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1.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 59(1): 12-21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708399

RESUMO

Fleas (Insecta, Siphonaptera) are important vectors of plague and murine typhus in many parts of the world. Currently, about 2700 flea species were described in the world. The most common vector flea Xenopsylla cheopis is found throughout India, but X. astia, and X. brasiliensis are found less and limited in distribution associated with the domestic rats such as Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Bandicota bengalensis. Bubonic plague is a major flea-borne disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, transmitted from rats to humans via the rodent flea, X. cheopis. A major outbreak of plague and high mortality occurred in India. After 1966 with the 3 decadal intervals, plague cases occurred only during the year 1994 reported in 5 different states (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and New Delhi and subsequently plague cases occurred during 2002 and 2004 after the one-decade interval in Himachal Pradesh (2002). Another outbreak of bubonic plague was reported in Dangud village, Barkhot tehsil, Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand during October 2004. Ctenocephalides fleas are common in cats and dogs, which are the main vectors of bacteria rickettsiae, such as Rickettsia typhi, R. felis, R. conorii, and Bartonella henselae. Molecular and serological evidence also confirms the presence of R. typhi, R. conorii R. felis and B. henselae pathogens in cats and other fleas in India. Flea bites and flea-borne dermatitis are common in men and pet animals. Because of the re-emergence of the plague, updated information on fleas and flea-borne diseases are essential to control the flea vectors and flea-borne diseases in India. Hence, this comprehensive review updates the available information on fleas and fleas transmitted diseases in India.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Peste , Sifonápteros , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/veterinária , Saúde Pública , Ratos
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 223, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and animals and serve as vectors of many disease-causing agents. Despite past and current research efforts on fleas due to their medical and veterinary importance, correct identification and robust phylogenetic analysis of these ectoparasites have often proved challenging. METHODS: We decoded the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the human flea Pulex irritans and nearly complete mt genome of the dog flea Ctenocephalides canis, and subsequently used this information to reconstruct the phylogeny of fleas among Endopterygota insects. RESULTS: The complete mt genome of P. irritans was 20,337 bp, whereas the clearly sequenced coding region of the C. canis mt genome was 15,609 bp. Both mt genomes were found to contain 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. The coding region of the C. canis mt genome was only 93.5% identical to that of the cat flea C. felis, unequivocally confirming that they are distinct species. Our phylogenomic analyses of the mt genomes showed a sister relationship between the order Siphonaptera and orders Diptera + Mecoptera + Megaloptera + Neuroptera and positively support the hypothesis that the fleas in the order Siphonaptera are monophyletic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the mt genomes of P. irritans and C. canis are different. The phylogenetic tree shows that fleas are monophyletic and strongly support an order-level objective. These mt genomes provide novel molecular markers for studying the taxonomy and phylogeny of fleas in the future.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides , Doenças do Cão , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Ctenocephalides/genética , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Filogenia , Sifonápteros/genética
3.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 32: 100743, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725106

