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1.
Trop Biomed ; 39(1): 60-65, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507926

RESUMO

Simulium triglobus Takaoka & Kuvangkadilok from Thailand, in the Simulium (Simulium) multistriatum species-group, is unique among species in the family Simuliidae in having the female terminalia with three spermathecae (rather than one spermatheca). This species was described from Nan province, northern Thailand based on larvae, pupae and females but its male has remained unknown. In this study, the male of S. triglobus is described for the first time based on adult males reared from pupae collected from the type locality. The most distinctive characteristic of the male of S. triglobus is the shape of the ventral plate, which is hexagonal when viewed ventrally. No other members of S. multistriatum species group known thus far have such a unique ventral plate. In addition, the number of upper-eye (large) facets and color patterns of the legs can be used to differentiate this species in the male from other members of the S. multistriatum species-group. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequences enabled association of adult male specimens of S. triglobus with previously known life stages. Phylogenetic analysis based on these sequences revealed that specimens of S. triglobus formed a strongly supported monophyletic clade, being genetically distinct from other members of S. multistriatum species-group in Thailand.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa , Tailândia
2.
Trop Biomed ; 39(1): 78-85, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507929

RESUMO

The Simulium gombakense species-group, one of the 15 species-groups of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein, is small, being represented by only 12 species, all of which are distributed in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by the pupal gill composed of an inflated structure and eight or ten slender filaments. Among the 12 species, S. sachini Takaoka & Henry, and S. williei Takaoka & Thapa were originally described from two pupae, and one pupa and two larvae, respectively, from Darjeeling, India. In the present paper, the adult females and males of these species are described for the first time from specimens reared from pupae collected at the type locality. Simulium sachini is distinctive in the female by the claw with a medium-sized basal tooth, and in the male by the somewhat enlarged, spindle- shaped hind basitarsus and ventral plate with its ventral margin much depressed medially, while S. williei is characterized by the small number of male upper-eye (large) facets in 12 vertical columns and 13 or 14 horizontal rows and ventral plate much produced posteroventrally. Taxonomic notes are given to separate these two species in the adult stage from their related species.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Larva , Masculino , Pupa
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010340, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annual mass drug administrations (MDA) of ivermectin will strongly reduce Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) in the skin and in the onchocerciasis patients' eyes. Ivermectin treatment will also affect the expression of immunity in patients, such that activated immune defenses may help control and contribute to clearance of mf of O. volvulus. Longitudinal surveys are a prerequisite to determining the impact of ivermectin on the status of anti-parasite immunity, notably in risk zones where parasite transmission and active O. volvulus infections persist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Onchocerciasis patients were treated annually with ivermectin and their Onchocerca volvulus antigen (OvAg) specific IgG and cellular responses were investigated before and at 30 years post initial ivermectin treatment (30yPT). Repeated annual ivermectin treatments eliminated persisting O. volvulus microfilariae (mf) from the skin of patients and abrogated patent infections. The OvAg-specific IgG1 and IgG4 responses were diminished at 30yPT to the levels observed in endemic controls. Prior to starting ivermectin treatment, OvAg-induced cellular productions of IL-10, IFN-γ, CCL13, CCL17 and CCL18 were low in patients, and at 30yPT, cellular cytokine and chemokine responses increased to the levels observed in endemic controls. In contrast, mitogen(PHA)- induced IL-10, IFN-γ, CCL17 and CCL18 cellular production was diminished. This divergent response profile thus revealed increased parasite antigen-specific but reduced polyclonal cellular responsiveness in patients. The transmission of O. volvulus continued at the patients' location in the Mô river basin in central Togo 2018 and 2019 when 0.58% and 0.45%, respectively, of Simulium damnosum s.l. vector blackflies carried O. volvulus infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Repeated annual ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis patients durably inhibited their patent O. volvulus infections despite ongoing low-level parasite transmission in the study area. Repeated MDA with ivermectin affects the expression of immunity in patients. O. volvulus parasite-specific antibody levels diminished to levels seen in infection-free endemic controls. With low antibody levels, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic responses against tissue-dwelling O. volvulus larvae will weaken. O. volvulus antigen inducible cytokine and chemokine production increased in treated mf-negative patients, while their innate responsiveness to mitogen declined. Such lower innate responsiveness in elderly patients could contribute to reduced adaptive immune responses to parasite infections and vaccines. On the other hand, increased specific cellular chemokine responses in mf-negative onchocerciasis patients could reflect effector cell activation against tissue invasive larval stages of O. volvulus. The annual Simulium damnosum s.l. biting rate observed in the Mô river basin was similar to levels prior to initiation of MDA with ivermectin, and the positive rtPCR results reported here confirm ongoing O. volvulus transmission.


