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1.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 47(7): 1173-1185, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694842

RESUMO

The gleam-glum effect is a novel sound symbolic finding that words with the /i:/-phoneme (like gleam) are perceived more positive emotionally than matched words with the /Λ/-phoneme (like glum). We provide data that not only confirm the effect but also are consistent with an explanation that /i:/ and /Λ/ articulation tend to co-occur with activation of positive versus negative emotional facial musculature respectively. Three studies eliminate selection bias by including all applicable English words from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) and the Warriner et al. (2013) database and every possible Mandarin Pinyin combination that differ only in the middle phoneme (/i:/ vs /Λ/). In Study 1, 61 U.S. undergraduates rated monosyllabic English /i:/ words as robustly more positive than matched /Λ/ words. Study 2 analyzed the Warriner et al. (2013) valence ratings, extending the gleam-glum effect to all applicable words in the database. In Study 3, 38 U.S. participants (using English) and 37 participants in China (using Mandarin Pinyin) rated word pairs under three conditions that moderate musculature activity: Read aloud (Enhance), read silently (Control), and read silently while chewing gum (Interfere). Indeed, the effect was both replicated and was significantly larger when facial musculature was enhanced than when interfered with, and the two language populations did not significantly differ. These findings confirm a robust gleam-glum effect, despite semantic noise, in English and Mandarin Pinyin. Furthermore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that this type of sound symbolism arises from the overlap in muscles used both in articulation and emotion expression. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Idioma , Humanos , Leitura , Semântica , Simbolismo
2.
Int J Psychoanal ; 102(1): 16-30, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952016

RESUMO

This paper describes the psychoanalytic treatment of a woman patient during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic, when the setting was profoundly disrupted and was transferred from in-person psychoanalysis to telephone sessions. Drawing on Bleger's formulations on the construction of the analytic frame and on André Green's on the function of the framing structure in the construction and elaboration of phantasy life, the case study shows how, in the absence of the physicality of the setting, the most primitive anxieties about the symbiotic relationship with the mother were expressed and contained in the transference and countertransference in the analysis. The author offers some considerations about the notion of "background of the uncanny", derived from Yolanda Gampel, which draws attention to the challenges when both patient and analyst are inserted into the same traumatic wider context. It is suggested that the production of an art object by the patient during this period represents a step in the elaboration of the work of mourning and towards symbolization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pesar , Amor , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Distanciamento Físico , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Contratransferência , Fantasia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Simbolismo , Transferência Psicológica
3.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 218: 275-290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019175

RESUMO

Cancer has been an important theme in literature, especially since the nineteenth century. Central dimensions of the frequent literary representations and interpretations of cancer are pathophenomenology, aetiology, diagnosis and therapy, image of the physician, subjectivity of the patient, medical institutions, social reactions and symbolism. The relationship between literature and medicine is a complex and reciprocal one marked by ontological differences. The long tradition of 'medical humanities' dating from ancient to present times is essential as human and humane medicine for the benefit and dignity of the suffering, sick and dying.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Simbolismo
4.
Cogn Sci ; 45(5): e12982, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018216

RESUMO

Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary correspondence between sound and meaning. The majority of studies on sound symbolism have focused on consonants and vowels, and the sound-symbolic properties of suprasegmentals, particularly phonation types, have been largely neglected. This study examines the size and shape symbolism of four phonation types: modal and creaky voices, falsetto, and whisper. Japanese speakers heard 12 novel words (e.g., /íbi/, /ápa/) pronounced with the four types of phonation and rated the size and roundedness/pointedness each of the 48 stimuli seemed to represent on seven-point scales. The results showed that phonation types as well as consonantal and vocalic features influenced the ratings. Creaky voice was associated with larger and more pointed images than modal voice, which was in turn associated with larger and more pointed images than whisper. Falsetto was also associated with roundedness but not with smallness. These results shed new light on the acoustic approaches to sound symbolism and suggest the significance of phonation types and other suprasegmental features in the phenomenon.


