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1.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675181

RESUMO

Due to the sudden impact that the Covid-19 pandemic had on people´s lives in March 2020 after the declaration of the state of alarm and the limitations that were adopted regarding the mobility and confinement of the population, there were repercussions both in health as well as at work and the economy of the country. For this reason, Comisiones Obreras took on the challenge of informing, advising and training workers on the adoption of preventive measures and we took part in the social dialogue so that the regulatory protection would be the best guarantee for people who became ill, reduced their work activity or had to continue their essential activity with the best health and safety conditions; collaborating with the Administration and demanding its intervention in the areas that required it, as well as demanding the consideration of occupational disease for staff exposed in the health and social-health sector. This crisis has highlighted an aspect that has not yet been overcome: the necessary coordination that must exist between the Health and Labour authorities in order to attend to health in companies in its broadest sense, that is, Public Health. Whoever controls compliance with occupational health aspects must have the competences and power to act in the field of Public Health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Sindicatos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
2.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(9): 723-730, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transit workers have jobs requiring close public contact for extended periods of time, placing them at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and more likely to have risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related complications. Collecting timely occupational data can help inform public health guidance for transit workers; however, it is difficult to collect during a public health emergency. We used nontraditional epidemiological surveillance methods to report demographics and job characteristics of transit workers reported to have died from COVID-19. METHODS: We abstracted demographic and job characteristics from media scans on COVID-19 related deaths and reviewed COVID-19 memorial pages for the Amalgamated Transit Union (ATU) and Transport Workers Union (TWU). ATU and TWU provided a list of union members who died from COVID-19 between March 1-July 7, 2020 and a total count of NYC metro area union members. Peer-reviewed publications identified through a scientific literature search were used to compile comparison demographic statistics of NYC metro area transit workers. We analyzed and reported characteristics of ATU and TWU NYC metro area decedents. RESULTS: We identified 118 ATU and TWU NYC metro area transit worker COVID-19 decedents with an incidence proportion of 0.3%. Most decedents were male (83%); median age was 58 years (range: 39-71). Median professional tenure was 20 years (range: 2-41 years). Operator (46%) was the most reported job classification. More than half of the decedents (57%) worked in positions associated with close public contact. CONCLUSION: Data gathered through nontraditional epidemiological surveillance methods provided insight into risk factors among this workforce, demonstrating the need for mitigation plans for this workforce and informing transit worker COVID-19 guidance as the pandemic progressed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Sindicatos , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Transportes , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2323-2333, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231742

RESUMO

In the light of the comparative analysis of health systems, we discuss three strategic phenomena for the SUS universalization, as follows: a) health tax expenditures; b) State funding of private plans for public servants; and c) trade union's demand for private health plans. Among the ideal types of health systems, SUS is universal in law, but hybrid in practice: Beveridgian in primary health care (PHC) and mixed in specialized/hospital care; without really being universal (public spending is only 43% of total health expenditure). There is a massive state subsidy to the private sector, through health tax expenditures (30% of the federal health budget) and financing of private plans for public servants, which generates incoherence, segmentation of the health system and inequities. Despite the general support to the SUS, the union movements have been using private health plans in collective recruitment (76% of them), reinforcing the private sector. Reducing health tax expenditures - including state funding of servants' private plans - would significantly increase the SUS budget and facilitate articulation between health workers and trade unionists, bringing the high strength of unions closer to the long struggle for the universality of the SUS and PHC.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Humanos , Sindicatos , Setor Privado
4.
Epidemiology ; 32(5): 721-730, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last several decades in the United States, socioeconomic life-expectancy inequities have increased 1-2 years. Declining labor-union density has fueled growing income inequities across classes and exacerbated racial income inequities. Using Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data, we examined the longitudinal union-mortality relationship and estimated whether declining union density has also exacerbated mortality inequities. METHODS: Our sample included respondents ages 25-66 to the 1979-2015 PSID with mortality follow-up through age 68 and year 2017. To address healthy-worker bias, we used the parametric g-formula. First, we estimated how a scenario setting all (versus none) of respondents' employed-person-years to union-member employed-person-years would have affected mortality incidence. Next, we examined gender, racial, and educational effect modification. Finally, we estimated how racial and educational mortality inequities would have changed if union-membership prevalence had remained at 1979 (vs. 2015) levels throughout follow-up. RESULTS: In the full sample (respondents = 23,022, observations = 146,681), the union scenario was associated with lower mortality incidence than the nonunion scenario (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.80, 0.99; RD per 1,000 = -19, 95% CI = -37, -1). This protective association generally held across subgroups, although it was stronger among the more-educated. However, we found little evidence mortality inequities would have lessened if union membership had remained at 1979 levels. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this was the first individual-level US-based study with repeated union-membership measurements to analyze the union-mortality relationship. We estimated a protective union-mortality association, but found little evidence declining union density has exacerbated mortality inequities; importantly, we did not incorporate contextual-level effects. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B839.