RESUMO

The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is a competent vector of numerous bacterial pathogens in the genera Bartonella and Rickettsia. In the United States, free-roaming domestic cats (Felis catus) increase the risk of exposure to C. felis for humans and their companion animals. In collaboration with a trap-neuter-return program, we collected fleas from 283 feral/stray cats in southeastern Georgia between May and July of 2020. A total of 3,643 flea specimens were collected, and C. felis was the only flea species recovered from all cats sampled. The mean number of fleas per cat host was highest in the month of June when compared to May and July, and higher in juvenile cats (< 1 year) than the adults (≥ 1 year). Real-time PCR assays were used to test a subset of the collected fleas (n = 468) for the presence of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. DNA. Among those flea pools tested, 35.2% were positive for genus-specific citrate synthase gene of Bartonella, 16.5% were positive for the genus-specific 17-kDa protein antigen gene of Rickettsia, and none were positive for the species-specific outer membrane protein B gene of Rickettsia typhi. The identification of potential flea-borne pathogens was more frequent from the subset of C. felis collected in May, and female cats had more Bartonella-positive fleas and less Rickettsia-positive fleas than male cats. Overall, the present study provides valuable insights into the frequency of C. felis from outdoor community cats in southeastern Georgia, and highlights the possible risk for human exposure to potential flea-borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Bartonella , Doenças do Gato , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas , Rickettsia , Sifonápteros , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Chlamydia , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Georgia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Rickettsia/genética
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 214, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Junggar Basin plague focus was the most recently identified natural plague focus in China. Through extensive field investigations, great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) have been confirmed as the main host in this focus, and the community structure of their parasitic fleas is associated with the intensity of plague epizootics. The aim of this study is to provide an indicator that can be surveyed to evaluate the risk of plague epizootics. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2016, rodents and fleas were collected in the Junggar Basin plague focus. The parasitic fleas on great gerbils were harvested, and anti-F1 antibody in the serum or heart infusion of great gerbils was detected through indirect hemagglutination assay. Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) was isolated from the liver and spleen of great gerbils and their parasitic fleas using Luria-Bertani plates. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of flea index. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2016, 98 investigations were performed, and 6778 great gerbils and 68,498 fleas were collected. Twenty-seven rodents were positive for Y. pestis isolation with a positivity rate of 0.4%; 674 rodents were positive for anti-F1 antibody with a positivity rate of 9.9%. Among these 98 investigations, plague epizootics were confirmed in 13 instances by Y. pestis-positive rodents and in 59 instances by anti-F1 antibody-positive rodents. We observed a higher flea index among rodents with confirmed plague epizootic compared to the negative ones (P = 0.001, 0.002), with an AUC value of 0.659 (95% CI: 0.524-0.835, P = 0.038) for Y. pestis-positive rodents and an AUC value of 0.718 (95% CI: 0.687-0.784, P < 0.001) for anti-F1 antibody-positive rodents. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly higher flea index was associated with confirmed plague epizootic cases among great gerbils and could be used to predict plague epizootics in this focus.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Peste , Sifonápteros , Yersinia pestis , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Gerbillinae , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/veterinária
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653332

RESUMO

Drivers of patterns of ectoparasitism in rodents in patchy Mojave Desert wetlands were investigated. A total of 1,571 ectoparasites in Mesostigmata, Trombidiformes, Siphonaptera and Ixodida were collected from 341 rodents (Microtus californicus scirpensis, Mus musculus, Reithrodontomys megalotis, Peromyscus eremicus, and Neotoma lepida) at eleven marshes. Trombiculids accounted for 82.5% of mites, followed by the mesostigmatid Ornithonyssus bacoti (17.5%), with chiggers predominating on voles and harvest mice. There were at least three genera of chiggers (Eutrombicula alfreddugesi, Euschoengastia sp. novel, and Blankaartia sp. novel). Fleas included Orchopeas leucopus (90.3% of all fleas) and O. sexdentatus (9.7%), and ticks were the novel endemic Ixodes mojavensis (82.1% of ticks) and Dermacentor similis (17.9%). On all hosts and at all marshes, coverage-based rarefaction sampling was over 96%, indicating coverage sufficient for analysis. Dissimilarities in ectoparasite community structure were driven mainly by chiggers, I. mojavensis and O. leucopus. Northern marshes were dominated by chiggers; central marshes by I. mojavensis; and southern marshes by O. leucopus. Primary determinants of ectoparasite community structure were host species, patch size, and parasite interspecific interactions. Host species richness and environmental factors such as patch distance and water and plant availability were not significantly associated with patterns of ectoparasitism. There were nine (60%) significant negative pairwise associations between ectoparasite taxa and no significant positive relationships. Ixodes mojavensis had the highest number of negative associations (with five other species), followed by chiggers and O. bacoti with two negative associations each. The study area is among the most arid in North America and supports numerous rare and endemic species in increasingly isolated wetland habitat patches; knowledge of ectoparasite ecology in this region identifies potential ectoparasite vectors, and provides information needed to design and implement programs to manage vector-borne diseases for purposes of wildlife conservation.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses , Infestações por Pulgas , Ixodes , Infestações por Ácaros , Sifonápteros , Trombiculidae , Animais , Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Roedores , Sigmodontinae , Áreas Alagadas
6.
J Parasitol ; 108(3): 245-253, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687318

