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1.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858877

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) is an immunosuppressive adenovirus that causes an acute clinical disease characterized by hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in 4-week-old turkeys and older. Recurrent incidence of secondary infections (e.g., systemic bacterial infections, cellulitis, and elevated mortality), may be associated with the presence of field-type HEV in Canadian turkey farms. We speculate that field-type HEV and vaccine/vaccine-like strains can be differentiated through analysis of the viral genomes, hexon genes, and the specific virulence factors (e.g., ORF1, E3, and fib knob domain). Nine out of sixteen spleens obtained from cases suspected of immunosuppression by HEV were analyzed. The limited data obtained showed that: (1) field-type HEV circulates in many non-vaccinated western Canadian flocks; (2) field-type HEV circulates in vaccinated flocks with increased recurrent bacterial infections; and (3) the existence of novel point mutations in hexon, ORF1, E3, and specially fib knob domains. This is the first publication showing the circulation of wild-type HEV in HEV-vaccinated flocks in Western Canada, and the usefulness of a novel procedure that allows whole genome sequencing of HEV directly from spleens, without passaging in cell culture or passaging in vivo. Further studies focusing more samples are required to confirm our observations and investigate possible vaccination failure.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Siadenovirus/genética , Perus/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Proteínas E3 de Adenovirus/química , Proteínas E3 de Adenovirus/genética , Vacinas contra Adenovirus/imunologia , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Genes Virais , Glicosilação , Mutação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Siadenovirus/imunologia , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Siadenovirus/patogenicidade , Baço/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
J Gen Virol ; 101(7): 760-771, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459612

RESUMO

Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) is the causative agent of an immune-mediated disease in turkeys, haemorrhagic enteritis, through targeting B lymphocytes. In the present study, we investigated the role of sialic acid in TAdV-3 entry and characterized the structural components of TAdV-3 receptor(s) on RP19, B lymphoblastoid cells. Removal of the cell-surface sialic acids by neuraminidases or blocking of sialic acids by wheat germ agglutinin lectin reduced virus infection. Pre-incubation of cells with Maackia amurensis lectin or Sambucus nigra agglutinin resulted in virus reduction, suggesting that TAdV-3 uses both α2,3-linked and α2,6-linked sialic acids as attachment receptor. Virus infectivity data from RP19 cells treated with sodium periodate, proteases (trypsin or bromelain) or metabolic inhibitors (dl-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol, tunicamycin, or benzyl N-acetyl-α-d-galactosaminide) indicated that N-linked, but not O-linked, carbohydrates are part of the sialylated receptor and they are likely based on a membrane glycoprotein, rather than a glycolipid. Furthermore, our data, in conjunction with previous findings, implies that the secondary receptor for TAdV-3 is a protein molecule since the inhibition of glycolipid biosynthesis did not affect the virus infection, which was rather reduced by protease treatment. We can conclude that terminal sialic acids attached to N-linked membrane glycoproteins on B cells are used for virus attachment and are essential for successful virus infection.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Siadenovirus/fisiologia , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Infecções por Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ativação Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Replicação Viral
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(3): 618-630, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480537

RESUMO

A flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates) was purchased from a licensed breeder and quarantined at a zoologic facility within the United States in 2016. Following 82 deaths within the flock, the remaining 66 birds were depopulated because of ongoing clinical salmonellosis despite treatment. Gross necropsy was performed on all 66 birds. Histopathologic examination was performed on 10 birds identified with gross lesions and 10 birds without. Pathologic findings were most often observed in the liver, kidney, and spleen. Lesions noted in the livers and spleens were consistent with published reports of salmonellosis in psittacine species. Multisystemic changes associated with septicemia were not noted, most likely because of antibiotic intervention before euthanasia. Of the 20 budgerigars evaluated by histopathology, six had large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies within tubular epithelia in a portion of the kidneys. Electronic microscopy, next-generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify and categorize the identified virus as a novel siadenovirus strain BuAdV-1 USA-IA43444-2016. The strain was 99% similar to budgerigar adenovirus 1 (BuAdV-1), previously reported in Japan, and to a psittacine adenovirus 5 recently identified in a U.S. cockatiel. Salmonella typhimurium carriers were identified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial culture and compared with viral carriers identified via PCR. Inclusion bodies and Salmonella detection were significant in birds with gross lesions versus those without; however, there was no correlation between budgerigars positive with siadenovirus by PCR and concurrent Salmonella infection. Identifying subclinical siadenovirus strain BuAdV-1 USA-IA43444-2016 infection in this flock significantly differs from a previous report of clinical illness in five budgerigars resulting in death caused by BuAdV-1 in Japan. S. typhimurium remains a significant pathogen in budgerigars, and zoonotic concerns prompted depopulation to mitigate the public health risks of this flock.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Melopsittacus , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Siadenovirus/classificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109880, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307669

