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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(4): 1305-1312, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Simarouba glauca is a plant belonging to the family of Simaroubaceae. It is a potent source of secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apoptotic properties of leaf extracts of Simarouba glauca against human leukemic cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity of Simarouba glauca was assessed in the leaf extract of petroleum ether against leukemic cells by MTT assay. To detect the apoptotic features, fluorescence microscopy analysis was done with dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent staining and Hoechst staining. To determine the externalization of phosphatidylserine, annexin v staining was done. Mitochondrial or death receptor activation was confirmed by caspase 3 analysis by flow cytometry. RESULTS: This study revealed that Simarouba glauca was able to treat leukemia. Among the four extracts, petroleum ether extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity. The petroleum ether extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of K562 cell lines with IC50 values of 186 µg/ml. Dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent staining and Hoechst staining revealed the characteristic features of apoptosis. Annexin V confirmed early and late stage apoptosis. Caspase-3 analysis revealed that cell death was due to mitochondrial or death receptor activation in mitochondrial pathway. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that Simarouba glauca leaf extracts inhibited leukemic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner either through mitochondrial or death receptor activation. The leaf extracts of Simarouba glauca was found to be nontoxic to lymphocytes. It can be concluded that Simarouba glauca is an important source of phytochemicals posing efficacy against leukemic cancer cells.
.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Simarouba , Alcanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta
2.
J Microbiol ; 59(4): 435-447, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630248

RESUMO

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is a major cause of death in children under the age of five in developing countries. ETEC (O78:H11:CFA/I:LT+:ST+) mechanism has been studied in detail with either heat labile (LT) or heat stable (ST) toxins using in vitro and in vivo models. However, there is no adequate information on ETEC pathogenesis producing both the toxins (LT, ST) in BALB/c mice model. In this study, female mice have been employed to understand ETEC H10407 infection induced changes in physiology, biochemical and immunological patterns up to seven days post-infection and the antidiarrhoeal effect of Simarouba amara (Aubl.) bark aqueous extract (SAAE) has also been looked into. The results indicate that BALB/c is sensitive to ETEC infection resulting in altered jejunum and ileum histomorphology. Withal, ETEC influenced cAMP, PGE2, and NO production resulting in fluid accumulation with varied Na+, K+, Cl-, and Ca2+ levels. Meanwhile, ETEC subverted expression of IL-1ß, intestine alkaline phosphatase (IAP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in jejunum and ileum. Our data also indicate the severity of pathogenesis reduction which might be due to attainment of equilibrium after reaching optimum rate of infection. Nevertheless, degree of pathogenesis was highly significant (p < 0.01) in all the studied parameters. Besides that, SAAE was successful in reducing the infectious diarrhoea by inhibiting ETEC H10407 in intestine (jejunum and ileum), and shedding in feces. SAAE decreased cAMP, PGE2, and fluid accumulation effectively and boosted the functional activity of immune system in jejunum and ileum IAP, MPO, IL-1ß, and nitric oxide.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Imunomodulação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Animais , AMP Cíclico/análise , Dinoprostona/análise , Eletrólitos/sangue , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Jejuno/imunologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , Jejuno/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nitritos/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Peroxidase/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Simarouba/química
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 161: 1381-1392, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750481

RESUMO

Chitinase from the leaves of Simarouba glauca, a plant used in traditional anti-inflammatory therapy is purified and characterized. Peptide mass finger print analysis revealed the protein as an endo-chitinase which was further confirmed using chitin-agar assay. The enzyme exhibited significant anti-fungal efficacy against phyto-pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii. Chitinolysis was also examined against insoluble chitin using SEM. Using X-ray diffraction data up to 1.66 Å, the structure was determined by Molecular Replacement using crystal structure of GH19 Chitinase-like protein from Hevea brasiliensis. During structure refinement, an extra domain could be traced and identified as hevein domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of any chitinase with intact hevein domain. The GH19 chitinase and hevein domains though connected by a lengthy loop, are restricted to be close by disulfide bridges. These bridges connecting each domain with the loop may be important for proper chitin feeding into the active site. By considering reports on hevein and chitinase domains as well as the traditional use of the plant, this report of an intact hevein-chitinase protein and their relative orientation may add further insights for the usefulness of this protein.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Quitinases/química , Quitinases/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Simarouba/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Quitinases/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Análise Espectral
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 17(8): 650-3, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27659082