Assuntos
Renda , Sindicatos , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069469

RESUMO

This review paper examines the extent of employer, worker, and labour union concerns to occupational health hazard exposure, as a function of previously reported and investigated complaints. Consequently, an online literature search was conducted, encompassing publicly available reports resulting from investigations, regulatory inspection, and enforcement activities conducted by relevant government structures from South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Of the three countries' government structures, the United States' exposure investigative activities conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health returned literature search results aligned to the study design, in the form of health hazard evaluation reports reposited on its online database. The main initiators of investigated exposure cases were employers, workers, and unions at 86% of the analysed health hazard evaluation reports conducted between 2000 and 2020. In the synthesised literature, concerns to exposure from chemical and physical hazards were substantiated by occupational hygiene measurement outcomes confirming excessive exposures above regulated health and safety standards in general. Recommendations to abate the confirmed excessive exposures were made in all cases, highlighting the scientific value of occupational hygiene measurements as a basis for exposure control, informing risk and hazard perception. Conclusively, all stakeholders at the workplace should have adequate risk perception to trigger abatement measures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Sindicatos , África do Sul , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070299

RESUMO

Due to the global demographic change many more people will need to work until an older age, and organisations and enterprises need to implement measures to facilitate an extended working life. The aim of this study was to investigate organisational measures and suggestions to promote and make improvements for a healthy and sustainable working life for all ages in an extended working life. This is a qualitative study, and the data were collected through both focus group interviews and individual interviews that included 145 participants. The study identified several suggestions for measures and actions to increase employability in the themes: to promote a good physical and mental work environment; to promote personal financial and social security; to promote relations, social inclusion and social support in the work situation; and to promote creativity, knowledge development and intrinsic work motivation, i.e., based on the spheres of determination in the theoretical swAge-model (sustainable working life for all ages). Based on the study results a tool for dialogue and discussion on employee work situation and career development was developed, and presented in this article. Regular conversations, communication and close dialogue are needed and are a prerequisite for good working conditions and a sustainable working environment, as well as to be able to manage employees and develop the organisation further. The identified measures need to be revisited regularly throughout the employees' entire working life to enable a healthy and sustainable working life for all ages.


Assuntos
Ocupações , Local de Trabalho , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Sindicatos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
New Solut ; 31(2): 170-177, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966529

RESUMO

Grocery store workers are essential workers, but often have not been provided with appropriate protection during the current pandemic. This report describes efforts made by one union local to protect workers, including negotiated paid sick leave and specific safety practices. Union representatives from 319 stores completed 1612 in-store surveys to assess compliance between 23 April 2020 and 31 August 2020. Employers provided the union with lists of workers confirmed to have COVID-19 infection through 31 December 2020. Worker infection rates were calculated using store employees represented by the union as the denominator and compared to cumulative county infection rates; outcome was dichotomized as rates higher or lower than background rates. Restrictions on reusable bags and management enforcement of customer mask usage were most strongly associated with COVID-19 rates lower than rates in the surrounding county. Stores that responded positively to worker complaints also had better outcomes. The union is currently engaging to promote improved ventilation and vaccination uptake.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Sindicatos/legislação & jurisprudência , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Supermercados , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocupações/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Licença Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação/legislação & jurisprudência , Ventilação/normas
8.
New Solut ; 31(2): 141-151, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038192

RESUMO

This article analyzes the consequences of the increasing reference to scientific expertise in the decision and implementation process of occupational health policy. Based on examples (exposure limits and attributable fractions) taken from an interdisciplinary seminar conducted in 2014 to 2015 in France, it shows how the measurement or regulation of a problem through biomedicine-based tools produces blind spots. It also uses a case study to show the contradictions between scientific and academic aims and public health intervention. Other indirect implications are also examined, such as the limitation of trade unions' scope for action. Finally, the article suggests launching a broad political debate accessible to nonspecialists about collective occupational health issues-a dialogue made difficult by the rise of the afore-mentioned techno-scientific perspective.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , França , Humanos , Sindicatos , Saúde Pública
9.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 34(1): 45-59, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837689

RESUMO

In the spring of 2019, Canada's House of Commons Standing Committee on Health reviewed the issue of workplace violence in healthcare and issued a report with nine recommendations. By summer that year, the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions had two active campaigns on workplace violence characterized by a strong social media presence. In 2020, a private member's bill was sponsored to amend Canada's Criminal Code in cases of assault against a healthcare worker. In the face of these developments, we were interested in the framing of the problem of workplace violence by professional and labour organizations in Canada. We examined documents, websites and social media posts from selected nursing unions and professional associations, including both national and provincial organizations. We found that nursing unions and professional associations have distinctive views on workplace violence. We argue that these divergent understandings preclude the creation of consistent and successful political and organizational strategies that would help create safe workplaces for nurses.


