Academy of Arts and Science (AAAS) were men. Within the past two decades, however, that situation has changed, and in the last 3 y, women made up about 40% of the new members in both academies. We build lists of active scholars from publications in the top journals in three fields-psychology, mathematics, and economics-and develop a series of models to compare changes in the probability of selection of women as members of the NAS and AAAS from the 1960s to today, controlling for publications and citations. In the early years of our sample, women were less likely to be selected as members than men with similar records. By the 1990s, the selection process at both academies was approximately gender neutral, conditional on publications and citations. In the past 20 y, however, a positive preference for female members has emerged and strengthened in all three fields. Currently, women are 3 to 15 times more likely to be selected as members of the AAAS and NAS than men with similar publication and citation records. The positive preference for women may be in part a reflection of concerns that women face higher barriers to publishing in top journals and may receive less credit for their work.


Assuntos
Cefapirina , Editoração , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Fatores Sexuais , Academias e Institutos , Probabilidade
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 30, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parent reported mental health can be assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Currently, Norwegian norms for parent-reported SDQ do not exist, whereas Swedish, Danish, and United Kingdom (UK) norms have been published. We aimed to (1) describe parent-reported SDQ among children aged 4 and 6 years in Southern Norway, (2) evaluate empirical cutoff values within the context of the Starting RightTM project in relation to the Swedish, Danish, and UK cutoffs, and (3) evaluate the representativeness of the study sample with regard to parental socioeconomic status. METHODS: This study included parent-reported observations for 665 children (63% consent rate). Means and standard deviations were calculated for the domains of SDQ, and gender differences were assessed. Based on the Swedish, Danish, and UK cutoffs and the 80th and 90th percentile cutoff values within the study, we calculated the total number of children with borderline and abnormal scores. RESULTS: Boys had higher mean total difficulties (7.3 vs 5.6) and impact scores (0.3 vs 0.1) and lower prosocial scores (8.3 vs 8.8) than girls. The differences in means were largest in the case of externalizing symptoms (5.0 vs 3.6) and hyperactivity subscore (3.2 vs 2.3). Using the UK cutoff values, 28 and 25 children had borderline and abnormal total difficulties scores, respectively. The corresponding numbers using the within study or Scandinavian cutoff values were 84-99 and 54-79, respectively. Overall, our study sample was well representative of the target population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings consistently indicated that girls had better SDQ scores than boys among children aged 4 and 6 years. Fewer children would be identified as having mental health difficulties using the UK cutoff values than using the Scandinavian age- and gender-relevant cutoff values.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Pais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Pais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Psicometria
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280678, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662895

RESUMO

The coexistence of tuberculosis and other chronic diseases complicates disease management. Particularly, the lack of information on the difference in the prevalence of chronic diseases in tuberculosis based on age and gender can hinder the establishment of appropriate public health strategies. This study aimed to identify age- and gender-based differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases as comorbidities in patients with tuberculosis. An anonymized data source was established by linking the national health insurance claims data to the Korean national tuberculosis surveillance data from 2014 to 2018. The prevalence of chronic diseases was stratified by gender and age (age groups: ≤64, 65-74, and ≥75 years), and the differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression and classified using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. A total of 148,055 patients with tuberculosis (61,199 women and 86,856 men) were included in this study. Among the patients aged ≥65 years, 48.2% were female and 38.1% were male. In this age group, the probability of chronic disease comorbidity was higher in female patients than in male patients. The prevalence of congestive heart failure and dementia as comorbidities in patients with tuberculosis increased more drastically with age in women than in men. Thus, the present study confirmed gender and age differences in the distribution of comorbidities among patients with tuberculosis. A more comprehensive gender-responsive approach for patients with tuberculosis and chronic diseases is required to alleviate the double burden of infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases in an aging society.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais , Comorbidade , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 142, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) is becoming increasingly popular and has serious harmful effects on physical and mental health among adolescents. Inadequate health literacy (HL) is related to some risky behaviors and mental health problems in adolescents. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the relationship between HL and PMPU and the gender difference in the relationship among Chinese adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between HL and PMPU and explore gender difference in the associations. METHODS: A total of 22,628 junior and senior high school students (10,990 males and 11,638 females) in 6 regions of China participated in this study. HL and PMPU were measured by self-report validated questionnaires. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were conducted in the study. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that students with inadequate HL are likely to have PMPU (OR = 2.013, 95% CI: 1.840-2.202), and different degrees of association can be seen in six dimensions. Besides, in both males and females, students with inadequate HL had a higher risk of PMPU (OR male = 1.607, 95% CI: 1.428-1.807; OR female = 2.602, 95% CI: 2.261-2.994). Regarding the gender difference, the results showed that males had more PMPU than females, and the difference was more significant for students with adequate HL than those with inadequate HL (OR inadequate = 1.085, 95% CI: 1.016-1.159; OR adequate = 1.770, 95% CI: 1.490-2.101). Similarly, there were associations in the six dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: HL decreases PMPU, and males have a higher risk of PMPU than females. These findings suggest a reasonable strategy to reduce PMPU by improving the HL level of adolescents.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular , Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673747

