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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19172, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357511

RESUMO

The "bouba-kiki effect", where "bouba" is perceived round and "kiki" spiky, remains a puzzling enigma. We solve it by combining mathematical findings largely unknown in the field, with computational models and novel experimental evidence. We reveal that this effect relies on two acoustic cues: spectral balance and temporal continuity. We demonstrate that it is not speech-specific but rather rooted in physical properties of objects, creating audiovisual regularities in the environment. Round items are mathematically bound to produce, when hitting or rolling on a surface, lower-frequency spectra and more continuous sounds than same-size spiky objects. Finally, we show that adults are sensitive to such regularities. Hence, intuitive physics impacts language perception and possibly language acquisition and evolution too.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Bouba , Adulto , Humanos , Simbolismo , Som , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Percepção Auditiva
2.
Int J Psychoanal ; 103(5): 761-785, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200358

RESUMO

The author contemplates the nature of symbolic function and reviews the most important theories on the topic, proposing developments of thought. While it has variously been argued that the symbols appearing in dreams and insanity are the same as those that occur in art, religion and folklore, symbolism has never been approached systematically. Freud came across symbolism during the 1910 to 1916 period, and he suggested it had an innate origin. Though psychoanalysis has analysed the nature of creativity, it hasn't outlined the process of developing and learning symbolism in the neonatal mind.Recently, in infant observation and neuroscience, it has been argued that the newborn starts to learn symbolism from the moment he/she begins sharing a "hypercathectic" emotional state with the mother. Through maternal "hypercathexis" and identification, the newborn learns both the mechanism that creates symbols and the process of presentation, thus developing the working-through pathway that will form the preconscious, consciousness, and the sense of reality. Understanding the development of symbolism is greatly important for the treatment of severe pathologies and psychosis, which are likely caused by an altered development of symbolic functioning.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Psicanálise , Ego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Idioma , Simbolismo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2211144119, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194635

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, mask wearing has become a global phenomenon. How do masks influence wearers' behavior in everyday life? We examine the effect of masks on wearers' deviant behavior in China, where mask wearing is mostly a public-health issue rather than a political issue. Drawing on behavioral ethics research, we test two competing hypotheses: (a) masks disinhibit wearers' deviant behavior by increasing their sense of anonymity and (b) masks are a moral symbol that reduces wearers' deviant behavior by heightening their moral awareness. The latter hypothesis was consistently supported by 10 studies (including direct replications) using mixed methods (e.g., traffic camera recording analysis, observational field studies, experiments, and natural field experiment) and different measures of deviant behavior (e.g., running a red light, bike parking in no-parking zones, cheating for money, and deviant behavior in the library). Our research (n = 68,243) is among the first to uncover the psychological and behavioral consequences of mask wearing beyond its health benefits.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Princípios Morais , Simbolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 76(3): 201-209, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482624

RESUMO

During his distinguished career, Bill Hockley contributed to memory research in many ways, with work characterized by rigorous and innovative experimental designs. One of the areas he has explored is that of memory for associative information. We echo this interest here and attempt to emulate his careful experimental attitude. We report four experiments which examined how previously established links can support the development of new episodic associations. More specifically, we tested the idea that sound-symbolism links can support learning of new associations. Sound-symbolism links are relationships between phonemes and object characteristics that participants find natural-even if they have never encountered the items before. For instance, the nonword "honulo" is more readily seen to refer to a shape with curved contours than to a shape that has sharp angles. In Experiment 1, 70 participants studied three pairs and their memory for the associations between the members of each pair was tested in a paired-recognition task. Results demonstrate that sound-symbolism associations support the learning of new associations. Experiment 2 confirmed that the effect is replicated in a between-participants design. In Experiment 3, we replicated the findings with a 30-s filled interval between presentation and test, and in Experiment 4, we extended the delay to 2 min, establishing that the pattern is also found with a paradigm more typical of episodic memory. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of associative memory, while referring to some of the ideas Bill Hockley championed in his own work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Memória de Longo Prazo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Simbolismo
6.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 48(3): 432-445, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073137