Assuntos
Sindicatos/tendências , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Sociedades/tendências , Violência no Trabalho/classificação , Canadá , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nurs Inq ; 28(3): e12396, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484079

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial infections is a growing threat to humanity and a challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. Healthcare professionals have an important role in preventing AMR and the spreading of infections. This article focuses on trade union financed journals for nurses in Scandinavia studying how the journals articulate AMR to its readership. A systematic literature search over an eleven-year period was conducted, using web-based national trade union financed journals, searching for 'bacteria' and 'resistance'. A thematic analysis, inspired by Foucault's concepts of power and governmentality, was made of 131 texts to understand, which kind of practices, strategies and policies the journals frame regarding AMR. The time period studied resulted in the recognition of four separate themes: the horror scenario, the 'dangerous' other, healthcare professionals as a source of resistance development and AMR as a field of research and producer of research qualifications. The study concludes that the journals tend: to present AMR in apocalyptic terms with more research and pharmaceutical industries needed for avoidance; to point out problems in other countries, populations, and sometimes nurses' working conditions, but primarily with other professionals' behaviour; and lastly, to present the nurse as a good fairy and disciplinator of doctors.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Sindicatos/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Dinamarca , Humanos , Noruega , Suécia
17.
New Solut ; 30(3): 237-248, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121368

RESUMO

The World Health Organization's (WHO) workplace health and safety guidelines on COVID-19 are unacceptably complacent in parts, patently dangerous in others, and contain serious gaps. Omissions include no mention of the essential role of labor inspection and enforcement, and a lack of recognition of potential interactions with other workplace hazards. WHO also omitted discussion of the necessity for wider employment protections to make safety and safe behavior a realistic prospect. Potential risks in outdoor work and the need to address the impact of job segregation related to inequalities in health outcomes are also absent. WHO's advice influences national practice, official guidance, and binding rules.The International Trade Union Confederation has assessed the flaws in WHO's arguments and has prepared a critique so they are understood and can be challenged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humanos , Sindicatos/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 27(suppl 1): 71-93, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997058

RESUMO

We examine the efforts of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to extend medical care under social security, through international conventions, advocacy and technical assistance. We consider the challenges faced by the ILO in advancing global health coverage through its labourist, social security model. The narrative begins in the interwar period, with the early conventions on sickness insurance, then discusses the rights-based universalistic vision expressed in the Philadelphia Declaration (1944). We characterize the ILO's postwar research and technical assistance as "progressive gradualism" then show how from the late-1970s the ILO became increasingly marginalized, though it retained an advisory role within the now dominant "co-operative pluralistic" model.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/história , Sindicatos/história , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Previdência Social/história
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(11): 1993-2001, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910688

RESUMO

More than 40 percent of all reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths in the United States have occurred in nursing homes. As a result, health care workers' access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and infection control policies in nursing homes have received increased attention. However, it is not known whether the presence of health care worker unions in nursing homes is associated with COVID-19 mortality rates. Therefore, we used cross-sectional regression analysis to examine the association between the presence of health care worker unions and COVID-19 mortality rates in 355 nursing homes in New York State. Health care worker unions were associated with a 1.29-percentage-point reduction in mortality, which represents a 30 percent relative decrease in the COVID-19 mortality rate compared with facilities without these unions. Unions were also associated with greater access to PPE, one mechanism that may link unions to lower COVID-19 mortality rates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sindicatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribuição , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Sindicatos/organização & administração , New York , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 71-93, Sept. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134094

RESUMO

Abstract We examine the efforts of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to extend medical care under social security, through international conventions, advocacy and technical assistance. We consider the challenges faced by the ILO in advancing global health coverage through its labourist, social security model. The narrative begins in the interwar period, with the early conventions on sickness insurance, then discusses the rights-based universalistic vision expressed in the Philadelphia Declaration (1944). We characterize the ILO's postwar research and technical assistance as "progressive gradualism" then show how from the late-1970s the ILO became increasingly marginalized, though it retained an advisory role within the now dominant "co-operative pluralistic" model.


Resumo Analisamos os esforços da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT) em ampliar o cuidado médico sob seguridade social, via convenções, amparo e assistência técnica internacionais. Consideramos os desafios da OIT no desenvolvimento da cobertura global de saúde por meio do modelo trabalhista e de seguridade social. A narrativa inicia no período entreguerras, com as primeiras convenções sobre seguro saúde, depois discute a visão universalista baseada em direitos da Declaração da Filadélfia (1944). Classificamos a pesquisa e a assistência da OIT no pós-guerra como "gradualismo progressivo" e mostramos como, a partir do final da década de 1970, a OIT foi marginalizada, embora mantivesse um papel de conselheira dentro do atual modelo "pluralista cooperativo" dominante.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Saúde Global/história , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/história , Sindicatos/história , Previdência Social/história
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