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2.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 26(1): 50-56, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722588

RESUMO

Background: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is an important predictor of both immediate and long-term outcomes in valve surgeries. Levosimendan has proven beneficial in improving RV function. Aims: The objective was to study the effect of the addition of levosimendan to the conventional treatment on RV function in patients with RV dysfunction undergoing mitral valve (MV) surgeries. Setting and Design: Prospective randomized double-blinded controlled study at a tertiary care institution. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients aged 15-65 years, with preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings of RV dysfunction posted for elective MV surgery, were randomized into levosimendan (L) group and placebo (P) group. Patients in the L group were administered levosimendan at a rate of 0.1 mcg/kg/min after induction for 24 hrs, whereas patients in the P group were given multivitamin infusion at the same rate. Both the groups received standard inotropic therapy. The hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters of RV function (RV size, Inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, RV fractional area change (RVFAC) Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), and Systolic Pulmonary Artery Pressure (SPAP) were compared between the groups at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 7th day postoperatively. Results: All hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters of RV function like RV size, IVC diameter, RVFAC, TAPSE, and SPAP improved from baseline to 24 hrs in both groups. Levosimendan caused a significant improvement in RV function compared to the P group at 24 hrs and 7th day postoperatively. Conclusions: The present study concludes that levosimendan is a promising option in patients with RV dysfunction undergoing MV surgeries.


Assuntos
Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Humanos , Simendana , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/tratamento farmacológico , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Função Ventricular Direita
3.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 25(4): 472-478, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254913

