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J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368288


Introdução: Osteogênese Imperfeita (OI) é uma doença genética rara com fragilidade óssea. A classificação inclui muitos tipos. Além do risco de recorrência, o manejo pode variar com o tipo de OI. Relato do caso: Apresentamos um paciente do sexo masculino nascido com 39 semanas, de pais não consanguíneos e saudáveis. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada no pré-natal. Com 50 dias de vida, detectamos muitas fraturas e calos ósseos. O teste molecular identificou uma deleção em homozigose do éxon 4 do gene WNT1. Considerações finais: Concluímos que o caso apresentado tinha características clínicas de OI XV, e o teste molecular foi fundamental para o diagnóstico preciso e aconselhamento genético.

Introduction: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease with bone fragility. The classification includes many types. In addition, the risk of a recurrence, the management can vary with the kind of OI. Case report: We report a male patient born at 39 weeks from non-consanguineous healthy parents. The patient was diagnosed with Hydrocephalus at prenatal. At 50 days of life, we detected many fractures and bone calluses. The molecular test identified a homozygous deletion of exon 4 of the WNT1 gene. Final considerations: We conclude this case had clinical features of OI XV, and the molecular test was fundamental for the precise diagnosis and the genetic counseling.

Osteogênese Imperfeita , Osteogênese , Pacientes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Sexo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Fraturas Ósseas , Aconselhamento Genético , Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Hidrocefalia , Homens
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272134, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917359


The advantage of sex, and its fixation in some clades and species all over the eukaryote tree of life, is considered an evolutionary enigma, especially regarding its assumed two-fold cost. Several likely hypotheses have been proposed such as (1) a better response to the negative frequency-dependent selection imposed by the "Red Queen" hypothesis; (2) the competition between siblings induced by the Tangled Bank hypothesis; (3) the existence of genetic and of (4) ecological factors that can diminish the cost of sex to less than the standard assumed two-fold; and (5) a better maintenance of genetic diversity and its resulting phenotypic variation, providing a selective advantage in randomly fluctuating environments. While these hypotheses have mostly been studied separately, they can also act simultaneously. This was advocated by several studies which presented a pluralist point of view. Only three among the five causes cited above were considered yet in such a framework: the Red Queen hypothesis, the Tangled Bank and the genetic factors lowering the cost of sex. We thus simulated the evolution of a finite mutating population undergoing negative frequency-dependent selection on phenotypes and a two-fold (or less) cost of sexuality, experiencing randomly fluctuating selection along generations. The individuals inherited their reproductive modes, either clonal or sexual. We found that exclusive sexuality begins to fix in populations exposed to environmental variation that exceeds the width of one ecological niche (twice the standard deviation of a Gaussian response to environment). This threshold was lowered by increasing negative frequency-dependent selection and when reducing the two-fold cost of sex. It contributes advocating that the different processes involved in a short-term advantage of sex and recombination can act in combination to favor the fixation of sexual reproduction in populations.

Evolução Biológica , Reprodução , Diversidade Cultural , Ecossistema , Eucariotos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Sexo
Evolution ; 76(9): 1924-1941, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803581


Sex-specific dominance reversals (SSDRs) in fitness-related traits, where heterozygotes' phenotypes resemble those of alternative homozygotes in females versus males, can simultaneously maintain genetic variation in fitness and resolve sexual conflict and thereby shape key evolutionary outcomes. However, the full implications of SSDRs will depend on how they arise and the resulting potential for evolutionary, ecological and environmental modulation. Recent field and laboratory studies have demonstrated SSDRs in threshold(-like) traits with dichotomous or competitive phenotypic outcomes, implying that such traits could promote the emergence of SSDRs. However, such possibilities have not been explicitly examined. I show how phenotypic SSDRs can readily emerge in threshold traits given genetic architectures involving large-effect loci alongside sexual dimorphism in the mean and variance in polygenic liability. I also show how multilocus SSDRs can arise in line-cross experiments, especially given competitive reproductive systems that generate nonlinear fitness outcomes. SSDRs can consequently emerge in threshold(-like) traits as functions of sexual antagonism, sexual dimorphism and reproductive systems, even with purely additive underlying genetic effects. Accordingly, I identify theoretical and empirical advances that are now required to discern the basis and occurrence of SSDRs in nature, probe forms of (co-)evolutionary, ecological and environmental modulation, and evaluate net impacts on sexual conflict.