Assuntos
Volvo Intestinal , Onchocerca volvulus , Oncocercose , Parasitos , Simuliidae , Idoso , Animais , Citocinas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Interleucina-10 , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Microfilárias , Mitógenos/uso terapêutico , Onchocerca , Simuliidae/parasitologia , Togo/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010320, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study reports knowledge of residents of Alabameta community, Osun State, Nigeria on the bioecology and socio-economic burden of black flies and onchocerciasis. METHODS: Using structured questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), a total of 150 community respondents participated in the study. RESULTS: The knowledge of the residents on the existence of black flies in the community was significant (p<0.05) as all the 150 respondents confirmed the presence of black flies with the local name 'Amukuru' i.e causing itching. However, their lack of knowledge of the flies breeding site (104) (69%), prevention (134) (89%), cause (132) (88%), and treatment (133) (89%) of onchocerciasis was profound. Majority 147(98%) of the respondents reported that flies bite more in the wet season as against dry season 3(2%) and have a higher affinity (124) (82%) for biting the leg than any other part of the body. A larger percentage (89%) of the respondents are unaware of any medication for the treatment of onchocerciasis while 11% are aware. There had been no sensitization on onchocerciasis according to 89% of the respondents. CONCLUSION: Due to lack of resident's knowledge on black flies bioecology which may continuously expose them to the bite of the flies and ultimately infection, it is paramount that the Osun State government and the NTD implementing partner map out new public health education strategies during routine Mass Administration of Medicines with Ivermectin with a view to preventing onchocerciasis infection as well as man-vector contact.


Assuntos
Oncocercose , Simuliidae , Animais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(3): e0010005, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis ("river blindness"), is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted to humans through repeated bites by infective blackflies of the genus Simulium. Moxidectin was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the treatment of onchocerciasis in people at least 12 years of age. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered moxidectin in 18- to 60-year-old men and women infected with Onchocerca volvulus were investigated in a single-center, ivermectin-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-ascending-dose, ascending severity of infection study in Ghana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were randomized to either a single dose of 2, 4 or 8 mg moxidectin or ivermectin. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected prior to dosing and at intervals up to 12 months post-dose from 33 and 34 individuals treated with 2 and 4 mg moxidectin, respectively and up to 18 months post-dose from 31 individuals treated with 8 mg moxidectin. Moxidectin plasma concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Moxidectin plasma AUC0-∞ (2 mg: 26.7-31.7 days*ng/mL, 4 mg: 39.1-60.0 days*ng/mL, 8 mg: 99.5-129.0 days*ng/mL) and Cmax (2mg, 16.2 to17.3 ng/mL, 4 mg: 33.4 to 35.0 ng/mL, 8 mg: 55.7 to 74.4 ng/mL) were dose-proportional and independent of severity of infection. Maximum plasma concentrations were achieved 4 hours after drug administration. The mean terminal half-lives of moxidectin were 20.6, 17.7, and 23.3 days at the 2, 4 and 8 mg dose levels, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We found no relationship between severity of infection (mild, moderate or severe) and exposure parameters (AUC0-∞ and Cmax), T1/2 and Tmax for moxidectin. Tmax, volume of distribution (V/F) and oral clearance (CL/F) are similar to those in healthy volunteers from Europe. From a pharmacokinetic perspective, moxidectin is an attractive long-acting therapeutic option for the treatment of human onchocerciasis.