RESUMO

Microbial metabarcoding is a common method to study the biology of blood-feeding arthropods and identify patterns of potential pathogen transmission. Before DNA extraction, specimens are often surface washed to remove environmental contaminants. While surface washing is common, its effects on microbial diversity remain unclear. We characterized the microbiome of the flea species Ceratophyllus idius, an avian ectoparasite, and a potential vector of pathogens, using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Half of the nests from which fleas were collected were subjected to an environmental manipulation in which nesting materials were periodically replaced. In a crossed study design we surface washed half of the flea samples from each environmental condition to produce 4 experimental conditions. Environmental manipulations resulted in significant differences in the diversity and structure of the flea microbiome, but these differences were unapparent when specimens were surface washed. Furthermore, differential abundance testing of the experimental groups revealed that surface washing predominantly affected the abundance of bacterial groups that are characterized as environmental contaminants. These findings suggest that environmental changes primarily affect the surface microbiome of arthropods and that surface washing is a useful tool to reduce the footprint of the external microbiome on analysis.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Microbiota , Sifonápteros , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9524, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680974

RESUMO

The striped flea beetle (SFB, Phyllotreta striolata) can cause serious harm to cruciferous crops in both the larval and adult stages. Presently, there are no other sustainable alternatives to the use of chemical pesticides for controlling SFB infestation. In this study, the use of a seed-pelletized coating of spinetoram effectively reduced the numbers of SFB and its feedings on the flowering cabbage seedlings, whereas, in combination with the insect-proof net, it controlled the SFB infestation throughout the cabbage growth period. The analysis of the pesticide residues in soil and different cabbage parts indicated the degradation dynamics of spinetoram. The concentration of spinetoram in cabbage parts decreased over time, while increased first and subsequently decreased in soil. Furthermore, estimation of the half-life of spinetoram revealed that via seed-palletized application spinetoram half-life was found to be 2.82 days in soil, 4.21 days in the root, 5.77 days in the stem, and 3.57 days in the leaf, respectively. Both the lower pesticide residues and the half-life of spinetoram in soil and cabbage parts suggested it to be a promising environment and food-safe pesticide in controlling SFB. Moreover, the seed-pelletized coating ensured a sustainable release of spinetoram that can reduce the pesticide application frequency and be cost-effective and pocket-friendly for the farmers.


Assuntos
Brassica , Besouros , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Macrolídeos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Sementes/química , Solo
8.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221098339, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567302