Evolução Biológica , Sexo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais
J Manipulative Physiol Ther ; 45(1): 90-96, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753886


OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether there were differences in practice characteristics between male and female chiropractors working in South Africa. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from the online survey "The Analysis of the Scope of Chiropractic Practice in South Africa in 2015" was performed, relating to demographic data, work environment, patient data, chief complaint, treatment techniques, and conditions treated. The original survey yielded a 30% response rate (n = 214), of which 212 responses to the question relating to sex, indicated 56.13% (n = 119) male respondents and 43.87% (n = 93) female respondents. Using the X2 test, differences in practice characteristics between male and female chiropractors were compared. RESULTS: Significant differences were noted for South African female chiropractors reporting that they spent more time with patients during initial (P = .028) and subsequent (P = .0001) visits and more time on direct patient care (P = .0001). South African male chiropractors showed significant differences in being in practice for longer (P = .002), treating more patients per week (P = .0001), number of new patients seen per week (P = .0001), and spending more time working in their practice per week. CONCLUSION: We found differences between self-reported male and female chiropractors in their practice characteristics, particularly in the number of patients seen per week and hours worked per week. These factors may need to be considered in the profession as the number of female chiropractors increases.

Escolha da Profissão , Quiroprática , Padrões de Prática Médica , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Âmbito da Prática , Sexo , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
An. psicol ; 38(2): 347-354, may. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202895


La investigación de la Masculinidad y la Feminidad posee una larga trayectoria. A pesar de ello, aún se continúa discutiendo sobre la naturaleza de estos conceptos. En el presente estudio, se presenta el desarrollo de la Escala de Roles de Género de Oviedo (ERGO). Se empleó una muestra de 612 participantes procedentes de la población general española (Maños = 34.2; DTaños = 15.9). Se estudió la dimensionalidad, los índices de discriminación, la fiabilidad y las evidencias de validez divergente y convergente del instrumento. Además, se estudiaron diferencias en rasgos generales (modelo Big Five) y específicos de personalidad en función del sexo, y se realizó un ANCOVA controlando las variables de Masculinidad y Feminidad. Se observó un buen ajuste a una estructura multidimensional de tres factores, con alfas de Cronbach indicando una fiabilidad buena (Socioemocional = .75; Comparación = .81; Agresividad = .77) y adecuadas evidencias de validez. Se observaron diferencias en función del sexo en varios rasgos de personalidad, pero, al controlar la Masculinidad y Feminidad, las diferencias desaparecieron. El ERGO es una prueba válida y fiable para el estudio de los roles de género. Se discute la implicación de una aproximación multidimensional de la Masculinidad y Feminidad.(AU)

The research on Masculinity and Femininity has a long history. Despite this, there is still discussion about the nature of these concepts. In the present study, the development of the Oviedo Gender Roles Scale (GRSO) is presented. A sample of 612 participants belonging to general Spanish population is used (Myears= 34.2; SDyears= 15.9). The dimensionali-ty, discrimination indices, reliability and evidence of convergent and diver-gent validity of the instrument were studied. In addition, differences in general (Big Five model) and specific personality traits based on sex were measured and an ANCOVA was performed controlling the variables of Masculinity and Femininity. A good fit to a three-factor multidimensional structure, with Cronbach’s alphas indicating good reliability (Socioemo-tional = .75; Comparison = .81; Aggressiveness = .77) and adequate evi-dence of validity were observed. Differences based on sex were observed in various personality traits, but when controlling for Masculinity and Fem-ininity, such differences disappeared. ERGO is a reliable and valid test for the study of gender roles. The implication of a multidimensional approach on Masculinity and Femininity is discussed.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ciências da Saúde , Masculinidade , Feminilidade , Identidade de Gênero , Diversidade de Gênero , Sexo , Relações Interpessoais
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 8(2): 239-254, May. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-207470


