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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113931, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731950

RESUMO

"Cruising" is a concept which designates a practice of social interaction that consists of anonymous sexual encounters, mostly among homosexuals, in open and/or closed public spaces. Coastal dunes and beaches are examples of open public spaces where these sexual practices are widely carried out, to the extent that the so-called "Four S's" (Sand, Sun, Sea and Sex) have even been defined in the literature. Abundant studies have addressed the topic of relationships between tourism and sex, but few have analyzed the consequences of these practices on the natural environment, especially when the spaces where these activities take place are protected areas. In this work, the spatial distribution and the environmental impacts of cruising in a protected coastal dune system are characterized and assessed. There is no intention to criticize the actions of some of the LGBTI community. The sex spots (places for sexual encounters) were located and inventoried by fieldwork. The dimensions or internal distribution, as well as the sexual use, geographical position, vegetation cover and attributes, and environmental impacts or lack of management actions were examined and collated in a geographic information system (GIS). The results show that the distribution of the 298 identified sex spots, which occupy an area of 5763.85 m2, is related to the distance to authorized paths in the protected area, to the presence of bushy and dense vegetation, and to stabilized aeolian landforms or ones formed by vegetation (nebkhas). The bigger the sex spot, the higher the number of people who made use of it, the greater the likelihood of it being a low-lying area covered by vegetation, and the larger the amount of waste. The activities developed in these sex spots impact directly on the aeolian landforms and on eight native plant species, three of which are endemic species.


Assuntos
Praias , Ecossistema , Comportamento Sexual , Meio Ambiente , Geografia , Humanos , Plantas
2.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-11, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341800

RESUMO

Diferentes configurações familiares têm surgido na contemporaneidade em decorrência de avanços sociais. Entre as parentalidades emergentes, a homoparentalidade é a que mais se distancia do ideal social, já que evidencia a orientação sexual dos pais e mobiliza fantasias de que ela interfira no exercício parental e no desenvolvimento de seus filhos. Por esta razão, investigamos a experiência emocional de casais homoafetivos em relação ao preconceito vivenciado no exercício da parentalidade. Para isso, adotamos uma abordagem qualitativa psicanalítica e entrevistamos seis casais homoafetivos, fazendo uso de uma Narrativa Interativa, dado seu potencial de acesso lúdico e protegido à experiência emocional dos participantes. A análise interpretativa do material narrativo resultou em campos de sentidos afetivo-emocionais dos quais o campo "Que família é essa?" emerge como emblemático do preconceito sofrido pela família homoparental em decorrência de uma visão patriarcal e heteronormativa da sociedade. Embora os casais homoafetivos reproduzam em certa medida o padrão familiar heterossexual, seu modo de exercer a parentalidade aponta para alternativas criativas e levanta novos questionamentos.


Different family configurations have emerged in contemporary times due to social advancements. Among the emergent parenting, homoparenting is the one that distances itself from the social ideal the most, as it evidences the parents' sexual orientation and mobilizes fantasies that it interferes with the parenting exercise and their children's development. For this reason, we investigate the emotional experience of homoaffective couples regarding the prejudice experienced in parenting exercise. For this, we adopted a qualitative psychoanalytic approach, and we interviewed six homoaffective couples, making use of an Interactive Narrative, given its potential for ludic and protected access to the emotional experience of the participants. The interpretive analysis of the narrative material has resulted in fields of affective-emotional meaning, from which the "What family is this?" field emerges as emblematic of the prejudice suffered by the homoparental family as a result of a patriarchal and heteronormative view from society. Although homoaffective couples to some extent reproduce the heterosexual family pattern, their way of parenting exercise point out to creative alternatives and raise new questions.