RESUMO

Background: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly leading to progressive left ventricular dysfunction and mitral regurgitation. We conducted this study to investigate various measures to optimize the outcomes of surgical correction for ALCAPA. Materials And Methods: This was a single-centre, retrospective, observational study including consecutive patients operated for ALCAPA. The main outcomes evaluated were in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Independent sample t- test and Fisher's exact test were used for the analysis of continuous and categorical variables respectively. Results: 31 patients underwent surgical correction for ALCAPA during the study duration. The median age was 7.3 months with a range of 21 days to 25 months. All patients underwent coronary re-implantation with the coronary button transfer technique. There was no in-hospital mortality, the mean duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay was 117.6 hours and 10.7 days respectively. Age at admission, development of acute kidney injury after surgery, lactate levels at 12- and 24-hours post-surgery, and heart rate at ICU admission and 12-hours post-surgery were significantly associated with mechanical ventilation duration longer than 48 hours. Use of a combination of levosimendan and milrinone and elective intermittent nasal continuous positive airway pressure ventilation after extubation in all patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction were helpful in preventing low cardiac output and need for reintubation post-surgery respectively. Conclusion: Surgical correction for ALCAPA by coronary re-implantation has an excellent short-term outcome. Optimal postoperative management is of utmost importance for achieving the best results.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bland-White-Garland , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Bland-White-Garland/complicações , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/complicações , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Hospitais , Lactatos , Milrinona , Artéria Pulmonar/anormalidades , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Simendana , Resultado do Tratamento , Pré-Escolar
4.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(12): 1537-1553, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the relative efficacy of supportive therapies (inotropes, vasopressors, and mechanical circulatory support [MCS]) for adult patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. SOURCE: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis and searched six databases from inception to December 2021 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs). We evaluated inotropes, vasopressors, and MCS in separate networks. Two reviewers performed screening, full-text review, and extraction. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to rate the certainty in findings. The critical outcome of interest was 30-day all-cause mortality. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 17 RCTs. Among inotropes (seven RCTs, 1,145 patients), levosimendan probably reduces mortality compared with placebo (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.87; moderate certainty), but primarily in lower severity shock. Milrinone (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.39; low certainty) and dobutamine (OR, 0.67, 95% CI, 0.30 to 1.49; low certainty) may have no effect on mortality compared with placebo. With regard to MCS (eight RCTs, 856 patients), there may be no effect on mortality with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.28; low certainty) or percutaneous MCS (pMCS) (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.98; low certainty), compared with a strategy involving no MCS. Intra-aortic balloon pump use was associated with less major bleeding compared with pMCS. We found only two RCTs evaluating vasopressors, yielding insufficient data for meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: The results of this systematic review and network meta-analysis indicate that levosimendan reduces mortality compared with placebo among patients with low severity cardiogenic shock. Intra-aortic balloon pump and pMCS had no effect on mortality compared with a strategy of no MCS, but pMCS was associated with higher rates of major bleeding. STUDY REGISTRATION: Center for Open Science ( https://osf.io/ky2gr ); registered 10 November 2020.