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the antimicrobial effect of water extracts of leaves of Annona muricata and Simarouba glauca on Enterococcus faecalis using agar diffusion method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried leaves of A. muricata and S. glauca were powdered and extracted in a soxhlet apparatus. Enterococcus faecalis was grown overnight in Trypticase soy agar plates. About 10 µl of each extract was placed on agar plates and incubated overnight. The zone of inhibition was measured after 24 hours. About 1% sodium hypochlorite and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls. RESULTS: The leaf extract of A. muricata showed similar effectiveness as that of sodium hypochlorite, whereas the leaf extract of S. glauca showed only a slight reduction in growth of E. faecalis. CONCLUSION: Leaf extract of A. muricata can be developed as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for root canal irrigants. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Success of endodontic treatment depends on complete disinfection of the root canals. Root canal irrigants have a major role in complete disinfection of the root canals. Chemical root canal irrigants are more or less toxic to the oral environment. In this study, naturally derived leaf extracts of A. muricata and S. glauca are compared with sodium hypochlorite for its effectiveness against E. faecalis - the most common pathogen found in the root canals.


Assuntos
Annona , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Simarouba , Humanos , Folhas de Planta , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular
5.
Tree Physiol ; 35(12): 1366-77, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26427915

RESUMO

To recover verticality after disturbance, angiosperm trees produce 'tension wood' allowing them to bend actively. The driving force of the tension has been shown to take place in the G-layer, a specific unlignified layer of the cell wall observed in most temperate species. However, in tropical rain forests, the G-layer is often absent and the mechanism generating the forces to reorient trees remains unclear. A study was carried out on tilted seedlings, saplings and adult Simarouba amara Aubl. trees-a species known to not produce a G-layer. Microscopic observations were done on sections of normal and tension wood after staining or observed under UV light to assess the presence/absence of lignin. We showed that S. amara produces a cell-wall layer with all of the characteristics typical of G-layers, but that this G-layer can be observed only as a temporary stage of the cell-wall development because it is masked by a late lignification. Being thin and lignified, tension wood fibres cannot be distinguished from normal wood fibres in the mature wood of adult trees. These observations indicate that the mechanism generating the high tensile stress in tension wood is likely to be the same as that in species with a typical G-layer and also in species where the G-layer cannot be observed in mature cells.


Assuntos
Lignina/fisiologia , Simarouba/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Madeira/fisiologia , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Microscopia Ultravioleta
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 121: 63-6, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025643

RESUMO

Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Temperatura Alta , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Mudança Climática , Efeito Estufa , Hidrogênio , Petróleo , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes/química , Simarouba/química
7.
Molecules ; 19(11): 17735-46, 2014 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365298

RESUMO

Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Groups I (vehicle-corn oil), II (control-CCl4), III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Simarouba/química , Animais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Toxicon ; 64: 55-9, 2013 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23319076

RESUMO

This study describes an outbreak of Simarouba versicolor intoxication in cattle from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and reproduces it experimentally. Clinical signs of the affected animals were weakness, tremors, hind limbs incoordination, reluctance to move, sternal and lateral recumbency and death. The main necropsy findings, observed in the abomasum and in segments of the small and large intestines, were diffuse redness and mucosal and serosal swelling. Histological examination revealed necrosis of lymphoid tissues and necrotizing enterocolitis. One experiment was carried out using 3 male calves to test the toxicity of a single dose of S. versicolor leaves at 15 g/kg, 5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histological examination of calves receiving 15 g/kg and 5 g/kg leaves were similar to those of cattle from the intoxication outbreak. The calf fed 2.5 g/kg leaves developed clinical symptoms of poisoning and recovered naturally. In a second experiment, two male calves received daily administration of S. versicolor leaves at 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg for 10 days. They developed clinical signs of intoxication within 24 h and recovered eight to nine days after the leaves were administered. These findings suggest that S. versicolor was responsible for the outbreak studied, although this plant does not have cumulative intoxication effects on cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Enterocolite Necrosante/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Simarouba/envenenamento , Abomaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Abomaso/patologia , Animais , Autopsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Enterocolite Necrosante/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Necrosante/patologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/transmissão , Intestino Grosso/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Masculino , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Necrose/patologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/mortalidade , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia
9.
Guatemala; s.n; 2013. 108 p. tab, ilus.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-879007