RESUMO

We investigated whether native Finnish speakers can grasp the meaning of Russian onomatopoeic words without any prior knowledge of the Russian language. In Experiment 1, elicitation test, naïve listeners generated associations for the acoustic events depicted by onomatopoeic words they heard. A cluster analysis suggested presence of different types of cues that affect the elicitation of associations. In the Facilitating cluster, associations were mostly correct; in the Counteracting cluster, they were predominantly incorrect. Worthy of note, many of the incorrect associations were systematic. In the Mixed cluster, there was a combination of cues; and in the Undefined cluster, no discrete cues affecting the formation of common associations were found. In Experiment 2, the same stimulus words were used in an eye-tracking experiment using visual world paradigm. It was shown that the participants have even better chances to map the onomatopoeic words to the correct semantic domain when extralinguistic information is available, in this case target images presented on the experimental display. The availability of both audio and visual inputs substantially boosted this process in all four clusters. Our findings support the view that imitative sound symbolism offers a scaffolding material for connecting onomatopoeias to their referents when words are pronounced in isolation. Cross-linguistic sound symbolism offers a good explanation to the presence of different cues that affect semantic recognition of unknown onomatopoeic words. On a larger scale, cross-linguistic similarities in onomatopoeias may be part of a broader phenomenon, universal sound symbolism, form-meaning mapping shared by a wide array of languages. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Idioma , Humanos , Semântica , Som , Simbolismo
8.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 151(5): 1107-1114, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694857

RESUMO

Vowels are sound-symbolically associated with valence. Specifically, words containing /i/ (vs. /o/) are judged more suitable to denote positive (vs. negative) objects. Here, we examine the psychological processes driving valence sound symbolism by testing competing predictions for the vowel /y/. The articulatory hypothesis predicts /y/ to be associated with negative valence, because its articulation inhibits smiling; while the pitch-based hypothesis predicts /y/ to be associated with positive valence, because of its high intrinsic pitch. In four experiments, /i/ was associated with more positive valence than both /o/ and /y/ when reading (Experiments 1-3) and when hearing words (Experiment 4). The more negative valence of /y/ compared with /i/ supports the articulatory hypothesis; the similar (or even more negative) valence of /y/ compared with /o/ contradicts the pitch-based hypothesis. Thus, the present finding suggests that valence sound symbolism has its basis rather in articulatory than auditory phoneme properties. This advances our understanding of psychological processes in valence-vowel associations and in sound symbolism more generally. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Simbolismo , Humanos , Som
9.
Cogn Sci ; 45(11): e13059, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758146

RESUMO

Larger communities face more communication barriers. We propose that languages spoken by larger communities adapt and overcome these greater barriers by increasing their reliance on sound symbolism, as sound symbolism can facilitate communication. To test whether widely spoken languages are more sound symbolic, participants listened to recordings of the words big and small in widely spoken and less common languages and guessed their meanings. Accuracy was higher for words from widely spoken languages providing evidence that widely spoken languages harbor more sound symbolism. Preliminary results also suggest that widely spoken languages rely on different sound symbolic patterns than less common languages. Community size can thus shape linguistic forms and influence the tools that languages use to facilitate communication.


Assuntos
Idioma , Simbolismo , Percepção Auditiva , Comunicação , Humanos , Som
10.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 186: 107552, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763073

RESUMO

The ability to use symbols is a defining feature of human intelligence. However, neuroscience has yet to explain the fundamental neural circuit mechanisms for flexibly representing and manipulating abstract concepts. This article will review the research on neural models for symbolic processing. The review first focuses on the question of how symbols could possibly be represented in neural circuits. The review then addresses how neural symbolic representations could be flexibly combined to meet a wide range of reasoning demands. Finally, the review assesses the research on program synthesis and proposes that the most flexible neural representation of symbolic processing would involve the capacity to rapidly synthesize neural operations analogous to lambda calculus to solve complex cognitive tasks.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem , Rede Nervosa , Simbolismo , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Neurociências
11.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 47(7): 1173-1185, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694842

RESUMO

The gleam-glum effect is a novel sound symbolic finding that words with the /i:/-phoneme (like gleam) are perceived more positive emotionally than matched words with the /Λ/-phoneme (like glum). We provide data that not only confirm the effect but also are consistent with an explanation that /i:/ and /Λ/ articulation tend to co-occur with activation of positive versus negative emotional facial musculature respectively. Three studies eliminate selection bias by including all applicable English words from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) and the Warriner et al. (2013) database and every possible Mandarin Pinyin combination that differ only in the middle phoneme (/i:/ vs /Λ/). In Study 1, 61 U.S. undergraduates rated monosyllabic English /i:/ words as robustly more positive than matched /Λ/ words. Study 2 analyzed the Warriner et al. (2013) valence ratings, extending the gleam-glum effect to all applicable words in the database. In Study 3, 38 U.S. participants (using English) and 37 participants in China (using Mandarin Pinyin) rated word pairs under three conditions that moderate musculature activity: Read aloud (Enhance), read silently (Control), and read silently while chewing gum (Interfere). Indeed, the effect was both replicated and was significantly larger when facial musculature was enhanced than when interfered with, and the two language populations did not significantly differ. These findings confirm a robust gleam-glum effect, despite semantic noise, in English and Mandarin Pinyin. Furthermore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that this type of sound symbolism arises from the overlap in muscles used both in articulation and emotion expression. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Idioma , Humanos , Leitura , Semântica , Simbolismo
12.
Br J Hist Sci ; 54(4): 423-441, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490840