RESUMO

Haemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is a viral disease affecting intestinal integrity and barrier function in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and resulting in a significant economic loss. Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS) was applied to identify crucial proteins involved in HE infection. A total of 938 proteins were identified and used to generate a reference library for SWATH-MS analysis. In total, 523 proteins were reliably quantified, and 64 proteins were found to be differentially expressed, including 49 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated proteins between healthy and HE-affected intestinal mucosa. Functional analysis suggested that these proteins were involved in the following categories of cellular pathways and metabolisms: 1) energy pathways; 2) intestine lipid and amino acid metabolism; 3) oxidative stress; 4) intestinal immune response. Major findings of this study demonstrated that natural HE infection is related to the changes in abundance of several proteins involved in cell-intrinsic immune defense against viral invasion, systemic inflammation, modulation of excessive inflammation, B and T cell development and function and antigen presentation. mRNA quantitative expression demonstrated that most of the proteins involved in innate immunity that were found to be differentially abundant were produced by intestinal mucosa, suggesting its direct involvement in immune defences against HE infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Proteoma , Siadenovirus , Perus/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Enterite , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteômica , Regulação para Cima
5.
Avian Dis ; 63(1): 84-89, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251523

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of propagating and titrating hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) in chicken embryos. A total of 308 embryonated eggs were used. At 10 days of embryonic age, eggs were inoculated via allantoic sac or chorioallantoic membrane routes with non-heat-treated (live) HEV or heat-treated (dead) HEV or served as negative controls. Allantoic fluid retrieved at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days postinoculation (dpi) was tested for HEV by quantitative PCR. Inoculation with HEV did not cause visible growth impairment or lesions in the chicken embryos. Overall, there was no difference in postinoculation mortality rates among groups sham-inoculated (6/30, 20.0%) or inoculated with live (34/252, 13.4%) or dead (3/ 26, 6.9%) HEV (P = 0.58). The amount of HEV DNA detected in allantoic fluid at 7 dpi in eggs inoculated with live virus was similar to the inoculated dose, indicating that virus propagation in chicken embryos is not efficient. No HEV DNA was detected after 3 dpi in eggs inoculated with dead virus. Inoculation of chicken embryos combined with qualitative PCR can be used for titration of HEV virus stocks and presents a high correlation with in vivo titration using chickens (R2 0.98, P = 0.007). This method may be relevant in countries in which specific-pathogen-free turkeys are unavailable and in which the importation of RP19 cells, the only cell that supports effective propagation of HEV, is not permitted.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Siadenovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia
6.
Virus Res ; 263: 164-168, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711577

RESUMO

A 15-year-old female cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) undergoing long term management for hepatopathy died and underwent necropsy. Microscopic findings were consistent with chronic liver disease characterized by distorted hepatic architecture, fibrosis and biliary proliferation. The additional finding of large intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelium prompted diagnostic next generation sequencing. The assembled sequences isolated from pooled kidney and liver were related to siadenoviruses. The genus Siadenovirus, within the family Adenoviridae, includes several species of viruses that pathogenically infect avian species including hemorrhagic enteritis virus of turkeys and marble spleen virus of pheasants. Siadenoviruses have previously been reported in seven psittacine species: a plum-headed parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala), an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates), an eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius), a scarlet chested parrot (Neophema splendida), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), and a red-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). This report describes a novel siadenovirus in a cockatiel that is highly identical to budgerigar adenovirus 1 and distinct from PsAdV-2 in cockatiels. We report the clinical pathologic, gross, and histopathologic findings in a cockatiel with chronic hepatitis and a novel siadenovirus, PsAdV-5. The sequencing data is presented with a phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Cacatuas , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Siadenovirus/classificação , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Histocitoquímica , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência , Siadenovirus/genética
7.
Virus Res ; 263: 47-54, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639467