Assuntos
Onchocerca volvulus , Oncocercose , Simuliidae , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Trop ; 230: 106387, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227649

RESUMO

Simulium (Simulium) thilorsuense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae and mature larvae in Thailand. It is placed to the S. striatum species-group, and is distinguished from all the seven species of this species-group recorded from Thailand in the male by the greater number of male upper-eye (large) facets in 20 vertical columns and 19 or 20 horizontal rows, and in the pupa by the combination of the arrangement (2+3+3+2 from dorsal to ventral) and subequal thickness of gill filaments, and tubercles on the frons without secondary projection. It is similar in the female, male and pupa to S. (S.) pingtungense Huang & Takaoka from Taiwan but is distinguished in the larva by the presence of paired protuberances on abdominal segments 1-8 (absence in the latter species). It is similar to S. (S.) grisescens Brunetti from India, S. (S.) perakense Takaoka &Ya'cob from Peninsular Malaysia, and S. (S.) taythienense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob from Vietnam by sharing many characteristics including the haired basal portion of the female radius, dark legs of both female and male, male scutum with brassy short hairs, pupal gill with 10 filaments of the almost same thickness, arranged as 2+3+3+2 from dorsal to ventral, and larval abdomen with paired dorsal protuberances, but is distinguished from these three species by the greater number of male upper-eye (large) facets. Our genetic analysis using the fast-evolving nuclear big zinc finger (BZF) gene sequences revealed that this new species has an intraspecific variation ranging from 0.00% to 1.38%, and is separated from six Thai known species of the S. striatum species-group with an interspecific variation of 2.00-4.56%.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Feminino , Larva/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Simuliidae/genética , Tailândia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264750, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245320

RESUMO

Ecological control of blackflies (Simulium damnosum) can be an alternative or additional tool to enhance onchocerciasis elimination efforts. However, limited research is conducted on the ecology of blackflies in Ethiopia. In this study, we determined the habitat preference of blackfly larvae and their relationship with aquatic macroinvertebrate predators in the Omo Gibe river basin of southwest Ethiopia. Environmental and biological data were collected from 150 sampling sites during both dry and wet seasons in 2019. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were used to identify factors affecting the occurrence and abundance of S. damnosum larvae. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to investigate the relationship between environmental and biological variables and the abundance of S. damnosum larvae. The findings of this study indicated the abundance of S. damnosum larvae increased with increasing turbidity, alkalinity and altitude, but decreased with increasing concentrations of five-day Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), orthophosphate and magnesium ion. Both the presence and abundance of S. damnosum larvae decreased with the increasing abundance of stonefly larvae (Perlidae). Simulium damnosum larvae were found less likely in the presence of mayfly larvae (Baetidae) and were less abundant where Chironomidae are abundant. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that the habitat preference of S. damnosum larvae is determined by environmental factors and that the presence and abundance of the larvae are affected by macroinvertebrate predators. It is essential to establish buffer zones as a part of watershed management to retain pollutants and prevent them from entering directly into water courses to improve water quality and the assemblages of macroinvertebrate predators and enhance biocontrol of blackflies.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Oncocercose , Simuliidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Etiópia , Insetos , Larva , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Rios
8.
Acta Trop ; 230: 106386, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248580