Assuntos
Idioma , Simbolismo , Audição , Humanos , Fonação , Som
5.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 28(4): 1390-1398, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821463

RESUMO

Sound symbolism refers to associations between language sounds (i.e., phonemes) and perceptual and/or semantic features. One example is the maluma/takete effect: an association between certain phonemes (e.g., /m/, /u/) and roundness, and others (e.g., /k/, /ɪ/) and spikiness. While this association has been demonstrated in laboratory tasks with nonword stimuli, its presence in existing spoken language is unknown. Here we examined whether the maluma/takete effect is attested in English, across a broad sample of words. Best-worst judgments from 171 university students were used to quantify the shape of 1,757 objects, from spiky to round. We then examined whether the presence of certain phonemes in words predicted the shape of the objects to which they refer. We found evidence that phonemes associated with roundness are more common in words referring to round objects, and phonemes associated with spikiness are more common in words referring to spiky objects. This represents an instance of iconicity, and thus nonarbitrariness, in human language.


Assuntos
Idioma , Simbolismo , Humanos , Semântica , Som
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793614

RESUMO

Animal symbolism is a prominent feature of many human societies globally. In some cases, these symbolic attributes manifest in the technological domain, influencing the decision to use the bones of certain animals and not others for tool manufacture. In southern Africa, animals feature prominently in the cosmogenic narratives of both hunter-gatherer and Bantu-speaking farmer groups. Whenever these two culturally distinct groups came into contact with each other there would be an assimilation of cosmogenic concepts of power and the adoption of certain symbolically important animals. In this paper, we report on which animals were selected to make bone tools during the first millennium AD contact period in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, and explore the extent to which this selection may have been influenced by the symbolic associations of specific animals. Our results show selective targeting of specific animals for tool manufacture at some sites, with a narrowing of the range of selected species during the first millennium AD contact period. Certain antelope tribes, such as Aepycerotini, Cephalophini and Antilopini, appear to have been deliberately avoided, thus arguing against opportunistic selection. Nor does the range of selected animals appear to show any obvious mechanical considerations, as has been noted in similar studies. We highlight the potential of ZooMS for understanding the dynamics of animal symbolism in the past.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Colágeno/análise , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fósseis , Humanos , Peptídeos/análise , Proteômica , África do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7399, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795716

RESUMO

Unlike the assumption of modern linguistics, there is non-arbitrary association between sound and meaning in sound symbolic words. Neuroimaging studies have suggested the unique contribution of the superior temporal sulcus to the processing of sound symbolism. However, because these findings are limited to the mapping between sound symbolism and visually presented objects, the processing of sound symbolic information may also involve the sensory-modality dependent mechanisms. Here, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to test whether the brain regions engaged in the tactile processing of object properties are also involved in mapping sound symbolic information with tactually perceived object properties. Thirty-two healthy subjects conducted a matching task in which they judged the congruency between softness perceived by touch and softness associated with sound symbolic words. Congruency effect was observed in the orbitofrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, medial superior frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and cerebellum. This effect in the insula and medial superior frontal gyri was overlapped with softness-related activity that was separately measured in the same subjects in the tactile experiment. These results indicate that the insula and medial superior frontal gyrus play a role in processing sound symbolic information and relating it to the tactile softness information.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa , Som , Simbolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Adulto Jovem
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e26, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599581

RESUMO

The proposed theory is broad enough to accommodate the reduction or elimination of prior influences by a variety of acts symbolizing separation (including cleansing). However, it does not account for stability in psychological variables, and is contradicted by widely documented stability in people's actual attitudes and behavior over time, in multiple domains, despite people's pervasive everyday acts of symbolic separation.


Assuntos
Atitude , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Simbolismo
9.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e8, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599591

RESUMO

According to Lee and Schwarz, the sensorimotor experience of cleansing involves separating one physical entity from another and grounds mental separation of one psychological entity from another. We propose that cleansing effects may result from symbolic cognition. Instead of viewing abstract meanings as emerging from concrete physical acts of cleansing, this physical act may be appended with pre-existing, symbolic meaning.


