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1.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364439

RESUMO

Sideritis clandestina (Bory & Chaub.) Hayek subsp. peloponnesiaca (Boiss. & Heldr.) Baden (SCP) is endemic to the mountains of the Northern Peloponnese (Greece). This and other Sideritis taxa, collectively known as mountain tea, are widely ingested as beverages for refreshment or medicinal purposes. We describe a methodology for the characterization of SCP. Four iridoid glycosides (monomelittoside, melittoside, ajugoside, and 7-O-acetyl-8-epiloganic acid), two phenolic acid glycosides (vanillic and salicylic acid glycosides), and three caffeoyl ester glycosides (chlorogenic acid, verbascoside, and isoverbascoside) were isolated from SCP for the first time. We used ultrasound-assisted extraction of 3 g of plant material to produce petroleum ether and aqueous extracts, which we then analyzed using GC/MS and LC/MS. This was applied to eight samples from four different taxa. In total, 70 volatile and 27 polar metabolites were determined. The S. clandestina samples had a lower phenolic content and weaker antioxidant properties than S. raeseri and S. scardica. However, S. clandestina ssp. clandestina seemed to be the most aromatic taxon, with almost double the number of volatiles as the others. Τhis study could contribute to authentication and chemotaxonomic studies of Sideritis taxa.


Assuntos
Sideritis , Sideritis/química , Glicosídeos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Chá , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 8368717, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082083

RESUMO

Nowadays, the environmentally friendly approach to everyday life routines including body supplementation with pharma-, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements gains popularity. This trend is implemented in pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic and antiageing industries by adopting a newly developed green chemistry approach. Following this trend, a new type of solvents has been created, called Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES), which are produced by plant primary metabolites. These solvents are becoming a much better alternative to the already established organic solvents like ethanol and ionic liquids by being nontoxic, biodegradable, and easy to make. An interesting fact about NADES is that they enhance the biological activities of the extracted biological compounds. Here, we present our results that investigate the potential antiageing effect of CiAPD14 as a NADES solvent and three plant extracts with it. The tested NADES extracts are from propolis and two well-known medicinal plants-Sideritis scardica and Plantago major. Together with the solvent, their antiageing properties have been tested during the chronological lifespan of four Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains-a wild type and three chromatin mutants. The chromatin mutants have been previously proven to exhibit characteristics of premature ageing. Our results demonstrate the potential antiageing activity of these NADES extracts, which was exhibited through their ability to confer the premature ageing phenotypes in the mutant cells by ameliorating their cellular growth and cell cycle, as well as by influencing the activity of some stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we have classified their antiageing activity concerning the strength of the observed bioactivities.


Assuntos
Plantago , Própole , Sideritis , Cromatina , Longevidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Solventes/química
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(3): e202101018, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104048

RESUMO

Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis, Mentha suaveolens and Sideritis incana (Lamiaceae family) are well recognized for their medicinal, pharmaceutical and aromatic properties. The present study aimed to investigate for the first time the phenolic composition, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the extracts obtained from the aerial parts of these species collected from the Ifrane region of Morocco. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS). The antioxidant activity was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating assays. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) and three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes). A total of thirty-three, sixteen and thirteen phenolic compounds were positively identified and characterized in T. zygis subsp. gracilis, M. suaveolens and S. incana extracts, respectively. Among the extracts, M. suaveolens exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, followed by S. incana and T. zygis subsp. gracilis in both DPPH and reducing power assays; all extracts showed the lowest activity in the chelating assay. In addition, all extracts demonstrated a bactericidal effect against Gram-positive bacteria and bacteriostatic effect against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, the aerial parts of Moroccan T. zygis subsp. gracilis, M. suaveolens and S. incana might be considered as a valuable source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents with potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Mentha , Sideritis , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Marrocos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(16): 4200-4204, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498964

RESUMO

The present study focuses on the polar constituents and biological effects of the methanol extract and the infusion of wild Sideritis sipylea Boiss. from Samos island (Greece), as well as on the nutritional and mineral contents of this plant. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were examined. In addition, the anti-acetylcholinesterase property was evaluated, revealing strictly lower results than the control, galanthamine. Furthermore, the nutritional value of the plant is reported herein for the first time, revealing a promising source of protein. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first work on the infusion of this species and the nutritional value of the plant.