RESUMO

La flora guatemalteca es un potencial recurso para la investigación de plantas medicinales, la cuales han sido utilizadas como alternativas para tratar enfermedades. En la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala se han realizado varios estudios que han comprobado la efectividad terapéutica de las plantas, ya que al ser confirmadas como tales, pueden ayudar a combatir enfermedades infecciosas las cuales representan en nuestro país una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad. En muchos establecimientos se dispensan plantas que dicen ser medicinales; sin embargo, su identidad puede ser dudosa, debido a que muchos de ellos se confían apenas de las propiedades organolépticas para asegurar la naturaleza de una planta determinada. La adulteración o falsificación de plantas medicinales, puede ocasionar una situación perjudicial en la enfermedad de un paciente, retardando o empeorando su curación, además de la pérdida de confianza en la actividad terapéutica de las plantas. Para lograr la calidad de un producto fitoterápeutico, es necesario describir parámetros que sirvan para verificar la identidad y calidad de una droga vegetal; por esta razón se realizó esta investigación, en la cual se establecieron las características citomorfológicas y microquímicas de cuatro plantas utilizadas medicinalmente: Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don (jacaranda), Acalypha guatemalensis Pax & Hoffm (hierba del cáncer), Simarouba glauca DC. (aceituno), Lantana camara L. (siete negritos). Para cada una de estas especies se establecieron parámetros de identidad macroscópicas en los cuales se determinó la identidad botánica a través de la observación de la planta y su correcta identificación a través de la elaboración de ejemplares de herbario. Los resultados mostraron que las platas estudiadas presentan las siguientes características: En S. glauca se observó que las características más predominantes son: cutícula muy evidente en la epidermis adaxial, estomas anomocíticos y ciclocíticos, fibras esclerénquimas, abundantes astroesclereidas en todo el mesófilo, parénquima esponjoso extenso con grandes espacios intercelulares, parénquima de almacenamiento de taninos y almidón, pecíolulo bilobulado redondeado con un único haz vascular concéntrico. Lantana camara: hoja de anfiestomáticas, mesófilo dorsiventral e inferior papiloso, epidermis unietratificada compacta, están cubiertas con una cutícula con células de tamaño regular y varios tipos de tricomas glandulares y atenuados en toda su extensión, con estomas de tipo anomocíticos y diacíticos, el sistema vascular es abierto, formando un arco aplanado en la "V" con dos haces accesorios situados dorsalmente venación es de tipo pinnada. En J. mimosifolia no se observó esclerénquima en el tejido de sostén, la forma característica del pecíolo es de forma bilobada con bordes redondeados rústicos con un haz vascular en cada lóbulo, cristales de oxalato de calcio solitarios, se observaron estomas paracíticos, tricomas glandulares y atenuados. A. guatemalensis se observaron abundantes cristales en forma de drusas de oxalato de calcio en toda la hoja, parénquima esponjoso compacto, abundantes diferentes tipos de tricomas en toda la hoja, se evidenciaron células grandes y de diferentes formas en las dos epidermis del mesófilo, con estomas paracíticos. Respecto a los parámetros de pureza, se verificó el porcentaje de humedad del material vegetal resultando inferior al 10% tal y como lo establece la Organización Mundial de la Salud; el porcentaje de cenizas totales se obtuvo mediante tres repeticiones, variando el resultado dependiendo de la especie analizada. Los parámetros anteriormente realizados a cada una de las especies, contribuirán a la elaboración de monografías de control de calidad de las especies nativas en estudio; con la finalidad de garantizar que las drogas vegetales frescas o secas provenientes de estas plantas que se utilicen ya sea en el campo de investigación o en la elaboración de fitofármacos; estén plenamente identificadas antes de su uso y/o comercial.


Assuntos
Acalypha , Jacaranda gualanday , Lantana , Simarouba , Guatemala , Plantas Medicinais
10.
Integr Zool ; 6(3): 222-6, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21910841

RESUMO

Seed dispersal and subsequent recruitment is the template on which forest regeneration takes place. Hence, considering the scale over which ecological processes occur is key for understanding the overall impact of various dispersal agents. To explore leafcutter ant (Atta colombica) dispersal effectiveness in space and time, seed movement and subsequent recruitment of a large-seeded predominately vertebrate-dispersed tree, Simarouba amara (Aubl. Simaroubaceae), was investigated on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. At each of 218 reproductive-sized adults (≥20 cm diameter at breast height), presence or absence of a leafcutter ant colony was noted, with extensive checks for Atta activity taking place at or in close proximity to seed and seedling transects, which extended 4 cardinal directions for 30 m from each reproductive female tree (n= 74). Only at 2 S. amara trees were nests observed, and in these areas a dense S. amara seedling carpet was observed. Although nearby nest and dump sites might increase local S. amara recruitment in the short term, mortality at these sites is complete or nearly so. Hence, the seed dispersal effectiveness by leafcutter ants appears to be ephemeral and likely contributes inconsequentially to the long-term recruitment and distribution patterns of the species. This finding highlights the importance of evaluating disperser effectiveness at ecologically relevant spatiotemporal scales.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Simarouba/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Panamá , Estações do Ano
11.
Exp Cell Res ; 317(1): 82-93, 2011 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20955699