Assuntos
Cognição , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Simbolismo
10.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(2): 176-194, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557665

RESUMO

In this article I trace a history of the most ubiquitous visual symbol of madness: the staff. First, I argue that the staff, in its variants (such as the pinwheel) and with its attachments (such as an inflated bladder), represents madness as air. It thus represents madness as an invisible entity that must be made visible. Secondly, I claim that the staff - being iconic of other 'unwanted' categories such as vagabonds - represents the insane as outsiders. Also in this case, the staff serves the purpose of making madness visible. Through this interpretation I show that the urge to make madness visible outlives icons of insanity such as the staff, making it a constant presence in popular culture and medical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/história , Simbolismo , História do Século XV , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico
11.
J Genet Psychol ; 182(2): 116-121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427107

RESUMO

Preschool children can use external symbols to aid their executive functioning (EF). The purpose of the current study was to investigate how symbols boost EF, specifically investigating the role of psychological distancing and symbolic understanding. Preschoolers were assessed on their level of symbolic understanding and completed two EF tasks. Half the children completed the first EF task using symbols, and all children completed the second EF task without the aid of symbols. Results indicated that children in the symbol group at first did significantly worse while they were using the symbols compared to the control group, though their performance improved over time. Control group performance was significantly worse in the second EF task. Symbolic understanding was sometimes related to EF performance for children in the symbol group but not the control group. The current research highlights the complexity of symbol use to influence cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Distância Psicológica , Simbolismo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa
12.
Dev Sci ; 24(3): e13066, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231339

RESUMO

A key question in developmental research concerns how children learn associations between words and meanings in their early language development. Given a vast array of possible referents, how does the child know what a word refers to? We contend that onomatopoeia (e.g. knock, meow), where a word's sound evokes the sound properties associated with its meaning, are particularly useful in children's early vocabulary development, offering a link between word and sensory experience not present in arbitrary forms. We suggest that, because onomatopoeia evoke imagery of the referent, children can draw from sensory experience to easily link onomatopoeic words to meaning, both when the referent is present as well as when it is absent. We use two sources of data: naturalistic observations of English-speaking caregiver-child interactions from 14 up to 54 months, to establish whether these words are present early in caregivers' speech to children, and experimental data to test whether English-speaking children can learn from onomatopoeia when it is present. Our results demonstrate that onomatopoeia: (a) are most prevalent in early child-directed language and in children's early productions, (b) are learnt more easily by children compared with non-iconic forms and (c) are used by caregivers in contexts where they can support communication and facilitate word learning.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Simbolismo , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário
13.
15.
Rev. Psicol., Divers. Saúde ; 9(3): 339-350, Nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255262

RESUMO

A espera pela cirurgia cardíaca pode vir a ser prolongada, provocando vulnerabilidade psicológica aos pacientes. A análise dos sonhos facilita o acesso à linguagem simbólica e temáticas que se relacionam ao adoecimento cardíaco, internação e tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo é compreender a relação entre o conteúdo onírico e a espera pela cirurgia cardíaca, a partir do referencial teórico da Psicologia Analítica. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo e exploratório em pacientes internados em uma Unidade de Internação de Cirurgia Cardíaca. Participaram da pesquisa seis pacientes internados na unidade. Para coleta de dados, foi utilizado o prontuário multiprofissional, assim como um formulário de Registro de Sonhos e Associações. A análise dos dados aconteceu em duas etapas: análise categorial de conteúdo e ampliação simbólica. Os sonhos analisados proporcionaram um aprofundamento na vivência psíquica dos pacientes participantes e uma maior conexão com temáticas que são latentes durante o processo de hospitalização: medo da morte, fuga e transformação. Foi possível perceber a conexão dos pacientes com a possibilidade de finitude, diante da fragilidade do corpo e do coração. A falta de autonomia e controle das situações durante o processo de hospitalização fortalecem o medo da morte e a vontade de retomar a vida segura, estável, fluída, que era supostamente mais viável antes da internação, através da fuga da realidade. Entretanto, os pacientes se defrontam com o chamado da transformação em suas vidas, para além dos cortes e ajustes carnais, uma mudança de perspectiva, atitude, o que provoca mais uma vez o medo.


The wait for cardiac surgery may be prolonged, causing psychological vulnerability to patients. The analysis of dreams facilitates access to symbolic language and themes related to heart disease, hospitalization and treatment. The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between dream content and waiting for cardiac surgery, based on the theoretical framework of Analytical Psychology. A qualitative and exploratory study was performed on patients admitted to a Cardiac Surgery Inpatient Unit. Six patients in the unit participated in the research. For data collection, a multidisciplinary medical record was used, as well as a Dream and Associations Record form. Data analysis took place in two stages: categorical content analysis and symbolic expansion. The analyzed dreams provided a deepening in the psychic experience of the participating patients and a greater connection with themes that are latent during the hospitalization process: fear of death, escape and transformation. It was possible to perceive the connection of patients with the possibility of finitude, given the fragility of the body and the heart. The lack of autonomy and control of situations during the hospitalization process strengthens the fear of death and the desire to resume a safe, stable, fluid life, which was supposedly more viable before hospitalization, through the escape from reality. However, patients are faced with the call of transformation in their lives, in addition to cuts and carnal adjustments, a change in perspective, attitude, which again causes fear.