RESUMO

Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) belongs to the genus Siadenovirus, family Adenoviridae. Previously, nucleotide sequencing and annotation of the Virginia avirulent strain (VAS) of TAdV-3 genome, isolated in our laboratory, indicated the presence of a total of 23 genes and open reading frames (ORFs). The goals of this study were 1) to delineate the growth kinetics of the virus using a qPCR-based infectivity assay, and 2) to determine the virus gene expression profile during the early and late phases of infection in target B lymphocytes. The one-step growth curve experiment demonstrated 3 phases of virus replication cycle: a lag phase lasted for 12-18 h post-infection (h.p.i.), in which the virus titer declined; a log phase from 18 to 120 h.p.i., in which the number of infectious virus particles increased over 20,000 folds, and a brief decline phase thereafter. Southern blot analysis indicated that the synthesis of new viral DNA started by 8 h.p.i. Gene-specific RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of mRNAs from the 23 TAdV-3 genes/ORFs. According to the temporal transcriptional profiling of TAdV-3 genome, genes could be divided into 3 groups based on the time of transcription initiation: group 1 showed detectable levels of transcription at 2 h.p.i and included 7 genes, i.e., hyd, III, pX, pVI, II, 100 K, and 33 K; group 2 included 12 genes whose mRNAs were detected for the first time at 4 h.p.i., i.e., ORF1, IVa2, pol, pTP, pIIIa, EP, DBP, E3, U exon, IV, ORF7, and ORF8; group 3 of transcripts were detectable starting 8 h.p.i. and included only 4 genes, i.e., 52 K, 22 K, pVII, and pVIII. Our data suggest that the transcriptional kinetics of genus Siadenovirus differ from that observed in other adenoviral genera; however, a few TAdV-3 genes showed similar expression patterns to their adenoviral homologs.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Siadenovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Siadenovirus/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Tempo , Perus
8.
Avian Dis ; 63(3): 531-538, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967440

RESUMO

In this case report, we describe the pathologic changes and the ultrastructural and molecular characteristics of an adenovirus in a sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis) that presented with a history of sudden death. On histologic examination, there was multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis. Within some hepatocytes and unidentified cells in the spleen, renal interstitial fibroblasts, and ovarian stroma were intranuclear amphophilic inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy of affected tissue showed intranuclear icosahedral viral particles with an inner capsid (29.2-33.8 nm in diameter) and an outer capsid (70.2-71.7 nm in diameter). Next-generation sequencing and BLAST analysis of complementary DNA synthesized from RNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissues showed an adenovirus, designated sun conure adenovirus (SCAdv). A DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) probe, constructed from the SCAdv and similar sequences from GenBank, was also positive in the intranuclear inclusion bodies, whereas standard ISH for psittacine adenovirus 1 was negative. These results show that ancillary diagnostic testing, such as next-generation sequencing, even using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, along with ISH, can be useful in identifying additional, unknown viruses that show similar pathology to commonly known viruses but do not show up as positive on routine diagnostic tests.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Papagaios , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/análise , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Siadenovirus/genética
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 404, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The results of experiments involving broiler chickens and turkeys indicate that increased dietary methionine (Met) levels may improve the antioxidant protection of tissues in fast-growing birds. This is an important consideration since viral infections induce oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that turkey diets with increased Met content can suppress oxidation processes induced by infection caused by the haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), and that the noted effect is determined by the chemical form of this amino acid: DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-hydroxy analogue of Met (MHA). RESULTS: Dietary Met content above 40% higher than the level recommended by the NRC (1994) intensified lipid peroxidation in the small intestine, leading to an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxide (LOOH) levels, but it also stimulated antioxidant mechanisms in the blood and liver of turkeys infected with HEV. In comparison with DLM, MHA contributed to more severe symptoms of oxidative stress, such as elevated MDA levels in the intestines, and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). CONCLUSIONS: In HEV-infected turkeys, diets with increased Met content did not exert a clear antioxidant effect, which was noted in uninfected birds. The prooxidant activity of Met observed in the small intestinal wall was suppressed in the blood and liver of turkeys, most likely due to intensified synthesis of uric acid and glutathione. In comparison with MHA, DLM had a more beneficial influence on the analysed parameters of the redox status in the small intestine, blood and liver of turkeys.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Perus/fisiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/fisiopatologia , Animais , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Siadenovirus
10.
Avian Dis ; 62(1): 6-13, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620462