RESUMO

This essay explores the research practice of French geometer Michel Chasles (1793-1880), from his 1837 Aperçu historique up to the preparation of his courses on 'higher geometry' between 1846 and 1852. It argues that this scientific pursuit was jointly carried out on a historiographical and a mathematical terrain. Epistemic techniques such as the archival search for and comparison of manuscripts, the deconstructive historiography of past geometrical methods, and the epistemologically motivated periodization of the history of mathematics are shown to have played a crucial role in the shaping of Chasles's own theories. In particular, we present Chasles's approach to the 'material history' of algebraic symbolism and argue that it motivated and informed his subsequent invention of a novel notational technology for the writing of geometrical proofs and propositions. In return, this technology allowed Chasles to carry out a programme for the modernization of geometry in keeping with epistemic requirements he had also delineated via a form of historical writing.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Arquivos , História do Século XX , Matemática , Simbolismo , Tecnologia
14.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e817, 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357320

RESUMO

Los artistas cubanos han dedicado obras de variados géneros para homenajear al doctor Carlos J. Finlay Barrés y su meritorio trabajo investigativo sobre la fiebre amarilla, enfermedad causante de epidemias y defunciones, en su época, en Cuba y otros países. Las artes plásticas tienen una sustancial impronta en reconocimientos al sabio, lo que hace usual su presencia en obras escultóricas del paisaje urbanístico cubano. Entre estas, se destaca por su belleza y localización, la del escultor Juan J. Sicre Vélez. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo contribuir al conocimiento de la obra escultórica dedicada por Sicre al sabio y destacar su trascendental significación para la medicina y la ciencia cubana. La escultura y su temática por su significación para la medicina y la ciencia realzan la identidad cultural de la nación cubana. Su emplazamiento en áreas del Hospital Militar Central Dr. Carlos J. Finlay, en Marianao, tiene simbolismo por ser la localidad donde Finlay desarrolló la mayor parte de las investigaciones conducentes a su teoría sobre el modo de contagio y el agente transmisor de la fiebre amarilla. La obra escultórica es también un hermoso homenaje a los médicos y trabajadores de la salud que prestan servicios médicos humanitarios en Cuba y en otros países. Por su contenido estético y temático, la escultura es un estimable recurso didáctico para desarrollar las estrategias educativas en la formación del personal de la salud(AU)


Cuban artists have dedicated works of various genres to honor Dr. Carlos J. Finlay Barrés and his meritorious investigative work on yellow fever, a disease that causes epidemics and deaths, in its time, in Cuba and other countries. The plastic arts have a substantial mark in recognizing the sage, which makes their presence usual in sculptural works of the Cuban urban landscape. Among these, the one of the sculptor Juan J. Sicre Vélez stands out for its beauty and location. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the sculptural work dedicated by Sicre to the sage and highlight its transcendental significance for Cuban medicine and science. The sculpture and its theme due to its significance for medicine and science enhance the cultural identity of the Cuban nation. Its location in areas of the Central Military Hospital Dr. Carlos J. Finlay, in Marianao, has symbolism for being the town where Finlay developed most of the research leading to his theory on the mode of contagion and the transmitting agent of yellow fever. The sculptural work is also a beautiful tribute to the doctors and health workers who provide humanitarian medical services in Cuba and in other countries. Due to its aesthetic and thematic content, sculpture is a valuable didactic resource to develop educational strategies in the training of health personnel(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Escultura , Febre Amarela , Simbolismo , Conhecimento , Medicina , Escultura/história
15.
Multisens Res ; 35(1): 29-78, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384048

RESUMO

Sound symbolism refers to the association between the sounds of words and their meanings, often studied using the crossmodal correspondence between auditory pseudowords, e.g., 'takete' or 'maluma', and pointed or rounded visual shapes, respectively. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, participants were presented with pseudoword-shape pairs that were sound-symbolically congruent or incongruent. We found no significant congruency effects in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal when participants were attending to visual shapes. During attention to auditory pseudowords, however, we observed greater BOLD activity for incongruent compared to congruent audiovisual pairs bilaterally in the intraparietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus, and in the left middle frontal gyrus. We compared this activity to independent functional contrasts designed to test competing explanations of sound symbolism, but found no evidence for mediation via language, and only limited evidence for accounts based on multisensory integration and a general magnitude system. Instead, we suggest that the observed incongruency effects are likely to reflect phonological processing and/or multisensory attention. These findings advance our understanding of sound-to-meaning mapping in the brain.