Assuntos
Sideritis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sideritis/metabolismo
5.
Nat Prod Rep ; 38(11): 1967-1993, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821250

RESUMO

Covering: up to the end of 2020Recently introduced computational metabolome mining tools have started to positively impact the chemical and biological interpretation of untargeted metabolomics analyses. We believe that these current advances make it possible to start decomposing complex metabolite mixtures into substructure and chemical class information, thereby supporting pivotal tasks in metabolomics analysis including metabolite annotation, the comparison of metabolic profiles, and network analyses. In this review, we highlight and explain key tools and emerging strategies covering 2015 up to the end of 2020. The majority of these tools aim at processing and analyzing liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry fragmentation data. We start with defining what substructures are, how they relate to molecular fingerprints, and how recognizing them helps to decompose complex mixtures. We continue with chemical classes that are based on the presence or absence of particular molecular scaffolds and/or functional groups and are thus intrinsically related to substructures. We discuss novel tools to mine substructures, annotate chemical compound classes, and create mass spectral networks from metabolomics data and demonstrate them using two case studies. We also review and speculate about the opportunities that NMR spectroscopy-based metabolome mining of complex metabolite mixtures offers to discover substructures and chemical classes. Finally, we will describe the main benefits and limitations of the current tools and strategies that rely on them, and our vision on how this exciting field can develop toward repository-scale-sized metabolomics analyses. Complementary sources of structural information from genomics analyses and well-curated taxonomic records are also discussed. Many research fields such as natural products discovery, pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies, and environmental metabolomics increasingly rely on untargeted metabolomics to gain biochemical and biological insights. The here described technical advances will benefit all those metabolomics disciplines by transforming spectral data into knowledge that can answer biological questions.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sideritis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641513

RESUMO

A study on the headspace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of native populations of Sideritis romana L. and Sidertis montana L., Lamiaceae, from Croatia is reported herein, to elucidate the phytochemical composition of taxa from this plant genus, well-known for traditional use in countries of the Mediterranean and the Balkan region. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), using divinylbenzene/carboxene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) or polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to analyze the dried aerial parts of six native populations in total. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on the volatile constituents with an average relative percentage ≥1.0% in at least one of the samples. Clear separation between the two species was obtained using both fiber types. The VOCs profile for all investigated populations was characterized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons, except for one population of S. romana, in which monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the VOCs composition of natural populations of S. romana and S. montana from Croatia as well as the first reported HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis of S. romana and S. montana worldwide.


Assuntos
Sideritis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Croácia , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Monoterpenos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Polivinil/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
7.
Planta Med ; 87(14): 1152-1166, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655064

RESUMO

The genus Sideritis (Lamiaceae) comprises around 150 species, of which many are popular herbal remedies in Mediterranean folk medicine. Already mentioned by Dioscorides and Theophrastus, the "ironwort" or "Greek mountain tea" has been receiving increased attention in recent years. A European Union herbal monograph and assessment report (HMPC) has been issued, covering the species Sideritis scardica, S. clandestina, S. raeseri, and S. syriaca. This study presents results of a first pharmacognostic examination of the botanical and phytochemical differences among and between these emerging commercial species, and other, less studied species. An HPTLC method is proposed for normal phase separation of the species; this means applying two mobile phases on silica plates and subsequent derivatization with natural product reagent (NP/PEG) for visualization of phenolic compounds and anisaldehyde for a broader detection. With the help of selected reference compounds, a system suitability test was established for proper chromatographic separation. The method was applied to specimens from botanical gardens and commercial raw material in order to test its suitability for differentiation and authentication. The HPTLC analysis also includes, for the first time, S. hyssopifolia and other less used Sideritis species. The results might enable the development of a validated phytochemical fingerprint authentication procedure for quality assurance of Sideritis herba.