RESUMO

Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States with a wide range of clinical presentations depending on the infected organ systems. Most infections are asymptomatic. Coccidioidomycosis causes a primary pulmonary infection and when symptoms occur, they most often resemble community-acquired pneumonia. One percent of cases disseminate, typically via hematogenous or lymphatic spread. It is in these cases that more severe symptoms may present and potentially overlap with those characteristics of other systemic illnesses. This is a case of CM disseminated to lymph nodes in a 24-year-old man with concomitant metastatic embryonal carcinoma. It is difficult to identify the primary etiology for many components of this patient's presentation, including diffuse lymphadenopathy and multiple pulmonary nodules. Furthermore, the relationship between these 2 concurrent disease processes is not entirely clear. Factors that may contribute include the well-known phenomenon of locus minoris resistentiae (LMR) or potentially a shared immune failure between infectious organisms and malignant cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Embrionário/complicações , Coccidioidomicose/complicações , Infestações por Pulgas/complicações , Infestações por Piolhos/complicações , Ftirápteros , Sifonápteros , Animais , Coccidioidomicose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 131, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipilidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm Dipylidium caninum. Fleas and, less frequently, lice act as an intermediate host, and their ingestion is required for infection to occur. While the disease mainly affects domestic and wild carnivores, it is also considered a zoonotic disease, with most human cases reported in children. Dipylidium caninum is considered to be the most common tapeworm infesting companion animals, but dipilidosis in humans is rare. The aims of this review were to improve current understanding of the epidemiology of this parasitosis and its management by the medical and veterinary community. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the published literature during the last 21 years (2000-2021) on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention measures of D. caninum infection and dipilidiosis in companion animals and humans was conducted. RESULTS: Using predefined eligibility criteria for a search of the published literature, we retrieved and screened 280 publications. Of these, 161 (141 epidemiological studies, 20 case reports [16 human cases]) were considered for inclusion in this review. This parasitosis is present worldwide; however, despite being the most frequent cestode infection in animals, it is often underdiagnosed using common coprological techniques. Its diagnosis in humans has also proved challenging, being frequently confused with pinworm infection, leading to inappropriate treatment and to the persistence of the disease over time. Prevention measures include control of ectoparasites in animals and the environment, as well as regular deworming of animals, most commonly with praziquantel. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of dipilidiosis remains challenging in both animals and humans, primarily due to the low sensitivity of the diagnostic methods currently available and a lack of knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the parasite. Although treatment with the appropriate anti-cestode compounds is well tolerated and results in resolution of the infection, indiscriminate use of these compounds may predispose to an increase in resistance. Given the worldwide distribution of this parasite, it is essential to act on several fronts, with a focus on health education for children and animal owners and the control of intermediate hosts, both in animals and in the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Humanos , Animais de Estimação , Sifonápteros/parasitologia
10.
11.
J Med Entomol ; 59(3): 1053-1059, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380675

RESUMO

Prairie dogs in the western United States experience periodic epizootics of plague, caused by the flea-borne bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis. An early study indicated that Oropsylla hirsuta (Baker), often the most abundant prairie dog flea vector of plague, seldom transmits Y. pestis by the classic blocked flea mechanism. More recently, an alternative early-phase mode of transmission has been proposed as the driving force behind prairie dog epizootics. In this study, using the same flea infection protocol used previously to evaluate early-phase transmission, we assessed the vector competence of O. hirsuta for both modes of transmission. Proventricular blockage was evident during the first two weeks after infection and transmission during this time was at least as efficient as early-phase transmission 2 d after infection. Thus, both modes of transmission likely contribute to plague epizootics in prairie dogs.


Assuntos
Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas , Doenças dos Roedores , Sifonápteros , Yersinia pestis , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Sciuridae/microbiologia , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010394, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468137

RESUMO

Murine typhus is a flea-borne zoonotic disease with acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi and is distributed widely throughout the world, particularly in port cities and coastal regions. We observed that murine typhus was an endemic disease (number of annual indigenous cases = 29.23±8.76) with a low incidence rate (0.13±2.03*10-4 per 100,000 person-years) in Taiwan from 2007-2019. Most (45.79%, 174/380) indigenous infections were reported in May, June, and July. The incidence rates in both May and June were statistically higher than those in other months (p<0.05). Correspondingly, sera collected from small mammals (rodents and shrews) trapped in airports and harbors demonstrated anti-R. typhi antibody responses (seropositive rate = 8.24±0.33%). Interestingly, the ports with the highest seropositivity rates in small mammals are all inside/near the areas with the highest incidence rates of indigenous murine typhus. In addition, incidence rates in humans were positively correlated with the 1-month and 2-month prior seropositive rates in small mammals (R = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). As early treatment with appropriate antibiotics for murine typhus could effectively shorten the duration of illness and reduce the risk of hospitalization and fatality, flea-related exposure experience should be considered in clinics during peak seasons and the months after a rise in seropositivity rates in small mammals. Surveillance in small mammals might be helpful for the development of real-time reporting or even early reminders for physicians of sporadic murine typhus cases based on the delayed correlation observed in this study.