RESUMO

Mermithids are parasites of black flies that cause host mortality along with physical and behavioural changes in infected hosts. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the distribution of mermithids infecting black fly larvae and the factors that influence these distributions in Asia, including Malaysia. A total of 13,116 mid- to late-instar black fly larvae belonging to 42 species were collected from 138 streams across East and West Malaysia and screened for the presence of mermithid parasites. Overall, 121 mermithids were obtained from 107 (0.82%) larvae of nine (21.4%) black fly species. The average number of mermithids per black fly host was 1.10 ± 0.04 (SE), ranging from one to three mermithids per host. Mermithid infection was highest in Simulium trangense, with a frequency of occurrence of 6.5%, followed by S. cheongi (5.8%) and S. angulistylum complex (2.9%). Infection was lowest in S. brevipar and S. tahanense, with a frequency of occurrence of 0.7% each. Regression analysis indicated that mermithid infections in larval black flies were significantly associated with cooler and shallower streams with more canopy cover, dense riparian vegetation, high dissolved oxygen, and lower conductivity and complete pH. Forward logistic regression further indicated that infections in S. cheongi were associated with shaded, cooler, slightly acidic streams with higher conductivity and dissolved oxygen. These findings suggest that mermithid infections in larval black flies in Malaysia are not randomly distributed and are influenced by the breeding habitat of their hosts.


Assuntos
Mermithoidea , Parasitos , Simuliidae , Animais , Larva , Malásia/epidemiologia , Oxigênio , Simuliidae/parasitologia
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(3): 220, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201429

RESUMO

Onchocerciasis is a disease transmitted by blackfly vector of the genus Simuliumdamnosum complex having public and socio-economic consequences. The abundance of blackfly is directly linked to fluvial ecosystems in both tropical and non-tropical countries of the world. This study assessed the ecology of blackfly breeding sites in two tributaries of River Ogun located in Olokemeji and Lisa villages, Ogun State. A total of eighteen water samples were collected for physicochemical analysis during high rainfall (May, June and July), low rainfall (August, September and October) and dry season (November and December) with mean rainfall values of 163.17, 88.03 and 8.95 mm, respectively, in both tributaries. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature (oC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total solids (TS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), hardness (H), sulphate (SO4), phosphate (PO4), alkalinity, acidity, nitrate (NO3) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were analysed using standard laboratory methods. Digestive enzymes were analysed using 1 g of frozen gut of Simulium larvae grounded with 20 ml of 0.067 g of potassium hydrogen and 20 ml of 0.1 M sodium reagent. A total of 766 and 482 samples of Simulium larvae were collected from Olokemeji and Lisa tributaries using Eppendorf tubes. The zooplanktons collected from Olokemeji and Lisa tributary were 904 and 802, while phytoplanktons collected from Olokemeji and Lisa tributary were 635 and 582 during the study period. Data obtained were analysed using both descriptive analysis and T-test. The results obtained for the physicochemical parameters were 28.7 °C, 137.5 µS/cm, 6.3, 248.1 mg/L, 58 mg/L, 108.8 mg/L, 90.8 mg/L, 2.24 mg/L, 2.24 mg/L, 30.76 mg/L, 42.35 mg/L, 1.99 mg/L, 2.07 mg/L and 2.55 mg/L for Temperature, EC, pH, TS, DO, BOD, TSS, H, SO4, PO4, alkalinity, acidity, NO3 and TDS, respectively. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences between the means of EC, pH, TS, TDS, TSS and hardness of Lisa tributary, and water samples were also viewed under an electron microscope for zooplanktons and phytoplanktons. The values of species diversity which were greater than 0.5 indicated that the species were abundant and evenly distributed. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences between the tributaries in all the digestive enzymes except amylase content. The regression analysis between TSS, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, acidity, hardness, TS, pH and Simulium larvae abundance showed a positive correlation, R2 with values of 0.828, 0.994, 0.948, 0.933, 0.986, 0.997, 0.889 and 0.981, respectively. The R2 values between Simulium larvae abundance with phytoplanktons and rainfall have values of 0.868 at p < 0.01 and 0.911 at p < 0.05.