Assuntos
Sideritis , Grécia , Medicina Tradicional , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais
8.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203414

RESUMO

In this study we define the optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive polyphenols from S. raeseri aerial parts using response surface methodology. The influence of ethanol concentration (10-90%), extraction temperature (20-80 °C), extraction time (10-60 min), and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10-1:50) on total phenolic content as well as on content of individual flavonoids, and hypolaetin and isoscutellarein derivatives was studied. For the experimental design, a central composite design was chosen. In the obtained extracts, the following ranges of targeted compounds were detected: total phenol from 19.32 to 47.23 mg GAE/g dw, HYP from 1.05 to 11.46 mg/g dw, ISC 1 from 0.68 to 10.68 mg/g dw, and ISC 2 from 0.74 to 15.56 mg/g dw. The optimal extraction conditions were set as: ethanol concentration of 65%, extraction time of 50 min, extraction temperature of 63 °C, and solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:40. Contents of TP, HYP, ISC 1, and ISC 2 in optimal extracts were 47.11 mg GAE/g dw, 11.73 mg/g dw, 9.54 mg/g dw, and 15.40 mg/g dw, respectively. Experimentally set values were in good agreement with those predicted by the response surface methodology model, indicating suitability of the used model, as well as the success of response surface methodology in optimizing the conditions of the extraction.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis , Sideritis/química , Sonicação , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.


En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Sideritis/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Interleucina-8/análise , Interleucina-6/análise , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes/química
10.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14498, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis, caused by helminths within the genus Echinococcus, is mainly localised in the liver and lungs of affected hosts. Surgery has been the best choice for the treatment of hydatidosis and using effective scolicidal agents during hydatid surgery is required to prevent secondary infection. Several plant extracts have been shown to exert scolicidal efficacy. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal activity of methanol extract of Sideritis perfoliata against the protoscolices of hydatid cysts. METHODS: The protoscolices were collected from a liver of a sheep slaughtered in Adiyaman city slaughter, Turkey. Three concentrations of the aerial part extract of S perfoliata (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL) were assessed at three different exposure periods. All tests were carried in duplicate. The viability of protoscolices was assessed by the eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). RESULTS: Scolicidal effect of S perfoliata extract at exposure periods of 10, 20 and 30 minutes was 29.6%, 32.5% and 43.6% at the concentration of 0.1%, 37.8%, 50% and 58.1% at concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, and 57.9%, 71.8% and 79.1% at the concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, respectively; indicating a longer time is required to display protoscolicidal effects. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that some phenolic acids, such as fumaric acid (260.13 mg/L), syringic acid (27.92 mg/L) and caffeic acid (26.84 mg/L), and a flavonoid, luteolin (11.23 mg/L) were detected in high concentrations in the extract. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that the methanol extract of S perfoliata has high scolicidal activity in vitro. However, research on the in vivo efficacy of S perfoliata extract and its potential side effects is required.


Assuntos
Echinococcus granulosus , Sideritis , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ovinos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070495

RESUMO

In recent years, the use of Sideritis species as bioactive agents is increasing exponentially. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical constituents, as well as the anti-ageing potential of the cultivated Sideritis euboea Heldr. The chemical fingerprinting of the ethyl acetate residue of this plant was studied using 1D and 2D-NMR spectra. Isomeric compounds belonging to acylated flavone derivatives and phenylethanoid glycosides were detected in the early stage of the experimental process through 2D-NMR techniques. Overall, thirty-three known compounds were isolated and identified. Some of them are reported for the first time not only in S. euboea, but also in genus Sideritis L. The anti-ageing effect of the ethyl acetate residue and the isolated specialized products was assessed as anti-hyaluronidase activity. In silico docking simulation revealed the interactions of the isolated compounds with hyaluronidase. Furthermore, the in vitro study on the inhibition of hyaluronidase unveiled the potent inhibitory properties of ethyl acetate residue and apigenin 7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside. Though, the isomers of apigenin 7-O-p-coumaroyl-glucosides and also the 4'-methyl-hypolaetin 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-ß-d-allopyranosyl]-(1→2)-ß-d-glucopyranoside exerted moderate hyaluronidase inhibition. This research represents the first study to report on the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sideritis species, confirming its anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-ageing effects and its importance as an agent for cosmetic formulations as also anticancer potential.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sideritis/química , Acetatos/química , Simulação por Computador , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Termodinâmica
12.
Metabolomics ; 17(6): 51, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021818