Assuntos
Sifonápteros , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas , Animais , Humanos , Incidência , Camundongos , Rickettsia typhi , Musaranhos , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/microbiologia
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(11): 111103, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363003

RESUMO

Recent work applying the notion of pseudospectrum to gravitational physics showed that the quasinormal mode spectrum of black holes is unstable, with the possible exception of the longest-lived (fundamental) mode. The fundamental mode dominates the expected signal in gravitational wave astronomy, and there is no reason why it should have privileged status. We compute the quasinormal mode spectrum of two model problems where the Schwarzschild potential is perturbed by a small "bump" consisting of either a Pöschl-Teller potential or a Gaussian, and we show that the fundamental mode is destabilized under generic perturbations. We present phase diagrams and study a simple double-barrier toy problem to clarify the conditions under which the spectral instability occurs.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Sifonápteros , Animais , Física
15.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(3): 748-756, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417020

RESUMO

Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of the genus Phyllotreta are major pests of cole crops, canola, and related crops in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Adults may damage seedlings or larger crop plants, impairing crop growth, rendering crops unmarketable, or killing seedlings outright. The two major North American crucifer pest species, Phyllotreta striolata (F.) and Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), have male-produced pheromones attractive to both female and male adults. We tested the racemic synthetic pheromones, himachaladiene and hydroxyhimachalanone, as well as the host-plant-produced allyl isothiocyanate, alone and in combination, with experimental trapping in Maryland, Virginia, and North Dakota, using clear and yellow sticky traps and the ground-based 'rocket' trap (modified from boll weevil trap). Phyllotreta striolata was consistently attracted to the hydroxyketone, and captures were often enhanced by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), but its response to pheromones, AITC, and trap color were variable from state to state. Phyllotreta cruciferae was strongly attracted to AITC, but its response to pheromone components varied by state, and this species was found rarely at the Maryland site. Phyllotreta bipustulata (F.) was attracted to the diene component, a new finding for this species. Several other genera of flea beetles were captured, some showing response to the semiochemicals and/or color. Results will be helpful in monitoring and possibly population suppression; however, further research is necessary to develop more efficient syntheses, optimal lure loadings, combinations, and controlled release methods.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Besouros , Sifonápteros , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Feromônios/farmacologia , Plantas
16.
Parasite ; 29: 12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238771

RESUMO

Eprinomectin and praziquantel, nematodicide and cestodicide compounds, are both combined with the insecticide and acaricide compounds fipronil and (S)-methoprene in Frontline® Protect/Broadline®, or esafoxolaner in NexGard® Combo. These topical feline endectoparasiticide products were tested for efficacy against fleas and intestinal helminths in a field trial in Brazil. Flea- and/or helminth-infested domestic cats were treated twice at a monthly interval following label instructions: 160 cats with Frontline® Protect/Broadline® and 165 cats with NexGard® Combo. The flea and intestinal helminth infestations were evaluated using comb counts and copromicroscopy, respectively before first treatment for baseline value, then 9 and 30 days after each treatment for fleas, and 9 days after each treatment for helminths. Multiparasitism was very frequent at baseline, as amongst the 325 included cats, 295, 280, 86 and 93 cats were at least infested with Ctenocephalides fleas, Ancylostoma, Toxocara and Dipylidium caninum, respectively. Efficacies were calculated by comparing the geometric means at baseline and at post-treatment timepoints for each parasite genus/species. Inclusive of both products and of all evaluation timepoints, the Ctenocephalides, Ancylostoma, Toxocara and D. caninum efficacies were at least 98.3%, 99.8%, 99.8% and 96.3%, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed, except for a few instances of mild, transient, and self-resolving hypersalivation occurring on the day of treatment in both groups. This field trial demonstrated high-level efficacy of Frontline® Protect/Broadline® and NexGard® Combo against major parasites of cats in Brazil.