Assuntos
Som , Simbolismo , Percepção Auditiva , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Idioma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(9): 957-959, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446166
17.
J Neurosci ; 41(35): 7435-7448, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341155

RESUMO

Musical imagery is the voluntary internal hearing of music in the mind without the need for physical action or external stimulation. Numerous studies have already revealed brain areas activated during imagery. However, it remains unclear to what extent imagined music responses preserve the detailed temporal dynamics of the acoustic stimulus envelope and, crucially, whether melodic expectations play any role in modulating responses to imagined music, as they prominently do during listening. These modulations are important as they reflect aspects of the human musical experience, such as its acquisition, engagement, and enjoyment. This study explored the nature of these modulations in imagined music based on EEG recordings from 21 professional musicians (6 females and 15 males). Regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate that imagined neural signals can be predicted accurately, similarly to the listening task, and were sufficiently robust to allow for accurate identification of the imagined musical piece from the EEG. In doing so, our results indicate that imagery and listening tasks elicited an overlapping but distinctive topography of neural responses to sound acoustics, which is in line with previous fMRI literature. Melodic expectation, however, evoked very similar frontal spatial activation in both conditions, suggesting that they are supported by the same underlying mechanisms. Finally, neural responses induced by imagery exhibited a specific transformation from the listening condition, which primarily included a relative delay and a polarity inversion of the response. This transformation demonstrates the top-down predictive nature of the expectation mechanisms arising during both listening and imagery.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It is well known that the human brain is activated during musical imagery: the act of voluntarily hearing music in our mind without external stimulation. It is unclear, however, what the temporal dynamics of this activation are, as well as what musical features are precisely encoded in the neural signals. This study uses an experimental paradigm with high temporal precision to record and analyze the cortical activity during musical imagery. This study reveals that neural signals encode music acoustics and melodic expectations during both listening and imagery. Crucially, it is also found that a simple mapping based on a time-shift and a polarity inversion could robustly describe the relationship between listening and imagery signals.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Ocupações , Simbolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Psychoanal ; 102(1): 16-30, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952016

RESUMO

This paper describes the psychoanalytic treatment of a woman patient during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic, when the setting was profoundly disrupted and was transferred from in-person psychoanalysis to telephone sessions. Drawing on Bleger's formulations on the construction of the analytic frame and on André Green's on the function of the framing structure in the construction and elaboration of phantasy life, the case study shows how, in the absence of the physicality of the setting, the most primitive anxieties about the symbiotic relationship with the mother were expressed and contained in the transference and countertransference in the analysis. The author offers some considerations about the notion of "background of the uncanny", derived from Yolanda Gampel, which draws attention to the challenges when both patient and analyst are inserted into the same traumatic wider context. It is suggested that the production of an art object by the patient during this period represents a step in the elaboration of the work of mourning and towards symbolization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pesar , Amor , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Distanciamento Físico , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Contratransferência , Fantasia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Simbolismo , Transferência Psicológica
19.
Cogn Sci ; 45(5): e12982, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018216

RESUMO

Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary correspondence between sound and meaning. The majority of studies on sound symbolism have focused on consonants and vowels, and the sound-symbolic properties of suprasegmentals, particularly phonation types, have been largely neglected. This study examines the size and shape symbolism of four phonation types: modal and creaky voices, falsetto, and whisper. Japanese speakers heard 12 novel words (e.g., /íbi/, /ápa/) pronounced with the four types of phonation and rated the size and roundedness/pointedness each of the 48 stimuli seemed to represent on seven-point scales. The results showed that phonation types as well as consonantal and vocalic features influenced the ratings. Creaky voice was associated with larger and more pointed images than modal voice, which was in turn associated with larger and more pointed images than whisper. Falsetto was also associated with roundedness but not with smallness. These results shed new light on the acoustic approaches to sound symbolism and suggest the significance of phonation types and other suprasegmental features in the phenomenon.


Assuntos
Idioma , Simbolismo , Audição , Humanos , Fonação , Som
20.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 218: 275-290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019175

RESUMO

Cancer has been an important theme in literature, especially since the nineteenth century. Central dimensions of the frequent literary representations and interpretations of cancer are pathophenomenology, aetiology, diagnosis and therapy, image of the physician, subjectivity of the patient, medical institutions, social reactions and symbolism. The relationship between literature and medicine is a complex and reciprocal one marked by ontological differences. The long tradition of 'medical humanities' dating from ancient to present times is essential as human and humane medicine for the benefit and dignity of the suffering, sick and dying.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Simbolismo
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