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bioactive constituents of medicinal-aromatic plants used as feed additives may affect the metabolic profile and oxidative stability of hen eggs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of dried oregano, thyme, sideritis tea and chamomile on laying hen performance, egg quality parameters, and oxidative stability in the egg yolk were monitored. METHODS: In this trial 432 hens were allocated in two treatments (unsupplemented vs. supplemented with the mixture) and fed for 42 days. Eggs were collected at the end of the trial period, egg yolk was separated, extracted, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and oxidative stability was measured. Furthermore, LC-MS metabolic profile of eggs was studied and pathway analysis was elaborated in MetaboAnalyst to facilitate annotation of features. RESULTS: Overall, egg production and feed conversion ratio were not affected by the supplementation. However, eggs from the supplemented treatment showed improved shell thickness and strength, and yolk resistance to oxidation. Moreover, LC-MS metabolomic analysis of egg yolk of supplemented and unsupplemented layers showed significant variations and tight clustering in unsupervised principal component analysis due to different chemical profiling of egg yolk. LC-MS study showed that secondary metabolites of aromatic plants did not transfer into yolk, nevertheless the feed supplementation impacted the pathway metabolism of tyrosine, phenylalanine, propanate, and the biosynthesis of aminoacyl-tRNA, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. CONCLUSIONS: The dietary supplementation of layers with a mixture of dried medicinal aromatic plants affected shell thickness and strength, the lipid and protein oxidative stability and increased tyrosine and phenylalanine content in eggs.


Assuntos
Origanum , Sideritis , Thymus (Planta) , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Camomila , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fenilalanina , Extratos Vegetais , Chá , Tirosina
13.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919310

RESUMO

Sideritis niveotomentosa Hub. -Mor. is a local endemic species belonging to the Lamiaceae family. In this study, GC/MS analysis, total antioxidant capacity and anticancer effects of different extracts obtained from S. niveotomentosa were investigated comparatively. Total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total flavonoid contents by aluminum chloride method, and also the free radical scavenging activities of the extracts by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) assay. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was studied via MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay on DLD1, HL60 and ARH77 cell lines. Pro-apoptotic gene expression levels were also tested in the most sensitive cell line ARH77 by Real-Time PCR. The expression levels of 4 pro-apoptotic genes, APAF, BAX, CASP3, and HRK were found to be upregulated in ARH77 cells that were treated extracts. Results showed that methanolic extracts contain more phenolic content than acetone extracts, consistent with DPPH results. As a result, Sideritis niveotomentosa extracts, especially methanolic extracts, are rich in phenolic content and have a strong radical scavenging effect. In addition, the extracts showed selective effects on cell lines. This study is pioneering in terms of future studies, and the findings provide hope for future experimentation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sideritis/química , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Turquia
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117798, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712146

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the structural characteristics of an acid-extracted polysaccharide fraction from mountain tea. The monosaccharide composition revealed that uronic acids (72.4 mol%) considerably predominated in the fraction, followed by smaller amounts of galactose (14.5 mol%) and glucose (6.2 mol%). The fraction contained mostly a highly methyl-esterified homogalacturonan (HG) - 71 mol%. The pectin had a high molecular weight population (∼60-100 kDa). Enzymatic fingerprinting was employed with a combination of HG degrading enzymes and LC-HILIC-MS, HPAEC, HPSEC to examine the structure in greater detail. Unsaturated oligomers released indicated the presence of large blocks of highly methyl-esterified GalA residues. Furthermore, the presence of blocks of non-esterified GalA residues and partly methyl-esterified and acetylated GalA residues in HG domain was demonstrated. The research findings provide a basis for further investigations regarding biological activity and commercial exploitation of mountain tea.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/análise , Sideritis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Espectrometria de Massas , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/química , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Polissacarídeo-Liases/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
15.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(3): e2000966, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594798