RESUMO

A series of studies were undertaken to optimize the propagation of hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. A total of 562 SPF chickens were orally inoculated with an Australian avirulent HEV isolate of turkey origin at 9, 14, 21, or 28 days of age with 5, 6, 7, or 8 log 10 genomic copies (GC), while 102 chickens served as uninfected controls. No clinical signs were observed in infected chickens. There was an inoculum-dose-dependent increase in the relative spleen and liver weight ( P < 0.01). Relative spleen weight 7 days post-HEV inoculation was up to 85% higher in chickens that were inoculated with 6 to 7 GC compared with controls, with no further increase at higher doses. Relative liver weight increased up to 14% in chickens inoculated with 6 GC, with no further increase. Birds inoculated with a 7 GC dose had a higher frequency of HEV DNA-positive birds (77% to 86%) than birds inoculated with lower doses (33% to 59%; P < 0.01). The most efficient dose for live passage propagation was 7 GC inoculated in 9-to-14-day-old birds, yielding an infection rate of 81%. Livers and spleens from infected birds at all doses were processed to produce a putative vaccine with a final GC recovery in the vaccine material of 8.6 GC/bird. In summary, HEV of turkey origin can be readily propagated in SPF chickens, and conditions to maximize viral retrieval were established.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Siadenovirus/fisiologia , Perus/imunologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Siadenovirus/patogenicidade , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Virulência
11.
Poult Sci ; 96(10): 3550-3558, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938792

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C). Massive sequencing of the hypervariable V1-V2 regions of 16S rRNA gene and QIIME 1.9.1 software analysis was performed, and operation taxonomic units (OTUs) were classified into 4 abundant phyla: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The microbial population of small intestine was distributed almost homogeneously in the healthy turkeys, and Firmicutes was the prevalent phylum (79.85% in duodenum, 89.57% in jejunum and 99.28% in ileum). As compared with small intestine, ceca microbial community was much more heterogeneous: Firmicutes (48.03%), Bacteroidetes (33.60%) and Proteobacteria (12.32%). In the natural infections of HEV, the main bacterial families were Bacteroidaceae (Bacteroidetes) and Peptostreptococcaceae (Firmicutes), uniquely detected in group B and C. Also Clostridiaceae (Firmicutes) was detected, uniquely in group B.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Siadenovirus/fisiologia , Perus , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , Jejuno/virologia
12.
Avian Dis ; 61(1): 96-101, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301232

RESUMO

Despite the application of live hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) vaccines, HEV field outbreaks are suspected to still occur in turkey flocks in Germany. Increasing secondary bacterial infections in HEV-vaccinated flocks suggest that vaccines may be losing efficacy or, possibly, that vaccine strains are causing disease. Thus, the goal of the current study was to investigate the diversity of HEV isolates from fattening turkey flocks between 2008 and 2012 by characterizing the open reading frame (ORF)1 gene at its 5' and 3' ends. Analyses of ORF1 sequences of field isolates and comparison with sequences present in databases revealed that in many cases (13 out of 16 samples), vaccine (avirulent) strains were present. In addition, data indicated the circulation of suspected virulent field isolates and these isolates (3 out of 16) cluster with an early isolate from Germany in the 1980s, but show some mutations in the predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of ORF1 compared to the early isolate. These virulent isolates clearly differ from the spleen-derived avirulent Domermuth vaccine strain used in Germany. In this study, a unique isolate was identified and showed unusual nucleotide mutations that resulted in aa exchanges at the 5' end of ORF1 between aa positions 34 and 174. This genetic drift suggests evolution of HEV including virulent and vaccine-derived strains in the field. This may lead to evasion of vaccinal immunity by drifted viruses and/or an increase in the virulence of field strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Siadenovirus/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Adenoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Alemanha , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Siadenovirus/classificação , Siadenovirus/imunologia , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Perus/virologia , Vacinação , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
Vet Q ; 37(1): 31-42, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024457