The motivation developed towards sport plays a key role in the adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, however, it also plays an important role towards digital entertainment. Taking this into account, the present study aims to develop an explanatory model of the incidence of sport motivation on adherence to a healthy dietary pattern and adherence to video games and to contrast the structural model by means of a multi-group analysis according to gender. To this end, a cross-sectional descriptive comparative study was carried out with 1112 participants (25.09±6.22). The instruments used were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Predimed questionnaire, the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2) and the Video Game Related Experiences Questionnaire (CERV). Finally, the results reveal that the female sex obtains a negative relationship between sport motivation and digital leisure, while the male sex reflects a negative relationship between task climate and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. (AU)

La motivación desarrollada hacia el deporte juega un papel clave en la adherencia a un patrón dietético saludable, sin embargo, también juega un papel importante hacia el ocio digital. El presente estudio pretende desarrollar un modelo explicativo de la incidencia de la motivación hacia el deporte en la adherencia a un patrón dietético saludable y la adicción a los videojuegos y contrastar el modelo estructural mediante un análisis multigrupo en función del sexo de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo comparativo transversal con 1112 participantes (25,09±6,22). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un cuestionario sociodemográfico, el cuestionario Predimed, el Cuestionario de Clima Motivacional Percibido en el Deporte (PMCSQ-2) y el Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con los Videojuegos (CERV). Finalmente, los resultados revelan que el sexo femenino obtiene una relación negativa entre la motivación deportiva y el ocio digital, mientras que el sexo masculino refleja una relación negativa entre el clima de tarea y la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Motivação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Atividade Motora , Dieta , Atividades de Lazer , Sexo , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais
Econ Hum Biol ; 46: 101146, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605477


Research on the association between armed conflict and son preference has largely been based on single-country studies, often presenting descriptive patterns. This paper empirically analyzes the association between conflict and son preference using a sample of more than 1.1 million individuals from 58 countries over the period 2003-2018. We empirically show that both the incidence and intensity of conflict exposure are associated with greater son preference. Moreover, conflict-exposed individuals are likely to realise their preference for sons, as reflected in the systematically higher prevalence of sons over daughters among these individuals. To explore the aggregate effects of these findings, we conduct a cross-country analysis of sex ratios and show that history of conflict exposure plays an important role in explaining the cross-country differences in sex ratios.

Países em Desenvolvimento , Características da Família , Humanos , Núcleo Familiar , Sexo , Razão de Masculinidade
J Fish Biol ; 100(6): 1528-1540, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439326


We used restriction-site associated DNA sequencing for SNP discovery and genotyping of known-sex green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus DNA samples to search for sex-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and restriction-site associated sequences present in one sex and absent in the other. The bioinformatic analyses discovered candidate SNPs and sex-specific restriction-site associated sequences that fit patterns of male or female heterogametic sex determination systems. However, when primers were developed and tested, no candidates reliably identified phenotypic sex. The top performing SNP candidate (ZW_218) correlated with phenotypic sex 63.0% of the time and the presence-absence loci universally amplified in both sexes. We recommend further investigations that interrogate a larger fraction of the L. cyanellus genome. Additionally, studies on the effect of temperature and rearing density on sex determination, as well as breeding of sex-reversed individuals, could provide more insights into the sex determination system of L. cyanellus.

Perciformes , Sexo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Genoma , Masculino , Perciformes/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 76-91, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365866


Resumen (analítico) Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres se caracterizan por recibir expresiones de rechazo y estigmatización, ante el ideal heteronormativo de los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, circunstancias que propician la aparición de problemas en el grupo familiar. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo con el objetivo de comparar la funcionalidad familiar desde la perspectiva de los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres frente a los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, con un muestreo no probabilístico por bola de nieve. Los resultados indican mayores porcentajes de disfuncionalidad familiar entre los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, en contraste a la funcionalidad moderada y normo-funcionalidad de los hombres que tienen sexo solo con mujeres, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p=.001). Se recomienda generar mayores evidencias al fondo común del conocimiento, a fin de derribar prejuicios, visibilizar la demanda de cuidado y promover la formulación de estrategias en atención a las necesidades de este grupo vulnerable.

Abstract (analytical) Men who have sex with men are characterized by receiving rejection and stigmatization based on the heteronormative ideal of men who only have sex with women. These circumstances can lead to problems in family groups. A quantitative study was carried out with the objective of comparing the family functionality based on the perspectives of men who have sex with men with men who only have sex with women and using non-probability snowball sampling. The results indicate higher percentages of family dysfunction among men who have sex with men, in contrast to the moderate functionality and normo-functionality of men who only have sex with women, and with statistically significant differences (p=.001). It is recommended to generate more knowledge in this area to challenge prejudices, highlights the need for assistance and to promote the design of assistance strategies that meet the needs of this vulnerable group.