Diferentes configuraciones familiares han surgido en los tiempos contemporáneos como resultado de avances sociales. Entre las paternidades emergentes, la homoparentalidad es la más alejada del ideal social, ya que destaca la orientación sexual de los padres y moviliza fantasías de ella interfiriendo en el ejercicio parental y en el desarrollo de sus hijos. Por esta razón, investigamos la experiencia emocional de parejas homoafetivas en relación al prejuicio experimentado en el ejercicio de la parentalidad. Para esto, adoptamos un enfoque psicoanalítico cualitativo y entrevistamos a seis parejas homoafetivas, haciendo uso de una Narrativa Interactiva, dado su potencial para el acceso lúdico y protegido a la experiencia emocional de los participantes. El análisis interpretativo del material narrativo ha dado como resultado campos de significados afectivo-emocionales de los cuales el campo "¿Que familia es esta?" emerge como un emblema del prejuicio sufrido por la familia homoparental como resultado de una visión patriarcal y heteronormativa de la sociedad. Aunque las parejas homoafetivas reproducen hasta cierto punto el patrón familiar heterosexual, su modo de ejercer la parentalidad apunta a alternativas creativas y plantean nuevas preguntas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Comportamento Sexual , Homossexualidade , Características da Família , Poder Familiar , Heterossexualidade , Narrativa Pessoal , Identidade de Gênero
3.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 70(7): 1-20, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735419

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major cause of morbidity in the United States, with an estimated $15.9 billion in lifetime direct medical costs. Although the majority of STDs are diagnosed in the private sector, publicly funded STD clinics have an important role in providing comprehensive sexual health care services, including STD and HIV screening, for a broad range of patients. In certain cases, STD clinics often are the only source of sexual health care for patients, particularly among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). PERIOD COVERED: 2010-2018. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM: The STD Surveillance Network (SSuN) is an ongoing sentinel surveillance system for monitoring clinical information among patients attending STD clinics. SSuN is a collaboration of competitively selected state and city health departments that conduct facility-based sentinel surveillance in STD clinics. Information routinely collected through the course of patient encounters is obtained for all patients seeking care in the participating STD clinics. This information includes demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics (e.g., STD and HIV tests performed and STD and HIV diagnoses). This report presents 2010-2018 SSuN data from 14 STD clinics in five cities (Baltimore, Maryland; New York City, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Francisco, California; and Seattle, Washington) to describe the patient populations seeking care in these STD clinics. Estimated numbers and percentages of patients receiving selected STD-related health services were calculated for each year by using an inverse variance weighted random-effects model, adjusting for heterogeneity among SSuN jurisdictions. Trends in receipt of selected STD-related health services were examined and included HIV screening after an acute STD diagnosis among persons not previously known to have HIV infection, annual chlamydia screening among adolescent and young females, and extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea screening among MSM. RESULTS: During 2010-2018, the total number of annual visits made in the 14 participating STD clinics decreased 29.8% (from 145,728 to 102,275 visits), and the total number of unique patients examined in the clinics decreased 35.1% (from 94,281 to 61,172 patients). Decreases in the number of unique patients occurred both among men who have sex with women only (42.4%; from 37,842 in 2010 to 21,781 in 2018) and among females (51.4%; from 36,485 in 2010 to 17,721 in 2018). The decreases in the number of female patients were observed across all age groups, although they were more pronounced among females aged ≤24 years (66.4%; from 17,721 in 2010 to 5,962 in 2018). In contrast, the number of patients identified as MSM increased 44.0% (from 12,859 in 2010 to 18,512 in 2018), with the greatest increase among MSM aged ≥25 years (58.6%; from 9,918 in 2010 to 15,733 in 2018). Among visits during which an acute STD (defined as chlamydia, gonorrhea, or primary or secondary syphilis) was diagnosed, the percentage of visits during which an HIV test was performed within approximately 14 days of the STD diagnosis increased from 58.2% in 2010 to 70.2% in 2018. Among those patients tested, 1,672 HIV infections were identified, of which 84.0% were among MSM. Among females aged 15-24 years, the percentage screened for chlamydia in any calendar year increased from 88.6% in 2010 to 90.6% in 2018. However, because fewer females aged 15-24 years attended these clinics during the study period, the crude number of adolescent and young females tested for chlamydia decreased from 14,249 in 2010 to 4,507 in 2018. During 2010-2018, the percentage of females retested after their first positive chlamydia diagnosis during the same year ranged from 11.4% to 13.3%. During 2010-2018, the percentage of MSM tested for rectal chlamydia and rectal gonorrhea increased (from 54.7% to 57.8% and from 55.0% to 58.4%, respectively). During the same period, increases were noted in the percentage of MSM with diagnosed rectal chlamydia (from 15.5% in 2010 to 17.7% in 2018) and rectal gonorrhea (from 13.3% in 2010 to 17.1% in 2018). In contrast with pharyngeal chlamydia, pharyngeal gonorrhea screening was more common (from 69.5% in 2010 to 74.6% in 2018), and the percentage positive doubled during the study period (from 7.3% in 2010 to 14.8% in 2018). Pharyngeal chlamydia testing also increased (from 50.3% in 2010 to 72.9% in 2018), with concurrent decreases in positivity (from 4.2% in 2010 to 2.6% in 2018). INTERPRETATION: During 2010-2018, changes occurred in the demographic composition of patients attending STD clinics participating in SSuN. Understanding trends in the demographic profile of STD patients and services provided can help identify addressable gaps in STD control efforts and direct public health action. Overall, fewer females, especially those aged 15-24 years, accessed care in these STD clinics during the study period. Untreated STDs among adolescent and young females can have serious consequences, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Additional efforts to monitor where adolescent and young females seek care and to ensure they are receiving quality STD-related health services are needed, especially considering increases in reported cases of STDs among females. Increases in the number of MSM attending STD clinics present a unique opportunity to reach this population with STD and HIV prevention services. Although a large percentage of STD cases are diagnosed outside of STD clinics, publicly funded STD clinics are an important safety-net provider of STD-related health services and provide vital STD-related health services for patient populations at risk for the consequences of STDs and HIV infection. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: STD-related health services represent effective strategies for preventing STD and HIV transmission and acquisition or STD-related sequelae. Ensuring that all persons receive quality HIV and STD prevention and treatment services is vital for an effective public health approach to reducing STDs. STD clinics provide crucial safety-net services for preventing STD-related morbidity, including timely identification and treatment of curable STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Increases in the numbers of MSM attending STD clinics participating in SSuN provide additional opportunities for linking patients to high-impact HIV preventive services (e.g., pre-exposure prophylaxis), and the clinics are positioned to facilitate initiation or resumption of treatment among persons living with HIV.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769583