RESUMO

Haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an adenovirus associated with acute haemorrhagic gastro-intestinal disease of 6-11-week old turkeys predominantly hampers both humoral and cellular immunity. Affected birds are more prone to secondary complications (e.g. colibacillosis and clostridiosis) and failure to mount an effective vaccine-induced immune response. HEV belongs to the new genus Siadenovirus. Feco-oral transmission is the main route of entry of the virus and it mainly colonizes bursa, intestine and spleen. Both naturally occurring virulent and avirulent strains of HEVs are serologically indistinguishable. Recent findings revealed that ORF1, E3 and fib genes are the key factors affecting virulence. The adoption of suitable diagnostic tools, proper vaccination and biosecurity measures have restrained the occurrence of disease epidemics. For diagnostic purposes, the best source of HEV is either intestinal contents or samples from spleen. For rapid detection highly sensitive and specific tests such as quantitative real-time PCR based on Taq man probe has been designed. Avirulent strains of HEV or MSDV can be effectively used as live vaccines. Novel vaccines include recombinant hexon protein-based subunit vaccines or recombinant virus-vectored vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) expressing the native hexon of HEV. Notably, subunit vaccines and recombinant virus vectored vaccines altogether offer high protection against challenge or field viruses. Herein, we converse a comprehensive analysis of the HEV genetics, disease pathobiology, advancements in diagnosis and vaccination along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Siadenovirus/fisiologia , Perus , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Siadenovirus/genética , Siadenovirus/imunologia
14.
Acta Vet Hung ; 64(4): 514-528, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993101

RESUMO

Up to now, only a single adenovirus (AdV) isolate seemingly specific for pigeons, hence named pigeon AdV-1 (PiAdV-1), has been characterised at DNA sequence level. In the present work, the prevalence and diversity of AdVs occurring in domestic pigeon were examined by a survey performed on randomly collected samples using a very efficient, consensus nested PCR targeting the viral DNA polymerase gene. The newly detected viruses were characterised by sequencing and phylogeny analysis. Amplification of additional genome fragments was attempted by the use of several other PCR methods aiming at the hexon gene. During a 4-year survey, samples from dead or live, healthy pigeons originating from 27 lofts were examined in Hungary. Almost 50% of the samples (48 out of 97) proved to be positive for AdV. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of four hitherto unknown pigeon AdV types. PiAdV-1 was also identified in one sample. Two novel viruses named PiAdV-2 and -3 were found to belong to the genus Aviadenovirus, and two other novel types (PiAdV-4 and -5) to the genus Siadenovirus. This is the first report on the occurrence of siadenoviruses in birds belonging to the order Columbiformes. Approximately two-thirds of the PiAdV-2 genome was sequenced and analysed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Aviadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Columbidae , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Aviadenovirus/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Siadenovirus/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0139339, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26418008

RESUMO

The virulent form of turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), also known as turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV), is an economically important poultry pathogen, while the avirulent form is used as a vaccine. TAdV-3 belongs to the genus Siadenovirus. The carboxy-terminal region of its fibre does not have significant sequence similarity to any other adenovirus fibre heads of known structure. Two amino acid sequence differences between virulent and avirulent TAdV-3 map on the fibre head: where virulent TAdV-3 contains Ile354 and Thr376, avirulent TAdV-3 contains Met354 and Met376. We determined the crystal structures of the trimeric virulent and avirulent TAdV-3 fibre head domains at 2.2 Å resolution. Each monomer contains a beta-sandwich, which, surprisingly, resembles reovirus fibre head more than other adenovirus fibres, although the ABCJ-GHID topology is conserved in all. A beta-hairpin insertion in the C-strand of each trimer subunit embraces its neighbouring monomer. The avirulent and virulent TAdV-3 fibre heads are identical apart from the exact orientation of the beta-hairpin insertion. In vitro, sialyllactose was identified as a ligand by glycan microarray analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and crystallography. Its dissociation constant was measured to be in the mM range by isothermal titration calorimetry. The ligand binds to the side of the fibre head, involving amino acids Glu392, Thr419, Val420, Lys421, Asn422, and Gly423 binding to the sialic acid group. It binds slightly more strongly to the avirulent form. We propose that, in vivo, the TAdV-3 fibre may bind a sialic acid-containing cell surface component.


Assuntos
Lactose/análogos & derivados , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Siadenovirus/metabolismo , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Proteínas Virais/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Calorimetria/métodos , Configuração de Carboidratos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Lactose/química , Lactose/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Siadenovirus/genética , Siadenovirus/patogenicidade , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência/genética
16.
Vet Res ; 46: 79, 2015 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159706