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Comparer l'efficacité relative des thérapies de soutien (inotropes, vasopresseurs et assistance circulatoire mécanique [ACM]) chez les patients adultes atteints d'un choc cardiogénique compliquant un infarctus aigu du myocarde. SOURCES: Nous avons réalisé une revue systématique et une méta-analyse en réseau et effectué des recherches dans six bases de données depuis leur création jusqu'à décembre 2021 pour en tirer les études randomisées contrôlées (ERC). Nous avons évalué les inotropes, les vasopresseurs et les ACM dans des réseaux distincts. Deux réviseurs ont effectué la recherche, l'évaluation du texte intégral et l'extraction. Nous avons utilisé le système de notation GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) pour évaluer la certitude des résultats. Le critère d'évaluation d'intérêt était la mortalité toutes causes confondues à 30 jours. CONSTATATIONS PRINCIPALES: Nous avons inclus 17 ERC. Parmi les inotropes (sept ERC, 1145 patients), le lévosimendan a probablement réduit la mortalité par rapport au placebo (rapport de cotes [RC], 0,53; intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 %, 0,33 à 0,87; certitude modérée), mais principalement en cas de choc de sévérité moindre. La milrinone (RC, 0,52; IC 95 %, 0,19 à 1,39; certitude faible) et la dobutamine (RC, 0,67, IC 95 %, 0,30 à 1,49; certitude faible) pourraient n'avoir aucun effet sur la mortalité par rapport au placebo. En ce qui concerne l'ACM (huit ERC, 856 patients), il pourrait n'y avoir aucun effet sur la mortalité avec un ballon intra-aortique (IABP) (RC, 0,94; IC 95 %, 0,69 à 1,28; certitude faible) ou un ACM percutané (ACMp) (RC, 0,96; IC 95 %, 0,47 à 1,98; certitude faible), par rapport à une stratégie sans ACM. L'utilisation d'un ballon intra-aortique était associée à moins de saignements majeurs par rapport à une ACMp. Nous n'avons trouvé que deux ERC évaluant les vasopresseurs, ce qui n'a pas fourni suffisamment de données pour la méta-analyse. CONCLUSION: Les résultats de cette revue systématique et de la méta-analyse en réseau indiquent que le lévosimendan réduit la mortalité par rapport au placebo chez les patients présentant un choc cardiogénique de faible gravité. Le ballon intra-aortique et l'ACMp n'ont eu aucun effet sur la mortalité par rapport à une stratégie sans ACM, mais l'ACMp était associée à des taux plus élevés de saignements majeurs. ENREGISTREMENT DE L'éTUDE: Center for Open Science ( https://osf.io/ky2gr ); enregistrée le 10 novembre 2020.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Choque Cardiogênico , Adulto , Humanos , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Metanálise em Rede , Simendana/uso terapêutico , Balão Intra-Aórtico/efeitos adversos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(18): 1173-1182, 2022 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070734

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) is a comparably seldom but fatal entity. The definition of cardiogenic shock - unlike e. g. septic shock - is not uniform. Immediate revascularization is central to the patient's prognosis in AMI-CS. Patients who continue to meet the criteria of shock despite revascularization should be hemodynamically phenotyped to allow guidance of personalized subsequent therapy. Antiplatelet medication is the cornerstone for maintaining myocardial (re)perfusion. In hypotension, norepinephrine should be used as the first-line vasopressor, depending on afterload and after compensation for possible hypovolemia. Dobutamine is recommended to increase inotropy, possibly augmented or substituted by calcium sensitizers such as levosimendan. PDE-III (phosphodiesterase enzyme type III)-inhibitors should be used with restraint in myocardial infarction. Dopamine is no longer recommended in Europe. A sasodilator may be an option in highly selected patients with AMI-CS. This review will provide a detailed updated overview on pharmacological treatment modalities and indications in individual patients.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/complicações , Simendana/uso terapêutico
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113391, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076524