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the physical and mental health of many and has necessitated widespread societal shifts, including changes to work and family activities. These changes have impacted individuals' identity, including their sexual self-image and body image, yet research on perceptions of these changes is missing. This study reports on quantitative and qualitative data from an electronic survey with adults in the United States (N = 326) to examine these perceptions. Body appreciation did not significantly differ between demographic groups. Themes emerging from the qualitative results included changes in general self-image (becoming more restricted or disempowered), changes in sexual self-image (deepening, becoming more sexy/sexual, or less sexy/sexual), and changes in body image (positive, negative, and neutral). Our findings point to positive, negative, and neutral effects on sexual self-image and body image, implying that nuanced approaches are needed to understand how identity has transformed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos
5.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e10, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, most young women have an unmet need for sexual and reproductive health (SRH), which remains a public health concern. Identifying the predictors can help reduce this challenge. AIM: This scoping review maps evidence on predictors of adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes among young women in South Africa. METHOD: Askey and O'Malley's framework guided this review. We searched five databases from January 2000 to December 2020 using relevant keywords, Boolean terms and medical subject heading terms. All relevant extracted data were organised into the study themes, and summary of all the findings were reported in a narrative format. RESULTS: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria out of 1219 studies identified. Four out of the nine studies were national-based studies, while the remaining five studies were conducted in Western Cape (two), Eastern Cape (two) and KwaZulu-Natal (one). Out of the nine studies included, three reported predictors of unintended pregnancy, while six reported predictors of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among young women in South Africa. The most prevailing predictors of adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes were gender-based violence and alcohol use, while other predictors were lower socio-economic status, place of residence, multiple sexual partnerships, low education and being between the ages of 20-24 years. CONCLUSION: We conclude that gender-based violence and alcohol abuse are the most prevailing predictors of adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes among young women in South Africa.