Assuntos
Rios , Simuliidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nigéria
10.
Am Nat ; 199(1): 168-177, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978972

RESUMO

AbstractThe black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica exhibits polyphenic development resulting in alternate small black and large amber male morphs. Although the behavior, ecology, and physiology of both morphs are being scrutinized, the evolutionary origins of the nutritional polyphenism remain poorly understood. I here use a comparative approach to study variation in the degree of melanization of the forefemur-a secondary sexual trait. Melanization showed nutritional plasticity in all species, and character mapping suggests polyphenic development to represent the ancestral character state that was lost repeatedly. That is, interspecific variation among the studied species is mainly caused by the loss and not the gain of polyphenic development. Coevolution between male melanization and mating system differences further implicates sexual selection in the evolution of male melanization. These findings highlight the usefulness of comparative and natural history data in shedding new light on the evolution of phenotypic variation.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Caracteres Sexuais , Seleção Sexual
11.
Acta Trop ; 228: 106313, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038426

RESUMO

Adult females and males reared from pupae of Simulium sp. from Tak Province and those of S. chiangdaoense Takaoka & Srisuka from four localities in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand, were molecularly and morphologically compared. Simulium sp. is morphologically almost indistinguishable from S. chiangdaoense except the hair tuft at the base of the radius of the adult female and male, which is composed of yellow and dark hairs (in place of yellow hairs only). Molecular analysis using COI gene sequences shows that S. sp. formed a distinct clade and was separated from S. chiangdaoense by a genetic distance of 1.56-2.44%. Based on the results of morphological and molecular analyzes, S. sp. is described as a new species, S. mokroense, from females, males, pupae and mature larvae. It is also found that S. chiangdaoense is genetically diverse, with five lineages, and is morphologically variable in the number of male upper-eye (large) facets, which are in 13 to 17 vertical columns and 14 to 17 horizontal rows on each side. This is a first case, in which the difference in the color of the wing tuft hairs is a clue leading to the discovery of a new cryptic species close to S. chiangdaoense.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Pupa/anatomia & histologia , Pupa/genética , Tailândia
12.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106301, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986384

RESUMO

Understanding genetic structure and diversity of insect vectors is crucial for disease epidemiology. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequences were used to infer genetic diversity, genetic structure and population history of the black fly, Simulium chumpornense Takaoka and Kuvangkadilok, a suspected vector of blood protozoa of the genus Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma. High intraspecific genetic divergence (max. 3.76%) was found among 142 specimens obtained from 19 locations across Thailand. A median joining network revealed two genetic lineages (A and B) that were geographically associated. Lineage A is representative of central and northeastern regions. Lineage B represents specimens from diverse locations in northern, western, and southern Thailand, including the type locality. Mismatch distribution and the neutrality tests provided signals of past population expansions in both lineages. The expansion time dating back to the end of last glaciations at 12,000 - 15,000 years ago is possibly related to increasing of precipitation at the end of last glacial period. Despite recent population history, population pairwise FST analysis revealed that almost all population comparisons were genetically significantly different. The high level of genetic structuring is possibly a result of historical isolation of the population that survived in different refugia sites during the dry conditions during glaciations.