RESUMO

This population-based study investigated gender differences in the use of coping strategies and their relationship to anxiety symptoms during the initial COVID-19 lockdown period in the United States. A national online survey was administered between 13 April 2020 and 8 June 2020. The study sample comprised 1673 respondents (66% women). Overall, 46% reported high levels of anxiety, and women experienced significantly (p < 0.001) higher levels of anxiety than men. Women were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to use acceptance, self-distraction, positive reframing, and emotional support than men. Significant interactions between gender and coping strategies were also identified. Women engaging in high (+1SD) vs. low (-1SD) levels of active coping were not found to have significantly different anxiety levels. In contrast, men reported higher levels of anxiety when they engaged in high levels of active coping and lower levels of anxiety when they engaged in low levels of active coping (b2 = 0.88, t = 3.33, p = 0.001). Additionally, women engaging in high levels of acceptance and positive reframing reported significantly lower anxiety levels than when engag-ing in low levels of acceptance (b1 = -1.03, t = -4.58, p < 0.001) and positive reframing (b1 = -0.72, t = -3.95, p < 0.001). No significant associations between acceptance and positive reframing levels and anxiety levels were found with men. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of the nature of gender differences in stress responsivity during periods of high psychological distress and can inform the development of mental health interventions to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and future infectious disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prevent frailty, it is necessary to focus on pre-frailty and consider preventive interventions that incorporate social aspects. This study aimed to explore socio-demographic associations with pre-frailty, focusing on modifiable social factors among community-dwelling older adults in a rural Japanese city. METHODS: We conducted a self-administered survey on social, physical, and mental factors, and basic attributes, in September 2021. Respondents were classified as frail, pre-frail, or healthy according to their The Kihon Checklist scores. Of the 494 valid responses, 93 respondents classified as pre-frail and 110 as healthy were analyzed. The socio-demographic associations with pre-frailty were investigated by multiple logistic regression, and interactions between gender and other factors were examined. RESULTS: The analysis identified that for both genders, no-community participation in middle age (odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.92) was found to be a social factor associated with pre-frailty. Having friends who listen to one's concerns (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.26-5.10) was a factor for women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that modifiable social factors associated with pre-frailty were community involvement and being able to share concerns with friends. The findings suggest the need for support that emphasizes social aspects to prevent pre-frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Idoso Fragilizado , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação Geriátrica
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674389

RESUMO

The aim of poverty alleviation relocation is to break the vicious cycle of poverty and ecological degradation. The improvement of human capital, specifically women's human capital, is important to realize the poverty alleviation and sustainable development of relocated peasant households. Based on the survey data of 902 peasant households in southern Shaanxi in 2020, using the PSM model and the mediation effect test model, this paper explores the impact of participation in relocation on human capital from the perspective of gender differences, and the mediation effect of fuelwood consumption in the effect of participation in relocation on the human capital of peasants with different genders. The results show that firstly, in general, participation in relocation effectively improves the human capital of peasants. Secondly, there are gender differences in the improvement of the human capital of relocated peasants. Compared with male peasants, the health level of female peasants is significantly improved. Finally, fuelwood consumption plays an important mediation role in the impact of participation in relocation on human capital and the mediation role is more significant in improving the human capital of relocated female peasants.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Pobreza , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , China
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675097

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is a clinical condition characterized by a cluster of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes: proatherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, dysglycemia, and abdominal obesity. Each risk factor has an independent effect, but, when aggregated, they become synergistic, doubling the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and causing a 1.5-fold increase in all-cause mortality. We will highlight gender differences in the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical expression of the aforementioned Mets components. Moreover, we will discuss gender differences in new biochemical markers of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia
10.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678297