Assuntos
Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769809

RESUMO

We explored gender differences in sexual behavior, and their relevance to mental health among high school students in South Korea. This study was based on data from the 14th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2018). The subjects were 2460 high school students who reported sexual experiences. Student's t-test, ANOVA, and Rao-Scott chi-squared test were performed to identify the significance of the differences. Boys had earlier sexual debuts (Rao-Scott χ2 = 53.55, p < 0.001), a lower frequency of using contraceptives (Rao-Scott χ2 = 26.57, p < 0.001), and lower rates of sex education in school (Rao-Scott χ2 = 11.20, p = 0.004). With respect to mental health factors, there was a difference in suicidality according to sexual risk behaviors, with a stronger association found in boys. In girls, there was an association between pregnancy experiences and suicidal ideation (Rao-Scott χ2 = 9.90, p = 0.003), plans (Rao-Scott χ2 = 17.25, p < 0.001), and attempts (Rao-Scott χ2 = 23.11, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest differences by gender and age group in the association between sexual behavior and mental health. It is necessary to devise a sex education strategy for adolescents considering gender and early versus late adolescent development period.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Ideação Suicida
7.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(10): 765-774, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate depression and sexual function among pregnant and non-pregnant women throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 188 women, 96 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant were included. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) were applied to the participants after obtaining sociodemographic data. RESULTS: The depression scores of pregnant and non-pregnant women were similar (p = 0.846). We found that the depression scores were significantly higher among the group of participants who have lower economic status (p = 0.046). Moreover, the depression score was significantly higher among women who lost their income during the pandemic (p = 0.027). The score on the ASEX was significantly higher, and sexual dysfunction was more prevalent among women who have lower levels of schooling and income (p < 0.05). Likewise, the ASEX scores were significantly higher (p = 0.019) among the group who experienced greater income loss throughout the pandemic. Upon comparing the pregnant and non-pregnant groups, we detected that sexual dysfunction had a significantly higher rate among pregnant women (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In times of global crisis, such as the current pandemic, low-income families have an increased risk of experiencing depression and sexual dysfunction. When we compared pregnant women with non-pregnant women, depression scores were similar, but pregnant women were at a 6.2 times higher risk of developing sexual dysfunction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gestantes/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Econômicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Turquia/epidemiologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 38, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795819

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common neoplastic disease in women. Several treatment strategies are used: chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery and hormone therapy. Each of these treatments may affect sexual health of patients in the short or long term. The purpose of our study is to assess the quality of sexual life in women after breast cancer treatment. We made a quantitative descriptive estimate of 100 sexual active patients followed up for non-metastatic breast cancer, met during their consultations with a gynaecologist at the Farhat Hached hospital in Sousse. Data collection was carried out using an information sheet and two validated scales: RSS (relation Ship and sexual) and BESAA (Body EsteemScale for adolescents and Adults) to assess the quality of sexual life and body image. The average age of patients was 53.8 years. About half of patients (48%) had impaired sexuality due to the disease. The frequency of intercourse, sexual desire and the ability to reach orgasm were decreased in 65. 45, and 54 patients, respectively. The overall score for the three body image dimensions was 49.4. Women aged between 35 and 39 years were significantly more afraid of sexual intercourse (p=0.002) and less of sexual frequency (p=0.004). Adequate and enhanced training focused on the management of women with cancer and their sexual problems and multidisciplinary approach can improve women's psychological status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Coito/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orgasmo , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexualidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 64, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804332