RESUMO

Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) causes high mortality and significant economic losses to the turkey industry. However, little is known about the molecular determinants required for viral replication and pathogenesis. Moreover, TAdV-3 does not grow well in cell culture, thus detailed structural studies of the infectious particle is particularly challenging. To develop a better understanding of virus-host interactions, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of proteinase K treated purified TAdV-3 virions isolated from spleens of infected turkeys, by utilizing one-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 13 viral proteins associated with TAdV-3 virions including a novel uncharacterized TaV3gp04 protein. Further, we detected 18 host proteins in purified virions, many of which are involved in cell-to cell spread, cytoskeleton dynamics and virus replication. Notably, seven of these host proteins have not yet been reported to be present in any other purified virus. In addition, five of these proteins are known antiviral host restriction factors. The availability of reagents allowed us to identify two cellular proteins (collagen alpha-1 (VI) chain and haemoglobin) in the purified TAdV-3 preparations. These results represent the first comprehensive proteomic profile of TAdV-3 and may provide information for illustrating TAdV-3 replication and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Siadenovirus/genética , Perus , Proteínas Virais/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Western Blotting/veterinária , Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Siadenovirus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
17.
Viruses ; 6(5): 2052-61, 2014 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24811321

RESUMO

Adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae) infect various organ systems and cause diseases in a wide range of host species. In this study, we examined multiple tissues from Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica), collected in Antarctica during 2009 and 2010, for the presence of novel adenoviruses by PCR. Analysis of a 855-bp region of the hexon gene of a newly identified adenovirus, designated Chinstrap penguin adenovirus 1 (CSPAdV-1), showed nucleotide (amino acid) sequence identity of 71.8% (65.5%) with South Polar skua 1 (SPSAdV-1), 71% (70%) with raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), 71.4% (67.6%) with turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) and 61% (61.6%) with frog adenovirus 1 (FrAdV-1). Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, CSPAdV-1 was classified as a member of the genus, Siadenovirus. Virus isolation attempts from kidney homogenates in the MDTC-RP19 (ATCC® CRL-8135™) cell line were unsuccessful. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence of new adenovirus species in Antarctic penguins.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Siadenovirus/classificação , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Spheniscidae/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Estruturas Animais/virologia , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Siadenovirus/genética
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 172(1-2): 35-43, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24814929

RESUMO

A novel siadenovirus was found in six captive Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) in the United States and Hungary. Histopathological examination revealed inclusions in the kidney of the captive Gouldian finch in the United States, and virions morphologically consistent with adenoviruses were seen by electron microscopy. Partial sequence of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene was gained by consensus PCR and sequencing in all six finches, and all proved to be identical. In one Hungarian finch, additional sequence was obtained from the DNA polymerase gene, the pre-terminal protein (pTP) gene, the 52k gene, and the hexon gene. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and distance-based analyses showed the novel virus clusters with the siadenoviruses, and is herein referred to as Gouldian finch adenovirus 1. The genes looked at in this study had low G+C percentages, which is common in the genus Siadenovirus, and suggestive of recent host switch. The significance of this virus' presence is unknown at this time as clinical signs of positive birds varied.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Tentilhões/virologia , Rim/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Siadenovirus/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , DNA Polimerase I/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Hungria/epidemiologia , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Filogenia , Siadenovirus/classificação , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
19.
Virus Res ; 183: 50-5, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24487182

RESUMO

Suspected cases of hemorrhagic enteritis associated with hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) are becoming more frequent among yellow chickens in the Guangdong Province of China. In this study, we have developed a one-step, ecumenical, real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay for the rapid diagnosis of HEV. The RealAmp assay was performed at 63°C and reduced the assay time to 15min, using a simple and portable device, the ESE-Quant Tube Scanner. The detection limit of DNA was 1fg/µl, and the detection was specific only to HEV. We also used nested PCR to evaluate the application of the RealAmp assay. The coincidence rate of the two methods was 100%. Our data indicated that the RealAmp assay provides a sensitive, specific, and user-friendly diagnostic tool for the identification and quantification of HEV for field diagnosis and in laboratory research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Siadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Virologia/métodos , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , China , Enterite/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24100566

RESUMO

Turkey adenovirus 3 belongs to the genus Siadenovirus. Its predicted fibre protein consists of an N-terminal virus-attachment domain, a central shaft domain and a head domain at the C-terminus. The head domain has little sequence identity to known adenovirus fibre head structures. Crystals of the fibre head domain consisting of amino acids 304-454 with an N-terminal purification tag were produced. Crystals of native and selenomethionine-derivatized protein belonged to space group I23 (unit-cell parameter 99 Å). They diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.0 and 2.14 Šresolution, respectively, and are expected to contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit.


Assuntos
Siadenovirus/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cristalização , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação
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