Assuntos
Simbolismo , Cirurgia Torácica , Sonhos
17.
Cogn Sci ; 44(9): e12883, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909637

RESUMO

Sound symbolism refers to non-arbitrary mappings between the sounds of words and their meanings and is often studied by pairing auditory pseudowords such as "maluma" and "takete" with rounded and pointed visual shapes, respectively. However, it is unclear what auditory properties of pseudowords contribute to their perception as rounded or pointed. Here, we compared perceptual ratings of the roundedness/pointedness of large sets of pseudowords and shapes to their acoustic and visual properties using a novel application of representational similarity analysis (RSA). Representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) of the auditory and visual ratings of roundedness/pointedness were significantly correlated crossmodally. The auditory perceptual RDM correlated significantly with RDMs of spectral tilt, the temporal fast Fourier transform (FFT), and the speech envelope. Conventional correlational analyses showed that ratings of pseudowords transitioned from rounded to pointed as vocal roughness (as measured by the harmonics-to-noise ratio, pulse number, fraction of unvoiced frames, mean autocorrelation, shimmer, and jitter) increased. The visual perceptual RDM correlated significantly with RDMs of global indices of visual shape (the simple matching coefficient, image silhouette, image outlines, and Jaccard distance). Crossmodally, the RDMs of the auditory spectral parameters correlated weakly but significantly with those of the global indices of visual shape. Our work establishes the utility of RSA for analysis of large stimulus sets and offers novel insights into the stimulus parameters underlying sound symbolism, showing that sound-to-shape mapping is driven by acoustic properties of pseudowords and suggesting audiovisual cross-modal correspondence as a basis for language users' sensitivity to this type of sound symbolism.


Assuntos
Som , Simbolismo , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
18.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 40(8): 1265-1280, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942912

RESUMO

Current research needs to be more focused on agronomical plants to effectively utilize the knowledge obtained from model plant species. Efforts to improve legumes have long employed common breeding tools. Recently, biotechnological approaches facilitated the development of improved legumes with new traits, allowing them to withstand climatic changes and biotic stress. Owing to its multiple uses and profits, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has become a prominent forage crop worldwide. This review provides a comprehensive research summary of tissue culture-based genetic transformation methods, which could be exploited for the development of transgenic alfalfa with agronomically desirable traits. Moreover, advanced bio-imaging approaches, including cutting-edge microscopy and phenotyping, are outlined here. Finally, characterization and the employment of beneficial microbes should help to produce biotechnologically improved and sustainable alfalfa cultivars.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Transformação Genética , Eletroporação , Medicago sativa/genética , Microbiota , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Simbolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609778

RESUMO

Advances in computer and communications technology have deeply affected the way we communicate. Social media have emerged as a major means of human communication. However, a major limitation in such media is the lack of non-verbal stimuli, which sometimes hinders the understanding of the message, and in particular the associated emotional content. In an effort to compensate for this, people started to use emoticons, which are combinations of keyboard characters that resemble facial expressions, and more recently their evolution: emojis, namely, small colorful images that resemble faces, actions and daily life objects. This paper presents evidence of the effect of emojis on memory retrieval through a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study. A total number of fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the experiment, during which successive stimuli were presented, containing words with intense emotional content combined with emojis, either with congruent or incongruent emotional content. Volunteers were asked to recall a memory related to the stimulus. The study of the reaction times showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations led to longer reaction times in memory retrieval compared to congruent combinations. General Linear Model (GLM) and Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods have been tested in assessing the influence of the emojis on the process of memory retrieval. The analysis of the fMRI data showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations activated the Broca's area (BA44 and BA45) in both hemispheres, the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and the inferior prefrontal cortex (BA47), compared to congruent combinations. Furthermore, compared to pseudowords, word+emoji combinations activated the left Broca's area (BA44 and BA45), the amygdala, the right temporal pole (BA48) and several frontal regions including the SMA and the inferior prefrontal cortex.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Simbolismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Comunicação , Compreensão , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Redação , Adulto Jovem
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