RESUMO

Introduction: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the transmission of HIV from a mother to the child during pregnancy, labour and breastfeeding. People living with HIV (PLHIV) are sexually active and also HIV can be transmitted while trying to achieve pregnancy involving unprotected hetero-sexual intercourse. Fertility desire among PLHIV is increasing due to improved quality of life and survival following commencement of anti-retroviral treatment and available reproductive health services. The objective of the study was to determine the association between knowledge on MTCT of HIV and sexuality and fertility desire. Methods: this study was descriptive cross-sectional applying systematic sampling technique among PLHIV using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Chi square test was used for statistical analysis. At 95% confidence interval a P-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: a total of 168 PLHIV were studied, 63.3% females and 36.7% males. Majority (81.5%) of the respondents were sexually active and 64.1% had fertility desire. On awareness of MTCT 62.5% had heard of MTCT but only 28.2% had good knowledge. No association was found between knowledge of MTCT and sexuality and fertility desire respectively. Conclusion: PLHIV had high awareness but poor knowledge on MTCT of HIV, hence the need for healthcare workers to provide sexual and reproductive health counselling including information on MTCT to both male and female PLHIV during routine clinic visits.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Br J Nurs ; 30(21): 1258-1259, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839680

RESUMO

Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, discusses the implications of a Court of Appeal decision that considers the scope of the Sexual Offences Act 2003, section 39, in relation to care workers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Competência Mental , Comportamento Sexual , Reino Unido , Universidades
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(47): 1629-1634, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818314

RESUMO

Adolescent girls and young women aged 13-24 years are disproportionately affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (1), resulting from biologic, behavioral, and structural* factors, including violence. Girls in sub-Saharan Africa also experience sexual violence at higher rates than do boys (2), and women who experience intimate partner violence have 1.3-2.0 times the odds of acquiring HIV infection, compared with those who do not (3). Violence Against Children and Youth Survey (VACS) data during 2007-2018 from nine countries funded by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were analyzed to estimate prevalence and assess factors associated with early sexual debut and forced sexual initiation.† Among adolescent girls and young women aged 13-24 years who ever had sex, the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence ranged from 12.5% to 49.3%, and forced sexual initiation ranged from 14.7% to 38.9%; early sexual debut among adolescent girls and young women aged 16-24 years ranged from 14.4% to 40.1%. In multiple logistic regression models, forced sexual initiation was associated with being unmarried, violence victimization, risky sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and poor mental health. Early sexual debut was associated with lower education, marriage, ever witnessing parental intimate partner violence during childhood, risky sexual behaviors, poor mental health, and less HIV testing. Comprehensive violence and HIV prevention programming is needed to delay sexual debut and protect adolescent girls and young women from forced sex.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 and their mitigation measures can exacerbate underlying gender disparities, particularly among adolescents and young adults in densely populated urban settings. METHODS: An existing cohort of youth ages 16-26 in Nairobi, Kenya completed a phone-based survey in August-October 2020 (n = 1217), supplemented by virtual focus group discussions and interviews with youth and stakeholders, to examine economic, health, social, and safety experiences during COVID-19, and gender disparities therein. RESULTS: COVID-19 risk perception was high with a gender differential favoring young women (95.5% vs. 84.2%; p<0.001); youth described mixed concern and challenges to prevention. During COVID-19, gender symmetry was observed in constrained access to contraception among contraceptive users (40.4% men; 34.6% women) and depressive symptoms (21.8% men; 24.3% women). Gender disparities rendered young women disproportionately unable to meet basic economic needs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.21; p<0.05) and in need of healthcare during the pandemic (aOR = 1.59; p<0.001). At a bivariate level, women had lower full decisional control to leave the house (40.0% vs. 53.2%) and less consistent access to safe, private internet (26.1% vs. 40.2%), while men disproportionately experienced police interactions (60.1%, 55.2% of which included extortion). Gender-specific concerns for women included menstrual hygiene access challenges (52.0%), increased reliance on transactional partnerships, and gender-based violence, with 17.3% reporting past-year partner violence and 3.0% non-partner sexual violence. Qualitative results contextualize the mental health impact of economic disruption and isolation, and, among young women, privacy constraints. IMPLICATIONS: Youth and young adults face gendered impacts of COVID-19, reflecting both underlying disparities and the pandemic's economic and social shock. Economic, health and technology-based supports must ensure equitable access for young women. Gender-responsive recovery efforts are necessary and must address the unique needs of youth.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Menstruação/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(10): 856-868, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807660