Resumo (analítico) Homens que fazem sexo com homens se caracterizam por receber expressões de rejeição e estigmatização, dado o ideal heteronormativo de homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres, circunstâncias que levam ao surgimento de problemas no grupo familiar. Um estudo quantitativo foi realizado, com o objetivo de comparar a funcionalidade familiar na perspectiva de homens que fazem sexo com homens com homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres, amostragem não probabilística por bola de neve. Os resultados indicam percentuais mais elevados de disfunção familiar entre os homens que fazem sexo com homens, em contraste com a funcionalidade moderada e normofuncionalidade dos homens que fazem sexo apenas com mulheres com diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p=.001). Recomendase gerar mais evidências para o fundo comum de conhecimento, a fim de demolir preconceitos, visibilizar a demanda de cuidados e promover a formulação de estratégias para atender às necessidades desse grupo vulnerável.

Sexo , Mulheres , Família , Homens
Evolution ; 76(6): 1347-1359, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483712


Behavior is central to interactions with the environment and thus has significant consequences for individual fitness. Sexual selection and demographic processes have been shown to independently shape behavioral evolution. Although some studies have tested the simultaneous effects of these forces, no studies have investigated their interplay in behavioral evolution. We applied experimental evolution in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to investigate, for the first time, the interactive effects of sexual selection intensity (high [polygamy] vs. minimal [enforced monogamy]) and metapopulation structure (yes/no) on the evolution of movement activity, a crucial behavior involved in multiples functions (e.g., dispersal, predator avoidance, or resource acquisition) and thus, closely related to fitness. We found that the interactive effects of the selection regimes did not affect individual activity, which was assayed under two different environments (absence vs. presence of conspecific cues from both sexes). However, contrasting selection regimes led to sex- and context-dependent divergence in activity. The relaxation of sexual selection favored an increase in female, but not male, movement activity that was consistent between environmental contexts. In contrast, selection associated with the presence/absence of metapopulation structure led to context-dependent responses only in male activity. In environments containing cues from conspecifics, males from selection lines under population subdivision showed increased levels of activity compared to those assayed in an environment devoid of conspecifics cues, whereas the opposite was true for males from panmictic lines. These results underscore that both the effects of sexual selection and population spatial structure may be crucial in shaping sex-specific behavioral evolution.

Besouros , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Besouros/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Sementes , Seleção Genética , Sexo
Licere (Online) ; 25(1): 248-276, mar.2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1368651


Diante das especificidades de gênero, este trabalho busca identificar o significado do uso recreativo de maconha para as mulheres em momentos de lazer. O estudo é uma pesquisa social desenvolvida por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Foram entrevistadas 8 mulheres, acessadas pelo método 'Bola de Neve'. Resultados: Foram definidas as seguintes categorias de sentidos atribuídos ao uso da maconha pelas mulheres: sociabilidade, relacionamentos afetivos e sexo com uso da maconha; relaxamento e descanso; 'calmante' e medicamento; autoconhecimento, afirmação de identidade e criatividade. De acordo com os achados da pesquisa foi identificado que a maconha se insere no universo feminino como parte constituinte da cultura e da identidade das mulheres usuárias.

In view of gender specificities, this paper discusses the meaning of recreational use of marijuana by women at leisure. The study was a social survey was conducted through semi-structured interviews. Eight women were interviewed, they were accessed using the Snowball sampling method. Results: the data were systematized into categories of meanings attributed to the use of marijuana by women: sociability, affective relationships and sex with marijuana use; relaxation and rest; 'Soothing' and medicine; self-knowledge, identity affirmation and creativity. According to research findings, it was identified that marijuana is inserted in the female universe as a constituent part of the culture and identity of women.

Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Relaxamento , Sexo , Comportamento Social , Mulheres , Cannabis , Cultura , Ego , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer
Popul Stud (Camb) ; 76(2): 309-328, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238714


Almost all research on son preference and the consequent sex differentials in child health has focused on India. Pakistan-a country with the second strongest stated desire for sons, no evidence of sex-selective abortion, and relatively high fertility-offers a different context in which to understand unequal health outcomes for boys and girls. I use three rounds of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey to examine sex differentials in child healthcare receipt across different family contexts. I find evidence of generalized discrimination: all girls, regardless of sibling composition or birth order, are less likely to receive full immunization or medical treatment. I do not find evidence that girls with older sisters face greater discrimination than other girls. For boys, I find some evidence of selective preferential treatment: among larger families, first sons are more likely to receive healthcare than other sons or daughters.

Fertilidade , Núcleo Familiar , Ordem de Nascimento , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Gravidez , Sexo
Physiol Rep ; 10(3): e15179, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150210


Non-contact coded hemodynamic imaging (CHI) is a novel wide-field near-infrared spectroscopy system which monitors blood volume by quantifying attenuation of light passing through the underlying vessels. This study tested the hypothesis that CHI-based jugular venous attenuation (JVA) would be larger in men, and change in JVA would be greater in men compared to women during two fluid shift challenges. The association of JVA with ultrasound-based cross-sectional area (CSA) was also tested. Ten men and 10 women completed three levels of head-down tilt (HDT) and four levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Both JVA and CSA were increased by HDT and reduced by LBNP (all p < 0.001). Main effects of sex indicated that JVA was higher in men than women during both HDT (p = 0.003) and LBNP (p = 0.011). Interaction effects of sex and condition were observed for JVA during HDT (p = 0.005) and LBNP (p < 0.001). We observed moderate repeated-measures correlations (rrm ) between JVA and CSA in women during HDT (rrm  = 0.57, p = 0.011) and in both men (rr m  = 0.74, p < 0.001) and women (rrm  = 0.66, p < 0.001) during LBNP. While median within-person correlation coefficients indicated an even stronger association between JVA and CSA, this association became unreliable for small changes in CSA. As hypothesized, JVA was greater and changed more in men compared to women during both HDT and LBNP. CHI provides a non-contact method of tracking large changes in internal jugular vein blood volume that occur with acute fluid shifts, but data should be interpreted in a sex-dependent manner.

Decúbito Inclinado com Rebaixamento da Cabeça , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Sexo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/fisiologia , Pressão Negativa da Região Corporal Inferior , Masculino , Imagem Óptica/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 543-550, fev 11, 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359315


Introdução: fatores de risco gestacionais podem culminar na prematuridade neonatal, que constitui um grande desafio para a saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo uma das principais causas de mortes neonatais. Objetivo: analisar uma população de prematuros, internados em unidades neonatais em relação ao estado nutricional e à alimentação recebida. Metodologia: delineamento observacional retrospectivo, com 125 recém-nascidos prematuros de uma maternidade pública do Tocantins. Sexo, idade gestacional ao nascer, peso, comprimento e perímetro cefálico ao nascer, durante a internação e na alta, ganho de peso diário, tempo de internação e tipo de dieta recebida foram analisados por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney, Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e t-Student, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon e Friedman, a 5% de significância, no Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Resultados: houve predomínio do sexo masculino na amostra. A prevalência de crianças muito prematuras foi maior na unidade de cuidados convencionais (UcinCo), enquanto a prevalência de crianças com muito baixo peso ao nascer foi maior na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTIN). O tempo de internação foi menor na UcinCo, sendo este menos da metade do tempo de internação na UTIN. O peso à alta e o ganho de peso foram maiores na UTIN. Observou-se declínio do estado nutricional nas duas unidades. A utilização de fórmulas comerciais foi maior na UcinCo, enquanto predominou a oferta de leite humano na UTIN. Conclusão: independentemente do tipo de dieta recebida e da unidade de terapia, as crianças declinaram de estado nutricional durante a internação.