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Quassia/química , Simarouba/química , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 123(3): 439-45, 2009 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19501276

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The search for new anti-cancer drugs is one of the most prominent research areas of natural products. Numerous active compounds isolated from Brazilian Cerrado plant species have been studied with promising results. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cytotoxic potential of 412 extracts from Brazilian Cerrado plants used in traditional medicine belonging to 21 families against tumor cell lines in culture. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Maceration of 50 plant species resulted in 412 hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and hydroalcohol extracts. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against human colon carcinoma (HCT-8), melanoma (MDA-MB-435), and brain (SF-295) tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed for one active extract. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-eight of the 412 tested extracts demonstrated a substantial antiproliferative effect, at least 85% inhibition of cell proliferation at 50 microg/mL against one or more cell lines. Those extracts are obtained from different parts of Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Simaroubaceae and Zingiberaceae. Complete dose-response curves were generated and IC(50) values were calculated for these active extracts against four cell lines HCT-8, MDA-MB-435, SF-295 and HL-60 (leukemia), and their direct cytotoxic effects were determined. In summary, 14 extracts of 13 species showed toxicity in all tested tumor cell lines, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.1 to 19.1 microg/mL. The strongest cytotoxic activity was found for the hexane extract of Casearia sylvestris var. lingua stem bark, with an IC(50) of 0.1 microg/mL for HCT-8, 0.9 microg/mL for SF-295, 1.2 microg/mL for MDA-MB-435, and 1.3 microg/mL for HL-60, and Simarouba versicolor root bark, with an IC(50) of 0.5 microg/mL for HCT-8, 0.7 microg/mL for SF-295, 1.5 microg/mL for MDA-MB-435, 1.1 microg/mL for HL-60. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the last extract led to the isolation of glaucarubinone, which showed pronounced activity against the four cell lines studied. Further studies of the active extracts are necessary for chemical characterization of the active compounds and more extensive biological evaluations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Magnoliopsida/química , Medicina Tradicional , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Brasil , Casearia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ecossistema , Glaucarubina/análogos & derivados , Glaucarubina/isolamento & purificação , Glaucarubina/farmacologia , Glaucarubina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estruturas Vegetais , Simarouba
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 47(6): 1327-32, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19286447

RESUMO

In order to exploit the protein rich (47.7 g/100g) simarouba meal in food/feed, studies were conducted on its chemical composition with emphasis on protein characteristics and toxic constituents. Simarouba meal contained high calcium (143 mg/100g) and sodium (79 mg/100g). Saponins with triterpenoid aglycone (3.7 g/100g), alkaloids (1.01 g/100g), phenolics (0.95 g/100g) and phytic acid (0.73 g/100g) were the major toxic constituents identified in simarouba meal. TLC and HPLC results indicated that among different fractions of simarouba saponins, one dominant fraction accounted for about 28%. Proteins of simarouba recorded high in vitro digestibility (88%). SDS-PAGE revealed four major protein bands in molecular weight ranges of 20-24, 36-45 and 55-66 kDa. Apart from, glutamic acid (23.43 g/100g protein) and arginine (10.75 g/100g protein), simarouba protein contained high essential amino acids like leucine (7.76 g/100g protein), lysine (5.62 g/100g protein) and valine (6.12 g/100g protein). Among nutritional indices, simarouba meal recorded a good EAA Index (75.02), C-PER (1.90) and PDCAAS (1.0-Adult group).


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/toxicidade , Simarouba/química , Simarouba/toxicidade , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Hemaglutininas/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Minerais/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/toxicidade , Ácido Fítico/química , Ácido Fítico/toxicidade , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Solubilidade , Inibidores da Tripsina/química , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
14.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(6): 615-8, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18949336

RESUMO

In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemisia absinthium/química , Melaleuca/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Simarouba/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cuba , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(6): 615-618, Sept. 2008. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-495740

RESUMO

In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemisia absinthium/química , Melaleuca/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Simarouba/química , Cuba , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(6)Sept. 2008. tab
Artigo em Inglês | CUMED | ID: cum-39749

RESUMO

In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed(AU)