Assuntos
Haemosporida , Simuliidae , Animais , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/genética , Insetos Vetores , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Simuliidae/genética , Simuliidae/parasitologia , Tailândia
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 98: 105200, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the emergent zoonotic disease risk posed by the voracious human-biting blackfly species Simulium oyapockense in the peripheral regions of an expanding urban centre situated deep in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. METHODS: We performed nine human landing catches at three periurban sites surrounding the Brazilian Amazon town of São Gabriel da Cachoeira. Using the detection of non-human primate filarial parasites as an indicator of the zoonotic disease threat posed by a biting insect, we screened 3328 S. oyapockense blackflies for the presence of zoonotic filarial DNA with an ITS-1 PCR assay and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Between 98 and 100% of the biting insects captured during our nine collections were identified as S. oyapockense; at our three collection sites and during our three seasonally-distinct collections this species was captured at rates between 28 and 294 blackflies per hour. PCR screening of the march-collected S. oyapockense detected infectious-stage (L3) Mansonella mariae parasites (which are only known to infect non-human primates) in >0.15% of the tested head samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that residents of the periurban regions of São Gabriel da Cachoeira are routinely exposed to the bites of S. oyapockense blackflies which have previously fed on non-human primates.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Mansonella/isolamento & purificação , Mansonelose/veterinária , Simuliidae/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Mansonelose/parasitologia , Mansonelose/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010108, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In onchocerciasis endemic areas in Africa, heterogenous biting rates by blackfly vectors on humans are assumed to partially explain age- and sex-dependent infection patterns with Onchocerca volvulus. To underpin these assumptions and further improve predictions made by onchocerciasis transmission models, demographic patterns in antibody responses to salivary antigens of Simulium damnosum s.l. are evaluated as a measure of blackfly exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recently developed IgG and IgM anti-saliva immunoassays for S. damnosum s.l. were applied to blood samples collected from residents in four onchocerciasis endemic villages in Ghana. Demographic patterns in antibody levels according to village, sex and age were explored by fitting generalized linear models. Antibody levels varied between villages but showed consistent patterns with age and sex. Both IgG and IgM responses declined with increasing age. IgG responses were generally lower in males than in females and exhibited a steeper decline in adult males than in adult females. No sex-specific difference was observed in IgM responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The decline in age-specific antibody patterns suggested development of immunotolerance or desensitization to blackfly saliva antigen in response to persistent exposure. The variation between sexes, and between adults and youngsters may reflect differences in behaviour influencing cumulative exposure. These measures of antibody acquisition and decay could be incorporated into onchocerciasis transmission models towards informing onchocerciasis control, elimination, and surveillance.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Saliva/imunologia , Simuliidae/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Onchocerca volvulus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/transmissão , Simuliidae/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0158021, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985334

RESUMO

Stress-associated dysbiosis of microbiome can have several configurations that, under an energy landscape conceptual framework, can change from one configuration to another due to different alternating selective forces. It has been proposed-according to the Anna Karenina Principle-that in stressed individuals the microbiome are more dispersed (i.e., with a higher within-beta diversity), evidencing the grade of dispersion as indicator of microbiome dysbiosis. We hypothesize that although dysbiosis leads to different microbial communities in terms of beta diversity, these are not necessarily differently dispersed (within-beta diversity), but they form disrupted networks that make them less resilient to stress. To test our hypothesis, we select nutrient restriction (NR) stress that impairs host fitness but does not introduce overt microbiome selectors, such as toxic compounds and pathogens. We fed the polyphagous black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, with two NR diets and a control full-nutrient (FN) diet. NR diets were dysbiotic because they strongly affected insect growth and development, inducing significant microscale changes in physiochemical conditions of the gut compartments. NR diets established new configurations of the gut microbiome compared to FN-fed guts but with similar dispersion. However, these new configurations driven by the deterministic changes induced by NR diets were reflected in rarefied, less structured, and less connected bacterial interactomes. These results suggested that while the dispersion cannot be considered a consistent indicator of the unhealthy state of dysbiotic microbiomes, the capacity of the community members to maintain network connections and stability can be an indicator of the microbial dysbiotic conditions and their incapacity to sustain the holobiont resilience and host homeostasis. IMPORTANCE Changes in diet play a role in reshaping the gut microbiome in animals, inducing dysbiotic configurations of the associated microbiome. Although studies have reported on the effects of specific nutrient contents on the diet, studies regarding the conditions altering the microbiome configurations and networking in response to diet changes are limited. Our results showed that nutrient poor diets determine dysbiotic states of the host with reduction of insect weight and size, and increase of the times for developmental stage. Moreover, the poor nutrient diets lead to changes in the compositional diversity and network interaction properties of the gut microbial communities. Our study adds a new component to the understanding of the ecological processes associated with dysbiosis, by disentangling consequences of diets on microbiome dysbiosis that is manifested with the disruption of microbiome networking properties rather than changes in microbiome dispersion and beta diversity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Simuliidae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Nutrientes/análise , Simuliidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simuliidae/metabolismo
16.
Parasitol Int ; 87: 102515, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781013