Introduction: gestational risk factors can culminate in neonatal prematurity, which is a major public health challenge worldwide, being one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths. Objective: to analyze a population of preterm infants admitted to neonatal units in relation to nutritional status and the food received. Methodology: retrospective observational design with 125 premature newborns from a public maternity in Tocantins. Gender, gestational age at birth, weight, length and head circumference at birth, during hospitalization and at discharge, daily weight gain, length of stay and type of diet received were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher exact and Student t, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon and Friedman tests, at 5% significance, in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Results: there was a predominance of males in the sample. The prevalence of very premature children was higher in the conventional care unit (CCU), while the prevalence of very low birth weight children was higher in the intensive care unit (ICU). Length of stay was shorter in the CCU, which was less than half of the length of stay in the ICU. Weight at discharge and weight gain were higher in the ICU. There was a decline in nutritional status in both units. The use of commercial formulas was higher in CCU, while the supply of human milk in the ICU predominated. Conclusion: regardless of the type of diet received and the therapy unit, the children declined their nutritional status during hospitalization.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Sexo , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Cefalometria , Idade Gestacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudo Observacional
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(3): H350-H354, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030071


The recent move to require sex as a biological variable (SABV), which includes gender, into the reporting of research published by the American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology follows a growing, and much-needed, trend by journals. Understandably, there is concern over how to do this without adding considerable work, especially if one's primary research focus is not on elucidating sex/gender differences. The purpose of this article is to provide additional guidance and examples on how to incorporate SABV into the conduct and reporting of basic and clinical research. Using examples from our research, which includes both studies focused and not focused on sex/gender differences, we offer suggestions for how to incorporate SABV into basic and clinical research studies.

Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Sexo , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Caracteres Sexuais
PLoS Med ; 19(1): e1003861, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077459


BACKGROUND: Key populations, including sex workers, are at high risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Men who pay for sex can contribute to HIV transmission through sexual relationships with both sex workers and their other partners. To characterize the population of men who pay for sex in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we analyzed population size, HIV prevalence, and use of HIV prevention and treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed random-effects meta-analyses of population-based surveys conducted in SSA from 2000 to 2020 with information on paid sex by men. We extracted population size, lifetime number of sexual partners, condom use, HIV prevalence, HIV testing, antiretroviral (ARV) use, and viral load suppression (VLS) among sexually active men. We pooled by regions and time periods, and assessed time trends using meta-regressions. We included 87 surveys, totaling over 368,000 male respondents (15-54 years old), from 35 countries representing 95% of men in SSA. Eight percent (95% CI 6%-10%; number of surveys [Ns] = 87) of sexually active men reported ever paying for sex. Condom use at last paid sex increased over time and was 68% (95% CI 64%-71%; Ns = 61) in surveys conducted from 2010 onwards. Men who paid for sex had higher HIV prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.50; 95% CI 1.31-1.72; Ns = 52) and were more likely to have ever tested for HIV (PR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.06-1.24; Ns = 81) than men who had not paid for sex. Men living with HIV who paid for sex had similar levels of lifetime HIV testing (PR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.88-1.05; Ns = 18), ARV use (PR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.86-1.18; Ns = 8), and VLS (PR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.86-1.17; Ns = 9) as those living with HIV who did not pay for sex. Study limitations include a reliance on self-report of sensitive behaviors and the small number of surveys with information on ARV use and VLS. CONCLUSIONS: Paying for sex is prevalent, and men who ever paid for sex were 50% more likely to be living with HIV compared to other men in these 35 countries. Further prevention efforts are needed for this vulnerable population, including improved access to HIV testing and condom use initiatives. Men who pay for sex should be recognized as a priority population for HIV prevention.

Infecções por HIV , Densidade Demográfica , Sexo , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Prevalência
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(3): H355-H358, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995165


The number of research studies investigating whether similar or different cardiovascular responses or adaptations exist between males and females is increasing. Traditionally, difference-based statistical methods, e.g., t test, ANOVA, etc., have been implemented to compare cardiovascular function between males and females, with a P value of >0.05 used to denote similarity between sexes. However, an absence of evidence, i.e., large P value, is not evidence of absence, i.e., no sex differences. Equivalence testing determines whether two measures or groups provide statistically equivalent outcomes, in that they differ by less than an "ideally prespecified" smallest effect size of interest. Our perspective discusses the applicability and utility of integrating equivalence testing when conducting sex comparisons in cardiovascular research. An emphasis is placed on how cardiovascular researchers may conduct equivalence testing across multiple study designs, e.g., cross-sectional comparisons, repeated-measures intervention, etc. The strengths and weaknesses of this statistical tool are discussed. Equivalence analyses are relatively simple to conduct, may be used in conjunction with traditional hypothesis testing to interpret findings, and permit the determination of statistically equivalent responses between sexes. We recommend that cardiovascular researchers consider implementing equivalence testing to better our understanding of similar and different cardiovascular processes between sexes.

Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Humanos , Sexo
Agora (Rio J.) ; 25(1): 89-96, jan.-abr. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1383521


RESUMO: Neste artigo, que tem como suporte teórico o conceito de "paixão pelo autômato", analisam-se duas ordens de produções culturais contemporâneas: em uma, desponta o enlace erótico entre humanos e robôs onde antes predominava o tema da guerra; em outra, sobressai a ideia da compatibilidade amorosa a priori entre humanos, a qual poderia ser calculada por meio de algoritmos. A fim de pensar estes aspectos do pathos erótico atual, lançamos mão, por um lado, do conceito de condomínio digital (tendência à formação de bolhas narcísicas) e, por outro, do conceito de ciborgue (tendência à dissolução da cisão moderna homem/máquina).

Abstract: This article, which has as its theoretical basis the concept of passion for the automaton, analyzes two orders of contemporary cultural productions: in one, the erotic bond between humans and robots where the theme of war used to prevail; in another, stands out the idea of a priori love compatibility between humans, which could be calculated by algorithms. In order to think about these aspects of the current erotic pathos, we use, on the one hand, the concept of digital condominium (tendency to narcissistic bubbles formation) and, on the other, the concept of cyborg (tendency to dissolve the modern split man/machine).

Psicanálise , Robótica , Literatura Erótica , Sexo
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(1): 6-14, Ene.-Feb. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203736


Antecedentes y objetivo: La arquitectura muscular varía considerablemente de unas personas a otras, ya que se ve condicionada por diferentes causas como el sexo, la edad, la actividad física, etc. El objetivo general de este estudio es describir y comparar las características de la arquitectura muscular del gemelo medial y el vasto lateral del cuádriceps en una muestra de sujetos clasificados por sexo y edad. Material y métodos: Es un estudio observacional, analítico y transversal. Se seleccionaron un total de 30 sujetos sanos; 15 personas menores de 40 años y otras 15 personas mayores de 40 años. A su vez, se dividió en hombres y mujeres, representando el 50% en cada uno de los grupos. Realizaron una única sesión para cumplimentar una hoja de registro y registrar las imágenes ecográficas y las mediciones de fuerza y longitud de salto horizontal. Resultados: El grosor muscular es la variable que muestra más diferencias significativas, tanto entre hombres y mujeres como entre edades, con una media de 2,59cm de grosor del vasto externo durante la contracción en hombres, frente a 1,97cm en las mujeres. Además, se correlaciona con las 3 variables funcionales analizadas: fuerza muscular, longitud de salto y actividad física semanal. Conclusiones: La fuerza de ambos músculos estudiados se encuentra relacionada con su grosor muscular. La variable arquitectónica que más se modifica según el sexo es el grosor muscular, y según la edad, el ángulo de peneación. La fiabilidad del estudio es excelente, lo que permite una buena reproducibilidad.

Background and objective: Muscle architecture varies considerably from one person to another, because it is conditioned by different causes such as gender, age, muscular function, physical activity, etc. In addition, architectural variables are related to muscle strength. The aim of this study is to describe and compare characteristics of muscular architecture of medial gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis of quadriceps in a sample of participants classified by gender and age. Material and methods: This is an observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study. A total of 30 healthy subjects were recruited, consisting of 15 people under 40 and another 15 people over 40 years. They were divided into men and women, representing 50% in each of the groups. They attended a single session to complete a fact sheet and carry out ultrasound images, muscle strength and horizontal jump length measurements. Results: Muscular thickness is the variable that shows the most significant differences, both between men and women and between ages, with an average of 2.59cm for men during contraction of the vastus lateralis and 1.97cm for women. It also correlates with the 3 physical variables analysed: muscle strength, jump length and weekly physical activity. Conclusions: Strength of 2 muscles studied is related to their muscular thickness. The most modified architectural variable according to sex is muscular thickness, and the pennation angle when we compare according to age. The reliability of the study is excellent, and therefore it allows for good reproducibility.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sexo , Ultrassonografia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Gênero