RESUMO

Levosimendan was introduced into routine clinical practice in 2000, obtaining approval for the treatment of decompensation of severe chronic heart failure. Levosimendan increases the calcium sensitivity of contractile proteins by binding to myocardial troponin C (cTnC) in a calcium dependent manner. Apart from the mechanism of action of levosimendan, resulting directly in the improvement of heart function, a number of pleiotropic mechanisms have also been identified, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Pharmacokinetics of levosimendan is linear in a therapeutic dose range i.e. from 0.05 to 0.2 µg/kg/min. Therapeutic concentration of levosimendan is reached approximately 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion, and steady state is reached within 5 h after continuous infusion initiation. OR-1855 and OR-1896 are the only significant metabolites detected in the systemic circulation after administration of levosimendan. After a 24-hour infusion of levosimendan, the pharmacodynamic effect of the drug is observed for at least one week. Repetitive levosimendan infusions are safe and multiple infusions of levosimendan show a number of benefits. However, experience with multiple doses of levosimendan is scarce. The protocols of clinical trials conducted so far on repeated and intermittent infusions of levosimendan were developed subjectively and were based on the opinion of experts forming a given research team. There is still a need for more clinical research on the multidirectional effect of levosimendan in the group of patients with heart failure. The aim of this review was to summarize most relevant and up-to-date scientific data on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic basis of levosimendan repetitive use in clinical practice that may assist in bedside decision making.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Piridazinas , Cálcio , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Simendana/uso terapêutico
7.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 11(11): 818-825, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156131

RESUMO

AIMS: High-risk cardiac surgery is commonly complicated by low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS), which is associated with high mortality. There are limited data derived from multi-centre studies with adjudicated endpoints describing factors associated with LCOS and its downstream clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Requiring Cardiopulmonary Bypass (LEVO-CTS) trial evaluated prophylactic levosimendan vs. placebo in patients with a reduced ejection fraction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or valve surgery. We conducted a pre-specified analysis on LCOS, which was characterized by a four-part definition. We constructed a multivariable logistical regression model to evaluate risk factors associated with LCOS and performed Cox proportional hazards modelling to determine the association of LCOS with 90-day mortality. A total of 186 (22%) of 849 patients in the LEVO-CTS trial developed LCOS. The factors most associated with a higher adjusted risk of LCOS were pre-operative ejection fraction [odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.46 per 5% decrease] and age (OR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24 per 5-year increase), whereas isolated CABG surgery (OR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.31-0.64) and levosimendan use (OR 0.65; 95% CI: 0.46-0.92) were associated with a lower risk of LCOS. Patients with LCOS had worse outcomes, including renal replacement therapy at 30-day (10 vs. 1%) and 90-day mortality (16 vs. 3%, adjusted hazard ratio of 5.04, 95% CI: 2.66-9.55). CONCLUSION: Low cardiac output syndrome is associated with a high risk of post-operative mortality in high-risk cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Piridazinas , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Humanos , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/etiologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Hidrazonas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Simendana/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
8.
Circulation ; 146(17): 1310-1322, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in adverse cardiac remodeling between patients who have bicuspid (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) with severe isolated aortic stenosis (AS) and its prognostic impact after surgical aortic valve replacement remains unclear. We sought to investigate differences in preoperative diastolic and systolic function in patients with BAV and TAV who have severe isolated AS and the incidence of postoperative heart failure hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-one patients with BAV (n=152) or TAV (n=119) and severe isolated AS without coronary artery disease or other valvular heart disease, scheduled for surgical aortic valve replacement, were prospectively included. Comprehensive preoperative echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic function was performed. The heart failure events were registered during a mean prospective follow-up of 1260 days versus 1441 days for patients with BAV or TAV, respectively. RESULTS: Patients with BAV had a more pronounced LV hypertrophy with significantly higher indexed LV mass ([LVMi] 134 g/m2 versus 104 g/m2, P<0.001), higher prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction (72% versus 44%, P<0.001), reduced LV ejection fraction (55% versus 60%, P<0.001), significantly impaired global longitudinal strain (P<0.001), significantly higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide) levels (P=0.007), and a higher prevalence of preoperative levosimendan treatment (P<0.001) than patients with TAV. LVMi was associated with diastolic dysfunction in both patients with BAV and TAV. There was a significant interaction between aortic valve morphology and LVMi on LV ejection fraction, which indicated a pronounced association between LVMi and LV ejection fraction for patients with BAV and lack of association between LVMi and LV ejection fraction for patients with TAV. Postoperatively, the patients with BAV required significantly more inotropic support (P<0.001). The patients with BAV had a higher cumulative incidence of postoperative heart failure admissions compared with patients with TAV (28.2% versus 10.6% at 6 years after aortic valve replacement, log-rank P=0.004). Survival was not different between patients with BAV and TAV (log-rank P=0.165). CONCLUSIONS: Although they were significantly younger, patients with BAV who had isolated severe AS had worse preoperative LV function and an increased risk of postoperative heart failure hospitalization compared with patients who had TAV. Our findings suggest that patients who have BAV with AS might benefit from closer surveillance and possibly earlier intervention.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Remodelação Ventricular , Estudos Prospectivos , Simendana , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(15): 5596-5600, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a higher risk of acute right heart failure (RHF) due to primary right ventricle (RV) dilation and systemic inflammatory response, which in turn lead to microvascular and cardiomyocytes dysfunction, local hypoxia and multi-organ failure. In this clinical setting, levosimendan could be a viable therapy thanks to its right-heart tropism and its additional pleiotropic properties. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 72 years-old man with positive nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 infection, mild pulmonary involvement and clinical signs of new-onset RHF. We started a 12-hour levosimendan cycle to improve RV performance and reduce cardiac filling pressures. RESULTS: We obtained a net clinical benefit in terms of acute RHF-related signs and symptoms, progressive renal and liver function improvement and concomitant reduction of high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. CONCLUSIONS: Acute RHF during SARS-CoV-2 infection could be related to a convergent widespread systemic inflammatory response. Thanks to its anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling properties, levosimendan might represent a viable therapy in this clinical setting, contributing to the dampening of the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Simendana/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
11.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(4): 419-425, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792520