RESUMO

Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are among the most bothersome blood-sucking dipterans causing severe irritation and distress to poultry, wild birds, animals, and humans globally. These insects are vectors of viruses, bacteria, parasitic protozoans, and nematodes of humans and animals. Parasitic protozoa belonging to Haemosporida (Apicomplexa) are distributed worldwide and black flies are the principal vectors of avian haemosporidian parasites of the genus Leucocytozoon, a common parasite of birds. Based on the detection of parasite DNA in insects, 13 black fly species were reported to be potential vectors of Leucocytozoon in Europe. Information about which species of Simulium can play a role in the transmission of Leucocytozoon parasites is insufficient and needs to be developed. The aim of our study was to determine which black fly species are involved in the transmission of Leucocytozoon parasites in the Eastern Europe. The black fly females were collected in Lithuania using entomological net. They were morphologically identified, dissected to prepare salivary glands preparations, and then screened for the presence of Leucocytozoon parasites using microscopy and PCR-based methods. In all, we collected 437 black fly females belonging to eight species. The DNA of Leucocytozoon (genetic lineage lCOCO18) was detected in one of analysed females identified as Simulium maculatum. All salivary gland preparations were negative for the presence of Leucocytozoon sporozoites. Our results included S. maculatum as a potential vector of Leucocytozoon parasites. Increasing the knowledge on vector ecology, behaviour and improving collection methods may be the key to understand the evolution and diversity of these parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Simuliidae/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Aves , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Haemosporida/genética , Humanos , Lituânia , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Glândulas Salivares/parasitologia
17.
Med Vet Entomol ; 36(1): 97-112, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784079

RESUMO

Geographical distribution and abundance of the pupae of six blackfly species of medical and veterinary concern were studied in eastern Spain according to three different sets of explanatory variables including in-stream variables, both (i) abiotic (i.e., physicochemical) and (ii) biotic (i.e., richness and abundance of either taxonomically or ecologically close related taxa), as well as (iii) meteorological and landscape variables. The results showed specific habitat requirements for pupation in Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776) and Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758), two of the six species studied regarding elevation and temperature. While the rest of the species showed a certain degree of ecological overlap, co-occurrence was in general low, which suggested that antagonistic biotic factors may be important in structuring blackfly assemblages. In effect, biotic predictors explained a high proportion (50%-70%) of the variability in the abundance of the pupae of the most generalist blackfly species, although further studies are needed to disentangle the sign of interspecific interactions. At the landscape level, S. (W.) equinum and S. (W.) pseudequinum Séguy, 1921 breeding habitats were associated with the presence of pig farms, and S. (Simulium) reptans (Linnaeus, 1758) and S. (B.) erythrocephalum with the presence of cattle.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Pupa , Espanha , Suínos , Temperatura
18.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106207, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687650

RESUMO

Simulium (Gomphostilbia) omutaense Ogata & Sasa, 1954 is the only named species in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein recorded from Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. It represents the northernmost distribution of this species-group, of which most members are distributed in the Oriental region. This species, the only member of the Simulium omutaense subgroup, is unique among the seven subgroups of the S. batoense species-group by having the pupal gill with one long filament and seven short filaments, similar to the arrangement of the pupal gill filaments in the S. zonatum subgroup of the S. epistum species-group in the same subgenus. This species is fully redescribed based on adults, pupal exuviae and mature larvae, and is most similar to species of the S. decuplum subgroup, based on adult morphological characteristics, although the pupal gill of the latter subgroup is markedly different by having 10 or 12 short filaments. Its close relationship to the S. decuplum subgroup is supported by a DNA analysis using COI gene sequences, with genetic distances of 9.30-11.02%. On the other hand, genetic distances between S. (G.) omutaense and species of the S. zonatum subgroup were 16.32-16.93%. Our study shows that a similar arrangement of the pupal gills in two different species-groups, which is rarely seen, has evolved independently and its occurrence does not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relationships.