RESUMO

Objective: Questionnaire studies show people with minoritized sexual orientations (MSOs) face increased risk for conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study replicated Harrington et al.'s (2019) electronic health record probabilistic algorithm to evaluate lifetime PTSD prevalence in Veterans Health Administration (VHA)-using veterans. Method: In 115,853 MSO veterans and a 1:3 matched (on sex assigned at birth, and age at and year of first VHA visit) sample of non-MSO veterans. Each veteran was given a probability of "likely PTSD" (0.0-1.0) and thresholds (e.g., 0.7) applied to minimize false positive classifications. Results: Veterans with MSO were 2.35 times, CI [2.33, 2.38], more likely to have "likely PTSD" than veterans with non-MSO. The prevalence of "likely PTSD" using the rule-based International Classification of Diseases (ICD) approach was 40.8% among the MSO group compared to 22.0% among the non-MSO group after excluding those with bipolar or schizophrenia diagnoses and those with limited VHA engagement. Without those exclusions, prevalence was slightly higher in both groups (46.1% vs. 24.3%, respectively; prevalence ratio: 1.90). Despite increased prevalence of exposure to military sexual trauma (MST; MSO = 20.7%; non-MSO = 8.3%) and double "likely PTSD" among MSO veterans, they were less likely to have a service-connected PTSD disability than their matched non-MSO (MSO = 78.1%; non-MSO = 87.6%) comparators. Conclusions: VHA-using veterans with MSO were twice as likely to have "likely PTSD" and exposure to MST than veterans with non-MSO. Veterans with MSO were less likely to be service connected for PTSD than non-MSO counterparts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
14.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(4): 710-713, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809778

RESUMO

Restrictive measures to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might produce different effects on other infective diseases, especially those affecting the most intimate sphere of sexuality. The epidemiology of syphilis could reflect the consequences of whether people are avoiding or not risky behaviors. To understand the course of syphilis during the COVID-19 outbreak, we performed a retrospective observational study of all new diagnoses observed at the STDs Service of the Dermatology Clinic at Cagliari, part of the Italian sentinel surveillance system. All incident cases diagnosed during the first 6 months of each year, from 2016 to 2020, thus including the recent lockdown period, were retrieved from the database. Of the 87 cases studied, 18 occurred during the first 6 months of 2020, almost all patients (88%) presenting with early phases of the disease and reporting unprotected sexual intercourses in spite of community containment and social distancing. Comparison with the previous 4 years found no significant statistical differences that hospital access and management limitations had not impaired the management of patients with syphilis. We alert the medical community of the possible increase of sexually transmitted diseases, as society returns to normal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sífilis , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1482-1486, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814571