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite increasing interest in the management of cardiogenic shock (CS), mortality rates remain unacceptably high. The mainstay of supportive treatment includes vasopressors and inotropes. These medications are recommended in international guidelines and are widely used despite limited evidence supporting safety and efficacy in CS. RECENT FINDINGS: The OptimaCC trial further supports that norepinephrine should continue to be the first-line vasopressor of choice in CS. The CAPITAL DOREMI trial found that milrinone is not superior to dobutamine in reducing morbidity and mortality in CS. Two studies currently underway will offer the first evidence of the necessity of inotrope therapy in placebo-controlled trials: CAPITAL DOREMI2 will randomize CS patients to inotrope or placebo in the initial resuscitation of shock to evaluate the efficacy of inotrope therapy and LevoHeartShock will examine the efficacy of levosimendan against placebo in early CS requiring vasopressor therapy. SUMMARY: Review of the current literature fails to show significant mortality benefit with any specific vasopressor or inotropic in CS patients. The upcoming DOREMI 2 and levosimendan versus placebo trials will further tackle the question of inotrope necessity in CS. At this time, inotrope selection should be guided by physician experience, availability, cost, and most importantly, individual patients' response to therapy.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos , Choque Cardiogênico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Dobutamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Simendana/uso terapêutico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
12.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 39(8): 646-655, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) after congenital cardiac surgery has an incidence of up to 25%. Preventing and treating LCOS is of pivotal importance as LCOS is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review assesses the safety and efficacy of peri-operative levosimendan administration in the setting of paediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Meta-analyses were performed on efficacy and exploratory outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Literature was searched in the following databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and CENTRAL) from inception to July 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing levosimendan with other inotropes or placebo in children younger than 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery. RESULTS: Nine studies enrolling a total of 539 children could be included in the systematic review. All trials study the prophylactic administration of levosimendan in comparison with placebo ( n   =  2), milrinone ( n  = 6) or dobutamine ( n   =  1). Levosimendan dosing varied considerably with only three studies using a loading dose. Levosimendan reduced the incidence of LCOS [risk ratio (RR) 0.80] [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40 to 0.89, P  = 0.01] and increased cardiac index (MD 0.17 l min -1  m -2 ) (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.28, P  = 0.003) without affecting other outcomes (mortality, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, serum lactate, central venous oxygen saturation, serum creatine or acute kidney injury). CONCLUSION: The prophylactic use of levosimendan in children undergoing cardiac surgery reduced the incidence of LCOS and increased cardiac index compared with other inotropes or placebo. This effect did not translate into an improvement of other clinical endpoints.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia , Piridazinas , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/etiologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Simendana/uso terapêutico
13.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(4): 101107, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of preoperative levosimendan on mortality at day 90 in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%, and to investigate a possible differential effect between patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus CABG combined with valve replacement surgery. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of two multicentre randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating prophylactic levosimendan versus placebo prior to CABG surgery on mortality at day 90 in patients with LVEF ≤ 40%. A meta-analysis of all RCT investigating the same issue was also conducted. RESULTS: A cohort of 1084 patients (809 isolated CABG, and 275 combined surgery) resulted from the merging of LEVO-CTS and LICORN databases. Seventy-two patients were dead at day 90. The mortality at day 90 was not different between levosimendan and placebo (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.73, 95% CI: 0.41-1.28, p = 0.27). However, there was a significant interaction between the type of surgery and the study drug (p = 0.004). We observed a decrease in mortality at day 90 in the isolated CABG subgroup (HR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19-0.82, p = 0.013), but not in the combined surgery subgroup (HR: 1.73, 95% CI: 0.77-3.92, p = 0.19). The meta-analysis of 6 RCT involving 1441 patients confirmed the differential effect on mortality at day 30 between the 2 subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative levosimendan did not reduce mortality in a mixed surgical population with LV dysfunction. However, the subgroup of patients undergoing isolated CABG had a reduction in mortality at day 90, whereas there was no significant effect in combined surgery patients. This finding requires confirmation with a specific prospective trial.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Simendana/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 158, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the safety and efficacy of preoperative levosimendan in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. METHODS: Consecutive patients who received LVADs (HeartMate-2, 3, HVAD) in a single tertiary medical center (2012-2018). INTERMACS profile 1 patients were excluded. The primary outcome was post-LVAD right ventricular failure (RVF) and inhospital mortality rates. The secondary outcomes included other clinical, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters at follow-up. RESULTS: Final cohort consisted of 62 patients (40[65%] in the levosimendan group and 22[35%] in the no-levosimendan group). Post-operative RVF rate and inotrope or ventilation support time were similar in the levosimendan and no-levosimendan groups (7.5% vs. 13.6%; P = 0.43, median of 51 vs. 72 h; P = 0.41 and 24 vs. 27 h; P = 0.19, respectively). Length of hospitalization, both total and in the intensive care unit, was not statistically significant (median days of 13 vs. 16; P = 0.34, and 3 vs. 4; P = 0.44, respectively). Post-operative laboratory and echocardiographic parameters and in-hospital complication rate did not differ between the groups, despite worse baseline clinical parameters in the Levosimendan group. There was no significant difference in the in-hospital and long term mortality rate (2.5% vs. 4.5%; P > 0.999 and 10% vs. 27.3% respectively; P = 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan infusion prior to LVAD implantation was safe and associated with comparable results without significant improved post-operative outcomes, including RVF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Simendana , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia
15.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 60(3): 304-314, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763357