RESUMO

Low vitamin D levels are common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and have been associated with various adverse COPD-related outcomes. Recent data on vitamin D status in representative COPD cohorts in Scandinavia is lacking. This study aimed to assess vitamin D status and determinants of vitamin D insufficiency in patients with COPD who were attending a specialist secondary care COPD clinic in Southwestern Sweden. All patients who visited the COPD clinic for their first medical visit during two periods, 2017-2018 and 2021, were included in this observational study. Measurements of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), clinical data and documentation of supplements containing vitamin D were collected retrospectively from patients' medical records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of the primary outcome, vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L). A total of 667 patients were included, and 33% had vitamin D insufficiency. The median 25(OH)D was 62 nmol/L (43.5-83.1 nmol/L). Vitamin D insufficiency was related to the male gender, current smoking habits, a lack of supplements containing vitamin D and the winter season for blood sampling. In conclusion, vitamin D insufficiency is common in patients with COPD. Men had significantly lower levels of vitamin D but took vitamin D-containing supplements less frequently compared to women. Our findings can help clinicians to identify patients who are at risk of vitamin D insufficiency and allow correction with supplementation where appropriate.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D , Vitaminas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estações do Ano
11.
JAMA ; 329(4): 306-317, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692561

RESUMO

Importance: Stroke is the fifth-highest cause of death in the US and a leading cause of serious long-term disability with particularly high risk in Black individuals. Quality risk prediction algorithms, free of bias, are key for comprehensive prevention strategies. Objective: To compare the performance of stroke-specific algorithms with pooled cohort equations developed for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for the prediction of new-onset stroke across different subgroups (race, sex, and age) and to determine the added value of novel machine learning techniques. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study on combined and harmonized data from Black and White participants of the Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Multi-Ethnic Study for Atherosclerosis (MESA), and Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) studies (1983-2019) conducted in the US. The 62 482 participants included at baseline were at least 45 years of age and free of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Exposures: Published stroke-specific algorithms from Framingham and REGARDS (based on self-reported risk factors) as well as pooled cohort equations for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease plus 2 newly developed machine learning algorithms. Main Outcomes and Measures: Models were designed to estimate the 10-year risk of new-onset stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Discrimination concordance index (C index) and calibration ratios of expected vs observed event rates were assessed at 10 years. Analyses were conducted by race, sex, and age groups. Results: The combined study sample included 62 482 participants (median age, 61 years, 54% women, and 29% Black individuals). Discrimination C indexes were not significantly different for the 2 stroke-specific models (Framingham stroke, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.72-073; REGARDS self-report, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.72-0.74) vs the pooled cohort equations (0.72; 95% CI, 0.71-0.73): differences 0.01 or less (P values >.05) in the combined sample. Significant differences in discrimination were observed by race: the C indexes were 0.76 for all 3 models in White vs 0.69 in Black women (all P values <.001) and between 0.71 and 0.72 in White men and between 0.64 and 0.66 in Black men (all P values ≤.001). When stratified by age, model discrimination was better for younger (<60 years) vs older (≥60 years) adults for both Black and White individuals. The ratios of observed to expected 10-year stroke rates were closest to 1 for the REGARDS self-report model (1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) and indicated risk overestimation for Framingham stroke (0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.89) and pooled cohort equations (0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.77). Performance did not significantly improve when novel machine learning algorithms were applied. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of Black and White individuals without stroke or transient ischemic attack among 4 US cohorts, existing stroke-specific risk prediction models and novel machine learning techniques did not significantly improve discriminative accuracy for new-onset stroke compared with the pooled cohort equations, and the REGARDS self-report model had the best calibration. All algorithms exhibited worse discrimination in Black individuals than in White individuals, indicating the need to expand the pool of risk factors and improve modeling techniques to address observed racial disparities and improve model performance.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Preconceito , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Medição de Risco/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Viés , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador/normas , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Eur J Radiol ; 159: 110669, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the age and gender differences in vertebral bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). METHOD: A total of 427 healthy adults, including 175 males (41 %) and 252 females (59 %) with an age range of 21-82 years, underwent MRI and quantitative CT examinations of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), and the corresponding BMAT and vBMD values were measured. The age-related progressions of BMAT and vBMD in men and women were evaluated and compared. RESULTS: In males, vertebral BMAT rose gradually throughout life, while in females, BMAT increased sharply between 41 and 60 years of age. In participants aged < 40 years, BMAT was greater in males compared to females (p ≤ 0.01), while after the age of 60, BMAT was higher in females (p < 0.05). In males, vBMD decreased gradually with age, while in females, there was a sharp decrease in vBMD after the age of 40 years. At age of 31-40 years, vBMD was higher in females (P < 0.002), while at age > 60 years, vBMD was higher in males (61-70 years, P < 0.01; > 70 years, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found significant age and gender differences in lumbar BMAT and vBMD. These findings will help to improve our understanding of the interaction between bone marrow fat content and bone mineral density in the ageing process.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Medula Óssea , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Sexuais , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Br J Nurs ; 32(Sup1): 1-16, 2023 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645726