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the proportion of MSM among males over 15 years old and analyze its related factors to provide a reference for estimation of MSM size. Methods: Using cross-sectional survey design, multi-stage sampling method, and street interception survey method, a survey was conducted on males over 15 years old in Kunming from October to December 2019, with an estimated sample size of 9 908. Results: Totally, 10 707 males were recruited from 30 sites in 5 counties, and 10 283 were effectively surveyed with a response rate of 96.0%. Respondents aged 16 to 40 accounted for 75.3% (7 748), senior high school or above 71.1% (7 312), and unmarried 49.8% (5 121). The proportion of homosexual behavior in the past half-year was 1.06% (95%CI: 0.86%-1.26%), and the age-adjusted rate was 0.97% (95%CI: 0.78%-1.16%). And multivariate logistic regression showed the associated factors for homosexual behavior as following: proportion of main urban area was 2.217 times (95%CI:1.004-4.895) that of the outer suburbs, registered residence outside Kunming was 0.421 times (95%CI:0.260-0.682) that of in Kunming, having been in Kunming ≤6 months was 2.282 times (95%CI:1.262-4.126) that of >6 months, senior middle school or above was 0.336 times (95%CI:0.228-0.495) that of junior middle school and below, and being married was 0.462 times (95%CI:0.303-0.705) that of unmarried. Conclusions: The proportion of over 15-year-old males who have recently practiced male-male behavior was close to 1.00% in Kunming. The relevant factors included survey areas with a permanent residency of Kumming, short-time residency, education level, and marital status. This study obtained the data and related factors, which provided a reference for estimating MSM size in Yunnan province.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(9): 1601-1606, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814590

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and transmission routes of newly reported HIV/AIDS cases with non-martial and non-commercial (NMNC) heterosexual behaviors in Zhejiang province. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted among HIV/AIDS cases that had NMNC heterosexual behavior history and diagnosed with HIV infection in Zhejiang between January 1st, 2017 and September 30th, 2019. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to explore the association of social demographic characteristics with NMNC heterosexual partner types in the cases. Results: A total of 406 participants with NMNC heterosexual behaviors before HIV diagnoses were recruited in this study. Most of them were males (67.2%, 273/406), aged 25-49 years at HIV diagnoses (59.1%, 240/406). Prior to HIV infection confirmation, 36.0% (146/406) participants only had casual sexual partners, 52.0% (211/406) only had regular sexual partners, and 12.0% (49/406) had both. Statistical differences in marital status, occupation and income level were found among participants with different types of NMNC heterosexual partners (all P<0.05). Result of MCA indicted that monthly income ≤3 000 yuan RMB, self-employed, being married were only associated with casual NMNC heterosexual partner; working in service industry, education level of junior high school were only associated with regular heterosexual partner; working in enterprise, high school education level or above, monthly income ≥5 000 yuan RMB were associated with both casual and regular sexual partner. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS cases with NMNC heterosexual behaviors before HIV diagnoses accounted for a large proportion in Zhejiang province during 2017-2019. Active intervention efforts should be made to improve the health awareness of the public to reduce the risk behaviors for HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1850-1854, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814623

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the social support, social network, and sexual behavior characteristics of foreigners living in Guangzhou, analyze factors relating to aspects of online social interactions and sexual behaviors of foreigners in Guangzhou, and provide references for targeted HIV intervention services for foreigners. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (both online and offline), among those who met the inclusion criteria was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020. Data were collected on demographics, social support, online social interactions, sexual behaviors, and so on. Statistics were compiled to analyze the factors that may influence casual sexual behaviors. Results: A total of 434 participants were included in the study (241 offline and 193 online). The majority of the participants were male 68.4% (297/434), age (31.0±8.8) years old, African 79.0% (343/434), business people 46.5% (202/434), students 48.2% (209/434), who have business partners and family members in China were 59.4% (258/434) and 28.1% (122/434) separately. They also had the following features: less than 10 close friends 57.1% (248/434); spend 1-3 hours on social applications per day 43.3% (188/434), had casual sexual behaviors in the last 3 months 15.2% (55/363). Multiple logistic regression model analysis showed that compared with those who used social applications for less than 1 hour per day, participants who used social applications for more than 6 hours per day were more likely to have casual sexual behaviors in the last 3 months (OR=3.63, 95%CI: 1.31-10.08). Conclusions: Participants who used social applications for a longer period every day were more likely to have casual sexual behaviors among foreigners in Guangzhou. Good use of social applications for health promotion and education of HIV can increase the health awareness of foreigners in China.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Interação Social , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate prevalence of use and knowledge about emergency contraception (EC) among female university students from two higher education institutions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 1,740 undergraduates in the city of Santa Maria (RS), from May to October 2017. Information was collected in a semi-structured and self-administered 24-question questionnaire. The investigated variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and knowledge of EC. Logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analysis, considering variables that presented p < 0.05. The model was adjusted using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: The prevalence of EC use among undergraduates was 52.9%. However, only 11.9% of respondents received guidance on EC, especially on how to use it. Only 0.2% of the participants marked 120 hours as the maximum time of use, and 25.7% considered the EC to be abortive. EC use was associated with the age of first sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: EC use had a high prevalence among female university students, however, several gaps in method knowledge still exists and it demonstrates the importance of discussing this issue earlier and planning actions of an informative nature.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção Pós-Coito , Brasil/epidemiologia , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(11): 1912-1917, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818833