RESUMO

Sideritis cypria Post is an endemic and endangered species of Northern Cyprus. The overall aim of the present study was to evaluate the total phenolic content, the antioxidant, the cytotoxic and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of cultivated S. cypria. A bio-guided approach led to the isolation of 27 chemical compounds by using various analytical techniques. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The crude extract exerted strong antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP assays) which was attributed to its high total phenolic content. Furthermore, groups rich in phenolic content showed highest antioxidant property, whereas groups with phytosterols, diterpenoids and apigenin derivatives exerted cytotoxic effects in MDA-MB231 cancer cell line by the MTT method. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of four isolated apigenin derivatives was evaluated in the same cancer cells. The antimicrobial activity of the extract and groups were measured, demonstrating lack of activity. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the first report on the biological activities of the methanol extract of S. cypria.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sideritis/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Metanol/química , Estrutura Molecular , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(4): 655-658, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081375

RESUMO

Three iridoid glycosides, 5-allosyloxy-aucubine (1), melittoside (2), ajugol (3), five phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside (4), martynoside (5), leucoseptoside A (6), lamalboside (7), decaffeoylverbascoside (8), four flavonoids, xanthomicrol (9), isoscutellarein 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-ß-allopyranosyl-(1→2)]-ß-glucopyranoside (10), 4'-O-methylisoscutellarein 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-ß-allopyranosyl-(1→2)]-ß-glucopyranoside (11), 3'-hydroxy-4'-O-methylisoscutellarein 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-ß-allopyranosyl-(1→2)]-ß-glucopyranoside (12), and two lignan glycosides dehydrodiconiferylalcohol 4-O-ß-D-glucopyranose (13) and pinoresinol 4'-O-ß-glucopyranoside (14) were isolated from the aerial parts of Sideritis germanicopolitana. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed NMR and HRESIMS analyses. To our knowledge, all compounds are being reported for the first time from S. germanicopolitana, while the isolated lignans (13 and 14) are new for the genus Sideritis. In vitro evaluation of AChE, BChE and LOX inhibitory effects of all the tested compounds (1-14) resulted in low to moderate activities.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Sideritis/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113338, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920137

RESUMO

Medicinal plants remain an invaluable source for therapeutics of diseases that affect humanity. Sideritis bilgeriana (Lamiaceae) is medicinal plant used in Turkey folk medicine to reduce inflammation and pain, but few studies scientific corroborates its medicinal use so creating a gap between popular use and scientific evidence. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of the methanolic extract of S. bilgeriana (MESB) in rodents nociception models and also performed its phytochemical analysis. Firstly, a screening was carried out that enabled the identification of the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. In view of this, a chromatographic method by HPLC-DAD-UV was developed that made it possible to identify chlorogenic acid and its quantification in MESB. MESB-treated mice (MESB 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.01), and also showed a reduced pain behavior in capsaicin test. In the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test, MESB (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced the leukocyte (polymorphonuclear) count in the pleural cavity and equally decreased the TNF-α and IL-1ß levels (p < 0.001). In the PSNL model, mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced on the first evaluation day and during the 7 days of evaluation compared to the vehicle group (p < 0.001). Thermal hyperalgesia was also reduced 1 h after treatment compared to the vehicle group (p < 0.001) and reversed the loss of force initially displayed by the animals, thus inferring an analgesic effect in the muscle strength test. Analysis of the marrow of these animals showed a decrease in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 (p < 0.001) and factor NF-κB, in relation to the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the MESB treatment produced no noticeable side effects, no disturb in motor performance and no signs of gastric or hepatic injury. Together, the results suggests that MESB could be useful to management of inflammation and neuropathic pain mainly by the management of pro-inflammatory mediators (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6), so reinforcing its use in popular medicine and corroborating the need for further chemical and pharmacological studies for the species.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sideritis/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/análise
18.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126727