14.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 89, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, medical providers are required to report all acute hepatitis C (AHC) patients to National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). Identifying factors associated with AHC may inform the strategies to prevent the spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV). We used the national surveillance data to assess gender difference in risk factors associated with AHC in Taiwan and propose control measures in at-risk groups. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide case-control study using data from NNDSS and AHC case investigation questionnaires, for the period of March 6, 2014-December 31, 2016. Cases were AHC confirmed in NNDSS; controls were reported AHC with negative HCV nucleic acid test and negative serum anti-HCV antibody. We used bivariate analysis to identify characteristics and risk exposures for AHC and conducted gender stratified analyses. RESULTS: We identified 602 AHC cases (66.9% males, median age 48 years) and 90 controls. Older age, male gender (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.18-2.90), history of viral hepatitis (OR: 7.93, 95% CI:1.91-32.88), history of sexually transmitted infections (OR: 21.02, 95% CI: 2.90-152.43), and having healthcare-associated risk exposures (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.25-3.25) were associated with AHC. Stratified analyses showed receiving intravenous infusion, history of hepatitis B, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection were risk factors for male AHC; receiving hemodialysis was risk factor for females. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates risk factors for AHC in Taiwan with gender difference. Proper infection control practices in healthcare settings and interventions targeting male patients with HIV and other STIs, remain crucial to prevent individuals from AHC.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Hepacivirus , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
16.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 10(1): 104-111, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated associations between inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive function in people with dementia or stroke, but little is known regarding these associations in healthy middle-aged and older populations. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine associations between inflammatory biomarkers (both vascular and systemic) and cognitive performance in stroke- and dementia-free middle-aged and older adults without apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE ε4) allele carriers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) 2006. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 983 participants aged 53 years and older. MEASUREMENTS: Composite cognitive function assessment, including the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Overnight venous blood sampling for 6 inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, homocysteine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin) and ApoE genotyping. RESULTS: Among 983 participants (mean age: 65.8±9.5 years), 808 were non-ApoE e4 allele carriers and were stroke- and dementia-free. Higher log fibrinogen was associated with poorer cognitive function after adjustment for potential confounding factors in non-ApoE e4 allele carriers and stroke- and dementia-free populations (unstandardized coefficients ß= -1.553, P value= 0.003). In participants aged 65 years or older, both of elevated fibrinogen and homocysteine were associated with poorer cognitive function (ß= -2.288, P value= 0.015; ß= -1.331, P value= 0.012, respectively). Elevated log CRP was significantly associated with lower cognitive function only in women (ß= -0.514, P value= 0.024). CONCLUSION: Higher serum levels of fibrinogen were negatively associated with cognitive function, which was independent of ApoE genotyping and prior cerebrovascular events in dementia-free community-dwelling older adults. Further studies are needed to validate the roles of fibrinogen in the pathophysiology of dementia and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Cognição , Inflamação , Fatores Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fibrinogênio , Genótipo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
17.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154544, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pinnatifolone A is a typical sesquiterpenoid and the primary active ingredient of Syringa oblata Lindl., has potent anti-inflammatory activity. However, Pinnatifolone A pharmacokinetic and metabolites analysis investigations in male and female rats, as well as its in vitro stability in male and female rat liver microsomes, have not been evaluated and compared. PURPOSE: To investigate preclinical pharmacokinetic and metabolite in both genders, confirm gender differences, and provide usable information for the development of clinical applications. METHODS: A quick, precise, and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was created and effectively used to determine the pharmacokinetics of oral (140 mg/kg) and intravenous (6.3 mg/kg) Pinnatifolone A in male and female rats, in vitro Pinnatifolone A elimination studies in male and female rat liver microsomes. Following that, a UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technique was established to identify the metabolic profiles of Pinnatifolone A obtained from rat plasma and excreta. RESULTS: In the current study, we established for the first time an LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of Pinnatifolone A with acceptable linearity and selectivity, recovery and matrix effect, accuracy and precision. The absolute oral bioavailability of Pinnatifolone A was approximately 30.36% in female rats, the clearance (CL) was 20.99±3.33 l/h/kg in female rats and 472.37±437.31 l/h/kg in male rats. This difference in rat genders may pertain to the sex-specific expression of hepatic enzymes as demonstrated in the metabolic stability evaluation in the present research; the male rats exhibited higher CLint(mic) (158.83±9.57 µl/min/mg protein) than female rats (76.47±7.90 µl/min/mg protein) liver microsomes, indicating higher Pinnatifolone A clearance in male rats. Twenty-four metabolites were detected and identified in female and male rats; N-acetylcysteine conjugation metabolite was the most abundant metabolites in both rat feces and urine. Furthermore, male and female rats had significantly different levels of the N-acetylcysteine conjugation metabolite. Hydrogenation metabolite was particular to female rats both in rat fecal and urine. Glucuronide conjugation metabolite was the predominant metabolite in rat plasma, and its amount in female rats was double that of male rats. CONCLUSIONS: The present research is the first to report the preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolites of Pinnatifolone A in male and female rats, confirming the gender-based differences. The findings provide a comprehensive overview for further understanding of the pharmacokinetic and metabolic characteristics of Pinnatifolone A and serve as a guide for its future development and utilization.