RESUMO

Background: Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most frequent cyanotic heart diseases in our country, occupying the second place reported by the national health program 2007- 2012 and its prevalence is around 11%. Patients undergoing correction for tetralogy of Fallot are considered patients with a prolonged ischemic time and a high risk of presenting low cardiac output syndrome. Objective: To compare levosimendan with milrinone to prevent low cardiac output syndrome in patients undergoing tetralogy of Fallot correction. Material and methods: Randomized controlled open, prospective, longitudinal and comparative clinical trial. The sample size consisted of 19 patients, with a 95% confidence level. Group 1: levosimendan 0.1 mcg/kg/min from anesthetic induction. Group 2: conventional management with milrinone 0.5 mcg/kg/min. Results: When comparing the final measurements, it can be observed that the mean arterial pressure of the intervention group (levosimendan) was statistically significant (p = 0.04), both in the intraoperative measurement and in the final measurement. When comparing uresis, we found that the intervention group had a greater amount of uresis (p = 0.03). Regarding lactate, both in the intraoperative measurement (p = 0.002) and in the final measurement (p = 0.02), a lower amount was found in the intervention group. Conclusions: The results in favor of the use of levosimendan were reported, demonstrating the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome.


Introducción: la tetralogía de Fallot es una de las cardiopatías cianóticas más frecuentes de nuestro país, pues ocupa el segundo lugar reportado por el Programa Nacional de Salud 2007-2012 y su prevalencia se sitúa aproximadamente en 11%. Los pacientes sometidos a corrección de tetralogía de Fallot se consideran pacientes con un tiempo de isquemia prolongado y con riesgo alto de presentar síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco. Objetivo: comparar levosimendán con milrinona para prevenir el síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco en pacientes operados de corrección de tetralogía de Fallot. Material y métodos: ensayo clínico aleatorizado, controlado, abierto, prospectivo, longitudinal y comparativo. El tamaño de la muestra se estimó en 19 pacientes, con un nivel de confianza del 95%. En el grupo 1 se empleó 0.1 mcg/kg/min de levosimendán desde la inducción anestésica; en el grupo 2 se usó el manejo convencional con milrinona de 0.5 mcg/kg/min. Resultados: al comparar las mediciones finales se pudo observar que la presión arterial media del grupo de intervención (levosimendán) fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0.04), tanto en la medición transoperatoria como en la medición final. Al comparar la uresis encontramos que el grupo con intervención tuvo mayor cantidad de uresis (p = 0.03). En cuanto al lactato, tanto en la medición transoperatoria (p = 0.002) como en la medición final (p = 0.02) se encontró una menor cantidad en el grupo de intervención. Conclusiones: se reportaron los resultados a favor del uso del levosimendán, pues se demostró que previene el síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco.


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/prevenção & controle , Cardiotônicos , Piridazinas , Tetralogia de Fallot , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/etiologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Milrinona/farmacologia , Milrinona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Simendana/uso terapêutico , Síndrome , Tetralogia de Fallot/complicações , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
16.
Int J Artif Organs ; 45(6): 571-579, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) provides temporary haemodynamic support in refractory cardiogenic shock. Recent retrospective studies on levosimendan on V-A ECMO weaning had conflicting results. This study aimed to determine the association between levosimendan on V-A ECMO weaning success in a tertiary centre in Hong Kong. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit in Hong Kong. All adult patients requiring V-A ECMO from January 2016 to September 2020 were included. Patients who were given levosimendan were compared to patients who were not, on rates of successful V-A ECMO weaning. The groups were also compared after propensity matching based on covariates closely associated with the use of levosimendan. RESULTS: A total of 119 patients were included in the study, with 38 in the levosimendan group and 81 in the non-levosimendan group. Patients treated with levosimendan trended towards improved weaning success, but the difference was not statistically significant (63% vs 53%, p = 0.404). In the propensity-matched groups, there was no difference in weaning success (odds ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.23-8.00). The levosimendan group was associated with lower vasopressor requirement, lower lactate levels, and more significant drop in lactate in the first 2 days of V-A ECMO. The levosimendan group had longer ECMO duration. There was no difference in other secondary outcomes including mortality, length of stay in ICU and hospital and duration of mechanical ventilation. There was no difference in the rate of ventricular arrhythmias. CONCLUSION: Levosimendan did not improve V-A ECMO weaning success in our cohort with refractory cardiogenic shock.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Adulto , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Humanos , Lactatos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Simendana/uso terapêutico
17.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 135, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501683

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of levosimendan in patients with acute myocardial infarction related ventricular septal rupture (AMI-VSR) underwent cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with propensity score analysis. PATIENTS: There were 261 patients with AMI-VSR in our study. After 1:1 propensity matching, 106 patients (53 levosimendan and 53 control) were selected in the matched cohort. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Patients who received levosimendan were assigned to the levosimendan group (n = 164). The patients who were not received were levosimendan assigned to the control group (n = 97). The levosimendan was initiated immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass. Then, it has been maintained during the postoperative 3 days. The poor outcomes were identified as follows: death and postoperative complications (postoperative stroke, low cardiac output syndromeneeded mechanical circulatory support after surgery, acute kidney injury (≥ stage III), postoperative infection or septic shock, new developed atrial fibrillation or ventricular arrhythmias). MAIN RESULTS: Before matching, the control group had more length of ICU stay (6.69 ± 3.90 d vs. 5.20 ± 2.24 d, p < 0.001) and longer mechanical ventilation time (23 h, IQR: 16-53 h vs. 16 h, IQR: 11-23 h, p < 0.001). Other postoperative outcomes have not shown significant differences between two groups. After matching, no significant difference was found between both groups for all postoperative outcomes. The Kaplan-Meier survivul estimate and log-rank test showed that the 90-day survival had no significant differences between two groups before and after matching. CONCLUSION: Our study found that a low-dose infusion of levosimendan in AMI-VSR patients underwent surgical repair did not associated with positively affect to postoperative outcomes.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Piridazinas , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular , Doença Aguda , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Simendana , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 79(6): 781-790, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507915