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the cognitive and behavioral effects of extra virgin olive oil total phenolic content (TPC) and Sideritis (SID) extracts in female mice, and identify the associated neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. All animals received intraperitoneal low or high doses of TPC, SID or vehicle treatment for 7 days and were subjected to the Open Field (OF), Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Tail Suspension Test (TST). The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were dissected for analysis of neurotransmitters and aminoacids with high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED). Both TPC doses enhanced vertical activity and center entries in the OF, which could indicate an anxiolytic-like effect. In addition, TPC enhanced non-spatial working memory and, in high doses, exerted antidepressant effects. On the other hand, high SID doses remarkably decreased the animals' overall activity. Locomotor and exploratory activities were closely associated with cortical increases in serotonin turnover induced by both treatments. Cognitive performance was linked to glutamate level changes. Furthermore, TPC reduced cortical taurine levels, while SID reduced cortical aspartate levels. TPC seems to have promising cognitive, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, whereas SID has sedative effects in high doses. Both extracts act in the brain, but their specific actions and properties merit further exploration.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Sideritis/química , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neuroquímica , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
19.
Molecules ; 25(16)2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824863

RESUMO

Due to the growing problem of obesity associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, causes of obesity are extensively investigated. In addition to a high caloric diet and low physical activity, gut microbiota disturbance may have a potential impact on excessive weight gain. Some reports indicate differences in the composition of the intestinal microflora of obese people in comparison to lean. Bioactive compounds of natural origin with beneficial and multifaceted effects on the body are more frequently used in prevention and treatment of many metabolic diseases including obesity. Sideritis scardica is traditionally consumed as mountain tea in the Balkans to strengthen the body and improve mood. Many reports indicate a positive effect on digestive system, weight loss, and prevention of insulin resistance. Additionally, it exhibits antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects. The positive effect of Sideritis scardica extracts on memory and general cognitive abilities is indicated as well. The multilevel positive effect on the body appears to originate from the abundant occurrence of phenolic compounds, especially phenolic acids in Sideritis scardica extracts. However, mechanisms underlying their action require careful discussion and further research. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize the available knowledge on the role and mechanism of action of biologically active compounds of Sideritis scardica and other related species from the genus Sideritis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Sideritis/química , Animais , Humanos
20.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443927

RESUMO

Diterpenes are characteristic compounds from the genus Sideritis L., possessing an array of biological activities. Siderol is the main constituent of the ent-kaurene diterpenes in Sideritis species. In order to isolate the specific compound and evaluate for the first time its cytotoxic activity, we explored the dichloromethane extract of cultivated Sideritis euboea Heldr. To track the specific natural bioactive agent, we applied NMR spectroscopy to the crude plant extract, since NMR can serve as a powerful and rapid tool both to navigate the targeted isolation process of bioactive constituents, and to also reveal the identity of bioactive components. Along these lines, from the rapid 1D 1H NMR spectrum of the total crude plant extract, we were able to determine the characteristic proton NMR signals of siderol. Furthermore, with the same NMR spectrum, we were able to categorize several secondary metabolites into chemical groups as a control of the isolation process. Therefore, this non-polar extract was explored, for the first time, revealing eleven compounds-one fatty acid ester; 2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethylstearate (1), three phytosterols; ß-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), and campesterol (4); one triterpenoid; ursolic acid (5), four diterpenoids; siderol (6), eubol (7), eubotriol (8), 7-epicandicandiol (9) and two flavonoids; xanthomicrol (10) and penduletin (11). The main isolated constituent was siderol. The antiproliferative potential of siderol was evaluated, using the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay, on three human cancer cell lines DLD1, HeLa, and A549, where the IC50 values were estimated at 26.4 ± 3.7, 44.7 ± 7.2, and 46.0 ± 4.9 µΜ, respectively. The most potent activity was recorded in the human colon cancer cell line DLD1, where siderol exhibited the lowest IC50. Our study unveiled the beneficial potential of siderol as a remarkable cytotoxic agent and the significant contribution of NMR spectroscopy towards the isolation and identification of this potent anticancer agent.


Assuntos
Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/química , Sideritis/química , Triterpenos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Flavonas/química , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
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