TITLE: Efficacité de deux produits endectoparasiticides associant fipronil et (S)-méthoprène ou esafoxolaner à l'éprinomectine et au praziquantel contre les puces et les helminthes intestinaux chez les chats naturellement infestés au Brésil. ABSTRACT: L'éprinomectine et le praziquantel, composés nématodicides et cestodicides, sont tous les deux associés aux composés insecticides et acaricides fipronil et (S)-méthoprène dans Frontline® Protect/Broadline®, ou esafoxolaner dans NexGard® Combo. Ces produits endectoparasiticides félins topiques ont été testés pour leur efficacité contre les puces et les helminthes intestinaux lors d'un essai sur le terrain au Brésil. Des chats domestiques infestés de puces et/ou d'helminthes ont été traités deux fois à intervalle d'un mois en suivant les instructions d'utilisation, 160 chats avec Frontline® Protect/Broadline® et 165 chats avec NexGard® Combo. Les infestations par les puces et les helminthes intestinaux ont été évaluées en utilisant respectivement par comptage au peigne et par copromicroscopie, avant le premier traitement pour la valeur de base, puis 9 et 30 jours après chaque traitement pour les puces, et 9 jours après chaque traitement pour les helminthes. Le multiparasitisme était très fréquent à l'inclusion puisque parmi les 325 chats inclus, 295, 280, 86 et 93 chats étaient au moins infestés respectivement par les puces Ctenocephalides, ou Ancylostoma, Toxocara et Dipylidium caninum. Les efficacités ont été calculées en comparant les moyennes géométriques au départ et aux points d'évaluation post-traitement pour chaque genre/espèce de parasite. En incluant les deux produits et tous les points temporels d'évaluation, les efficacités contre Ctenocephalides, Ancylostoma, Toxocara et D. caninum étaient respectivement d'au moins 98,3 %, 99,8 %, 99,8 % et 96,3 %. Aucun effet indésirable n'a été observé à l'exception de quelques cas d'hypersalivation légère, transitoire et auto-résolvante survenant le jour d'un traitement dans les deux groupes. Cet essai sur le terrain a démontré une efficacité de haut niveau de Frontline® Protect / Broadline® et NexGard® Combo contre les principaux parasites des chats au Brésil.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infestações por Pulgas , Inseticidas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Brasil , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Metoprene/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Open Vet J ; 12(1): 17-22, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342725

RESUMO

Background: Fleas play a major role as vectors for many pathogens that affect humans and livestock. Wild animals, especially wild rodents, are the most important hosts, acting as reservoir hosts for many flea species and pathogens. Aim: This study aimed to identify seasonality and hosts of fleas that parasitize small wild mammals in Gharyan, north-western Libya. Methods: Fleas were collected from seasonally infested hosts from summer 2017 to winter 2018. Results: This survey identified three flea species: Pulex irritans, Xenopsylla cheopis, and Leptopsylla segnis. Pulex irritans was collected from porcupines, X. cheopis from hedgehogs and jerboas, whereas L. segnis from gundis. The highest flea prevalence was in porcupines (35.00%) and the lowest was in gundis (11.11%). The highest intensity was in porcupines (10.43 ± 4.37), and the lowest was in jerboas (1.28 ± 0.24). The highest mean flea abundance was among porcupines of 3.65, whereas in hedgehogs, jerboas and gundis were less than 0.50 flea/host. Pulex irritans was collected during all seasons, while X. cheopis was collected during all seasons except winter, whereas L. segnis was collected only in spring. Conclusion: The finding in this study has increased our awareness that small wild mammals can act as hosts for medically important flea species. All collected flea species have a great specialty in choosing their hosts. Flea intensity is affected by seasonal variations.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Líbia/epidemiologia , Mamíferos , Estações do Ano
18.
Parasitol Int ; 89: 102564, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219891