En el presente estudio in vitro de un amplio perfil de los antimicrobianos se realizó durante tres plantas medicinales cultivadas en Cuba, a saber, Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca Leucadendron y Artemisia absinthium. Etanol extractos fueron probados para su potencial antiprotozoal contra Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum y Plasmodium falciparum. Antifúngicos se evaluaron las actividades contra Microsporum canis y Candida albicans que Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus se utilizaron como prueba de los organismos de actividad antibacteriana. La citotoxicidad fue evaluada contra la MRC-5 células. Sólo M. Leucadendron extracto mostró actividad selectiva en contra de los microorganismos probados. Aunque S. glauca expuestos fuerte actividad frente a todos los protozoos, se debe considerar no específicos. El valor de la evaluación integrada de los extractos, con especial referencia a la selectividad se examina(AU)


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemisia absinthium/química , Melaleuca/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Simarouba/química , Cuba
17.
J Nat Prod ; 69(9): 1315-8, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16989526

RESUMO

A chemical investigation of the bark of Simarouba amara, collected in Barbados, resulted in the isolation of six new triterpenes (3-8), in addition to two known compounds, 3-oxatirucalla-7, 24-dien-23-ol (1) and niloticin (2). Compound 3 is a tirucallane triterpene, while compounds 4-7 are apotirucallane derivatives containing an epsilon-lactone in ring A. Compounds 6 and 7 were obtained as a mixture that could not be separated, while compound 8 is an octanorapotirucallane derivative that lacks the C(8) side chain. The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of physical data.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Simarouba/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Barbados , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular
18.
Ecol Lett ; 9(5): 516-25, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16643297

RESUMO

The importance of dispersal for the maintenance of biodiversity, while long-recognized, has remained unresolved. We used molecular markers to measure effective dispersal in a natural population of the vertebrate-dispersed Neotropical tree, Simarouba amara (Simaroubaceae) by comparing the distances between maternal parents and their offspring and comparing gene movement via seed and pollen in the 50 ha plot of the Barro Colorado Island forest, Central Panama. In all cases (parent-pair, mother-offspring, father-offspring, sib-sib) distances between related pairs were significantly greater than distances to nearest possible neighbours within each category. Long-distance seedling establishment was frequent: 74% of assigned seedlings established > 100 m from the maternal parent [mean = 392 +/- 234.6 m (SD), range = 9.3-1000.5 m] and pollen-mediated gene flow was comparable to that of seed [mean = 345.0 +/- 157.7 m (SD), range 57.6-739.7 m]. For S. amara we found approximately a 10-fold difference between distances estimated by inverse modelling and mean seedling recruitment distances (39 m vs. 392 m). Our findings have important implications for future studies in forest demography and regeneration, with most seedlings establishing at distances far exceeding those demonstrated by negative density-dependent effects.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Simarouba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simarouba/genética , Animais , Panamá , Pólen , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vertebrados
19.
Neotrop. entomol ; 35(1): 133-138, Jan.-Feb. 2006. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-428203

RESUMO

A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae), os quais ingerem Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou animais infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 24 extratos vegetais em ninfas do quarto estádio de Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg, em condições de laboratório. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 µg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Extratos hexânicos e etanólicos de Simarouba versicolor, Guarea kunthiana, Guarea guidonia e Talauma ovata causaram mortalidade entre 20% e 95% de R. milesi em comparação com os controles, onde não houve mortalidade dos insetos. Estes dados preliminares sugerem que o extrato etanólico da casca da raiz de S. versicolor e o extrato hexânico da raiz de G. guidonia, os quais foram responsáveis pela mortalidade de 95% e 75%, respectivamente, devem ser quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar seus componentes inseticidas, a serem utilisados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Meliaceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhodnius/efeitos dos fármacos , Simarouba , Brasil
20.
Neotrop Entomol ; 35(1): 133-8, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17352079

RESUMO

Chagas' disease is chiefly transmitted by feces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae) that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or animals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of triatomines. Insecticidal activity of 24 Cerrado plant extracts belonging to five species of four families were assayed on fourth instar nymphs of Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions. For the extract application on triatomines, 50 microg of the extract were topically applied in duplicate on dorsal tergites of ten insects. Insects topically treated with acetone, ethanol, as well as insects with no treatment were used as controls. Triatomines were observed over a 28-day period. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts of Simarouba versicolor, Guarea kunthiana, Guarea guidonia and Talauma ovata caused mortality between 20% and 95% of R. milesi in comparison with the controls, which showed no insect mortality. These preliminary data suggest that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of S. versicolor and the hexanic extract of the root of G. guidonia, responsible for a 95% and 75% insect mortality, respectively, should be chemically investigated and monitored through biological assays in order to determine their insecticidal components, that could be used as a molecular model or as biorational compounds for use in insect control programmes.


Assuntos
Meliaceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhodnius/efeitos dos fármacos , Simarouba , Animais , Brasil
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