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Levosimendan and milrinone are 2 effective inotropic drugs used to maintain cardiac output in acute heart failure (AHF). Using data from patients with AHF with and without abnormal renal function, we performed this single-center, retrospective cohort study to compare the effectiveness and safety of milrinone and levosimendan for the initial management of AHF. Patients admitted for heart failure between December 2016 and September 2019 who received levosimendan or milrinone as initial inotrope therapy in the cardiology department were identified. A total of 436 levosimendan and 417 milrinone patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥30 mL/min and 50 levosimendan and 71 milrinone patients with CrCl <30 mL/min or on dialysis were included. The primary outcome was a composite of changes in clinical status at 15 and 30 days after initial inotrope therapy discontinuation. Between subgroups of patients with CrCl ≥30 mL/min, there were no significant differences in primary outcomes; milrinone was associated with more frequent hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias during the infusion period (P < 0.01), while levosimendan was associated with more frequent cardiac arrhythmias within 48 hours after discontinuation (P < 0.05). Of the patients with CrCl <30 mL/min or on dialysis, more initial levosimendan than milrinone patients and those who switched to alternative inotropes experienced clinical worsening at 15 days and 30 days (P < 0.05). According to our results, patients with AHF with severe renal dysfunction should avoid initial inotrope therapy with levosimendan.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Nefropatias , Piridazinas , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrazonas/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Milrinona/efeitos adversos , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Simendana/efeitos adversos
20.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 62(4)2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical studies have indicated minor beneficial effects of the calcium sensitizer levosimendan on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, the influence of levosimendan administered 24 h before cardiac arrest on myocardial function was examined in rat hearts perfused in a Langendorff model. METHODS: Levosimendan (Levo group) or NaCl (control group) was administered to 53 rats via drinking water 24 h prior to mounting excised hearts on a Langendorff apparatus. Cardiac arrest with or without cardioplegia was induced in both groups; another set of hearts was perfused continuously. During 90-min reperfusion at 36°C, functional parameters were measured and normalized to baseline values. Troponin I was quantified in coronary sinus effluent, and the functionality of isolated cardiomyocytes was studied. RESULTS: Oral application of levosimendan showed therapeutic efficacy. Baseline values were similar in the Levo and NaCl groups except for coronary flow. After ischaemia and reperfusion, Levo hearts did not recover better than NaCl hearts {left ventricular derived pressure: 63 [standard deviation (SD): 36.2] vs 46 (SD: 41.8)% baseline; P = 0.386}, In hearts exposed to cardioplegia, functional recovery only slightly differed in the Levo and NaCl groups [left ventricular derived pressure: 69.96 (SD: 12.7) vs 51.89 (SD: 28.1)% baseline; P = 0.09]. Cell shortening of cardiomyocytes isolated from hearts exposed to ischaemia or perfusion was better in Levo groups [cell shortening: 7.65 (SD: 1.95) %; 7.8 (SD: 1.79)% vs 6.28 (SD: 1.67)%; 6.5 (SD: 1.87)%, P < 0.001]; this benefit was absent in cardioplegia-treated hearts. CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan applied orally before ischaemia/reperfusion improves functional recovery, but this effect is only moderate when cardioplegia is included. Differences between hearts exposed to cardioplegia or to global ischaemia may indicate why levosimendan-related beneficial effects do not directly translate into better clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Parada Cardíaca , Animais , Cálcio , Soluções Cardioplégicas/farmacologia , Soluções Cardioplégicas/uso terapêutico , Parada Cardíaca Induzida , Isquemia , Ratos , Reperfusão , Simendana , Cloreto de Sódio , Troponina I
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