RESUMO

Island syndrome, previously established for isolation process of insular vertebrates' populations, have been adapted to insular parasites communities, termed parasite island syndromes. In this work, were studied for the first time the insular syndromes for nidicolous ectoparasites of the bird species, Turdus merula, Sylvia atricapilla, Fringilla coelebs and Erithacus rubecula from Azores and the mainland Portugal. Flea species were only recorded on Azorean birds, namely Dasypsyllus gallinulae and Ctenocephalides felis felis, known as not host-specific parasites. In the absence of shared flea species between mainland and islands birds, a comparison among our fleas prevalence to Azores Islands and mainland fleas prevalence, recorded to others European studies, showed that Azorean host populations undergo higher prevalence than the mainland one. This result was consistent with parasite island syndromes predictions recorded to ectoparasites, hippoboscid flies and chewing lice, that fleas have higher prevalence on the Azores Islands compared to mainland Portugal. However, our results provide a new perspective to parasite island syndromes assumptions, namely in the context of nidicolous ectoparasites that spend only brief periods on the hosts' body.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Parasitos , Passeriformes , Sifonápteros , Aves Canoras , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Açores/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Insetos , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Síndrome
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192650

RESUMO

Some birds exhibit a maxillary overhang, in which the tip of the upper beak projects beyond the lower mandible and may curve downward. The overhang is thought to help control ectoparasites on the feathers. Little is known about the extent to which the maxillary overhang varies spatially or temporally within populations of the same species. The colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) has relatively recently shifted to almost exclusive use of artificial structures such as bridges and highway culverts for nesting and consequently has been exposed to higher levels of parasitism than on its ancestral cliff nesting sites. We examined whether increased ectoparasitism may have favored recent changes in the extent of the maxillary overhang. Using a specimen collection of cliff swallows from western Nebraska, USA, spanning 40 years and field data on live birds, we found that the extent of the maxillary overhang increased across years in a nonlinear way, peaking in the late 2000's, and varied inversely with cliff swallow colony size for unknown reasons. The number of fleas on nestling cliff swallows declined in general over this period. Those birds with perceptible overhangs had fewer swallow bugs on the outside of their nest, but they did not have higher nesting success than birds with no overhangs. The intraspecific variation in the maxillary overhang in cliff swallows was partly consistent with it having a functional role in combatting ectoparasites. The temporal increase in the extent of the overhang may be a response by cliff swallows to their relatively recent increased exposure to parasitism. Our results demonstrate that this avian morphological trait can change rapidly over time.


Assuntos
Bico/anatomia & histologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Andorinhas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Nebraska , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Sifonápteros/fisiologia , Andorinhas/parasitologia
20.
Parasitology ; 149(1): 124-137, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35184781

RESUMO

We investigated the patterns of phylogenetic and functional (dis)similarity in the species composition of host spectra between co-habitating generalist flea species in regional assemblages from four continents (Europe, Asia, North America and Africa) using a recently developed ordination approach (Double Similarity Principal Component Analysis). From the functional perspective, we considered physiological [body mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR)] and ecological (shelter depth and complexity) host traits. We asked (a) whether host phylogeny, physiology or ecology is the main driver of (dis)similarities between flea host spectra and (b) whether the patterns of phylogenetic and functional (dis)similarity in host spectra vary between flea assemblages from different continents. Phylogenetic similarity between the host spectra was highest in Africa, lowest in North America and moderate in Europe and Asia. In each assemblage, phylogenetic clusters of hosts dominating in the host spectra could be distinguished. The functional similarity between the host spectra of co-occurring fleas was low for shelter structure in all assemblages and much higher for body mass and BMR in three of the four assemblages (except North America). We conclude that host phylogeny and shelter structure are the main drivers of (dis)similarity between the host spectra of co-habitating fleas. However, the effects of these factors on the patterns of (dis)similarity varied across continents.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , África , Animais , Ásia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Filogenia , Sifonápteros/fisiologia
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