Assuntos
Sasa , Simuliidae , Animais , Japão , Larva , Filogenia , Pupa , Simuliidae/genética
19.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106293, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958767

RESUMO

Species in the Simulium (Simulium) striatum species-group (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Taiwan and Japan are morphologically reevaluated. Simulium (S.) yanpingense sp. nov. is described as the third member in this species-group from Taiwan and a revised description of S. (S.) quinquestriatum (Shiraki) is provided. The species previously regarded as S. (S.) quinquestriatum in Japan is described as a new species, S. (S.) tanegashimaense. Simulium (S.) yanpingense sp. nov. is similar to S. (S.) pingtungense Huang & Takaoka from Taiwan, in many characteristics including the haired basal portion of the female radius, dark leg color, and male scutum with brassy hairs, but it is distinguished from the latter species by the number of male upper-eye (large) facets, which are in 17 (rarely 18) vertical columns and 17 or 18 horizontal rows in this new species but in 19 vertical columns and 20 horizontal rows in S. (S.) pingtungense. Simulium (S.) tanegashimaense sp. nov. is similar to S. (S.) quinquestriatum originally described from Taiwan by having the male scutum with yellow fine hairs, but is distinguished from the latter species by the number of male upper-eye (large) facets, which are in 17 (rarely 16) vertical columns and 17 horizontal rows in this new species but in 19 or 20 vertical columns and 19 or 20 horizontal rows in S. (S.) quinquestriatum. The morphological differences between these two new species and their related species from India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam are noted.


Assuntos
Simuliidae , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pupa/anatomia & histologia , Simuliidae/anatomia & histologia , Taiwan
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 745160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867970

RESUMO

In insects, a complex and effective immune system that can be rapidly activated by a plethora of stimuli has evolved. Although the main cellular and humoral mechanisms and their activation pathways are highly conserved across insects, the timing and the efficacy of triggered immune responses can differ among different species. In this scenario, an insect deserving particular attention is the black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Indeed, BSF larvae can be reared on a wide range of decaying organic substrates and, thanks to their high protein and lipid content, they represent a valuable source of macromolecules useful for different applications (e.g., production of feedstuff, bioplastics, and biodiesel), thus contributing to the development of circular economy supply chains for waste valorization. However, decaying substrates bring the larvae into contact with different potential pathogens that can challenge their health status and growth. Although these life strategies have presumably contributed to shape the evolution of a sophisticated and efficient immune system in this dipteran, knowledge about its functional features is still fragmentary. In the present study, we investigated the processes underpinning the immune response to bacteria in H. illucens larvae and characterized their reaction times. Our data demonstrate that the cellular and humoral responses in this insect show different kinetics: phagocytosis and encapsulation are rapidly triggered after the immune challenge, while the humoral components intervene later. Moreover, although both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are completely removed from the insect body within a few hours after injection, Gram-positive bacteria persist in the hemolymph longer than do Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the activity of two key actors of the humoral response, i.e., lysozyme and phenoloxidase, show unusual dynamics as compared to other insects. This study represents the first detailed characterization of the immune response to bacteria of H. illucens larvae, expanding knowledge on the defense mechanisms of this insect among Diptera. This information is a prerequisite to manipulating the larval immune response by nutritional and environmental factors to increase resistance to pathogens and optimize health status during mass rearing.


Assuntos
Imunidade/imunologia , Larva/imunologia , Larva/microbiologia , Simuliidae/imunologia , Simuliidae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia
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