RESUMO

In recent years, the annual number of newly reported HIV/AIDS cases in young students remained to be 3 000 approximately, which has arisen a serious social concern. This paper focuses on the analysis on the epidemic characteristics of AIDS in young students in China and the weak points in preventive health education, and puts forward some thoughts on promoting the preventive health education in schools and introduces a WeChat applet for sexual health and HIV infection risk assessment in young students, which is called "Detective Bear" and developed based on self-categorization theory in Guangzhou to help young students to be aware of their own risks and specific problems and provide individualized intervention for the better implementation of AIDS prevention health education in schools in China in the new era.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(11): 1923-1929, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818835

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the difference of sexual health characteristics and demands in students in different groups, and provide the basis for targeted sexual health eduction for AIDS prevention in young students. Methods: A survey was conducted based on the requirement of health education about sexual health and AIDS prevention in young students by the education department of Guangdong province. A two-step cluster analysis was performed on the survey data obtained by convenient sampling, the variables and number of clusters included were determined by combination of analysis results and professional knowledge. The demographic characteristics, the content and form of sexual health education needed were compared among different groups. Results: Survey data of 3 884 students were collected, and six variables were used for classification: cognition or occurrence masturbation, sexual behavior, frequency of sexual information acquisition, number of acceptable sex partners and AIDS knowledge awareness rate. By these variables, the students were classified into three levels of risk groups: high risk group (46.6%), medium risk group (39.9%) and low risk group (13.5%). As for demographic characteristics, high risk group, with a median age of 19 years, had the highest proportions of boys (65.9%), students with non-heterosexuality orientation (15.2%), urban residents (58.2%), only children (30.8%) and undergraduates (54.7%). Medium risk group, with a median age of 19 years, had the highest proportions of girls (82.7%) and vocational college students (34.0%). Low risk group, with a median age of 18 years, had the highest proportions of rural residents (52.4%), non-only child (80.6%), senior high school students (41.3%), non-boarding students (17.5%) and students without internship and part-time job experience (43.2%). In terms of health education demands, high risk group had a higher demand of information about self-identity, sexual safety, sexual decision making, contraception, abortion, and sexually transmitted disease or AIDS prevention. Medium risk group paid more attention to value on love and marriage, sexual assault. Low risk group showed a higher demand of adolescent physiology knowledge. Compared with low risk group, high risk group had a higher demand of peer education, Internet/multimedia, anonymous counseling and other forms of sexual health education. The differences were significant. Conclusion: The characteristics, sexual knowledge awareness, attitude and behavior, and health education demands of young students in different groups are different, so health education materials and methods should be developed according to the characteristics of different groups to enhance the acceptance and enthusiasm of students and improve the quality of sexual health education.


Assuntos
Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
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