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ratos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Administração Oral
18.
J Frailty Aging ; 12(1): 30-36, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the influences of living arrangements on the association between dietary variety and frailty by gender in community-dwelling older people. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nishinomiya city, Hyogo prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4,996 randomly selected community-dwelling older people aged 65 years and older and living in Nishinomiya City. MEASUREMENTS: Survey questionnaires were distributed via mail. The frailty score was evaluated by the 5-item frailty screening index. Dietary variety was assessed using the dietary variety score developed for the general older Japanese population. RESULTS: A total of 2,764 community-dwelling participants aged ≥ 65 years responded to the questionnaires. After excluding missing data, 1,780 participants were included in the study analysis. The frailty scores in older men living alone were significantly higher than those in older men living with someone (P < 0.001). The dietary variety scores in older men living alone were significantly lower than those in older men living with someone (P < 0.001). However, differences in the frailty and dietary variety scores between living alone and living with someone were not were observed in older women (P = 0.360 and P = 0.265, respectively). In the multivariable regression analysis, the associations between dietary variety score and frailty score in living alone (ß= -0. 271, P = 0.011) were stronger than those in living with someone in the case of older men (ß= -0.131, P = 0.045). Similar associations between dietary variety and frailty were presented in older women living alone than in those living with someone (ß -0.114, P = 0.002; ß -0.088, P = 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Older men who live alone had higher frailty score and lower dietary variety. The associations between dietary variety and frailty were different according to living arrangements in both older men and older women.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Alimentar
19.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 8, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both age and gender are the influence factors of hemoglobin concentration. However, the changing trend of hemoglobin levels between males and females with age remains unclear. This study aimed to explore their changing characteristics in different genders. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Physical Examination Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College in Wuhu, China from 2014 to 2016. The generalized linear model was applied to explore the relationship between age, gender and hemoglobin levels. RESULTS: Among the 303,084 participants, the mean age for females and males was 46.9 ± 13.4(15-98) and 48.1 ± 13.7(14-98) years old, respectively. Generalized smoothing splines showed that hemoglobin levels increased up to age 25 and then decreased in men; in women the levels increased up until age 20, and then decreased, with slight increase again (ß = 0.244, P < 0.01). After dividing all participants into hyperglycemia and normal groups, only the normal female group showed a significant upward trend (ß = 0.257, P < 0.01) between ages 50-59. CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin concentration changes with age and the curve is different in males and females. The slightly upward trend of female hemoglobin in the age range of 50-59 years old should be considered in developing the reference range of hemoglobin making.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Fatores Sexuais
20.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0272952, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both men and women with documented gender differences across functional domains, with findings varying among reports. Knowledge regarding gender differences in PD for different geographic locations is important for further understanding of the disease and for developing personalized gender-specific PD assessment tools and therapies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine gender differences in PD-related motor, motor-cognitive, cognitive, and psychosocial function in people with PD from the southern United States (US). METHODS: 199 (127 men and 72 women; M age: 69.08±8.94) individuals with mild-moderate idiopathic PD (Hoehn &Yahr (H&Y) Median = 2, stages I-III) from a large metro area in the southeastern US were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Motor, motor-cognitive, cognitive, and psychosocial data were obtained using standardized and validated clinical tests. Univariate analyses were performed, adjusting for age and housing type. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, housing, PD duration and fall rate, men exhibited statistically significantly greater motor (Movement Disorders Society (MDS)-Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-II) and non-motor (MDS-UPDRS-I) impact of PD, and more severe motor signs (MDS-UPDRS-III). Men exhibited worse PD-specific health-related quality of life related to mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being, cognitive impairment, communication, and more depressive symptoms. Men performed worse on a subtraction working memory task. Women had slower fast gait speed. CONCLUSIONS: In the southeastern United States, men may experience worse PD-related quality of life and more depression than women. Many non-motor and motor variables that are not PD specific show no differences between genders in this cohort. These findings can contribute to the development of gender-sensitive assessment and rehabilitation policies and protocols for people with PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
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