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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 132: 104398, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307479

RESUMO

The low diversity in marine mammal major histocompatibility complex (MHC) appears to support the hypothesis of reduced pathogen selective pressure in aquatic systems compared to terrestrial environments. However, the lack of characterization of the aquatic and evolutionarily distant Sirenia precludes drawing more generalized conclusions. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the MHC DQB diversity of two manatee species and compare it with those reported for marine mammals. Our results identified 12 and 6 alleles in T. inunguis and T. manatus, respectively. Alleles show high rates of nonsynonymous substitutions, suggesting loci are evolving under positive selection. Among aquatic mammals, Pinnipeda DQB had smaller numbers of alleles, higher synonymous substitution rate, and a dN/dS ratio closer to 1, suggesting it may be evolving under more relaxed selection compared to fully aquatic mammals. This contradicts one of the predictions of the hypothesis that aquatic environments impose reduced pathogen pressure to mammalian immune system. These results suggest that the unique evolutionary trajectories of mammalian MHC may impose challenges in drawing ecoevolutionary conclusions from comparisons across distant vertebrate lineages.


Assuntos
Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Trichechus , Alelos , Animais , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Sirênios
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653198

RESUMO

In mammals, the photopigment melanopsin (Opn4) is found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells that serve light detection for circadian photoentrainment and pupil constriction (i.e., mydriasis). For a given species, the efficiency of photoentrainment and length of time that mydriasis occurs is determined by the spectral sensitivity and deactivation kinetics of melanopsin, respectively, and to date, neither of these properties have been described in marine mammals. Previous work has indicated that the absorbance maxima (λmax) of marine mammal rhodopsins (Rh1) have diversified to match the available light spectra at foraging depths. However, similar to the melanopsin λmax of terrestrial mammals (~480 nm), the melanopsins of marine mammals may be conserved, with λmax values tuned to the spectrum of solar irradiance at the water's surface. Here, we investigated the Opn4 pigments of 17 marine mammal species inhabiting diverse photic environments including the Infraorder Cetacea, as well as the Orders Sirenia and Carnivora. Both genomic and cDNA sequences were used to deduce amino acid sequences to identify substitutions most likely involved in spectral tuning and deactivation kinetics of the Opn4 pigments. Our results show that there appears to be no amino acid substitutions in marine mammal Opn4 opsins that would result in any significant change in λmax values relative to their terrestrial counterparts. We also found some marine mammal species to lack several phosphorylation sites in the carboxyl terminal domain of their Opn4 pigments that result in significantly slower deactivation kinetics, and thus longer mydriasis, compared to terrestrial controls. This finding was restricted to cetacean species previously found to lack cone photoreceptor opsins, a condition known as rod monochromacy. These results suggest that the rod monochromat whales rely on extended pupillary constriction to prevent photobleaching of the highly photosensitive all-rod retina when moving between photopic and scotopic conditions.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/metabolismo , Cetáceos/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo , Sirênios/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Caniformia/genética , Caniformia/metabolismo , Carnívoros/genética , Cetáceos/genética , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Opsinas de Bastonetes/química , Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sirênios/genética
3.
Acta amaz ; 51(2): 156-161, jun. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353461

RESUMO

O comprimento corporal é um importante parâmetro em estudos morfológicos, ecológicos e comportamentais de uma espécie e contribui para o entendimento da condição corporal de um indivíduo. Este parâmetro é essencial para estratégias de conservação e manejo, informando estudos que avaliam taxas de crescimento, maturidade física e classificação dos indivíduos em grupos de idade, promovendo uma melhor precisão aos parâmetros biológicos de uma espécie. O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar preditores de comprimento corporal para o peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inunguis) utilizando caracteres métricos de material osteológico. Onze medidas lineares do crânio, mandíbula, escápula e úmero foram coletadas de 41 esqueletos de peixe-boi da Amazônia de diferentes classes de idade (filhote, juvenil e adulto). Os dados foram analisados por regressão linear simples. O comprimento côndilobasal foi o melhor preditor de comprimento corporal para a espécie (R = 0,943), entretanto, todos os ossos avaliados mostraram pelo menos um caractere com capacidade de predizer o comprimento corporal (R2 > 0,9). Os resultados deste estudo são úteis para inferir o comprimento corporal de peixes-boi da Amazônia a partir de ossos depositados em museus e coleções biológicas, expandindo o potencial informativo destes materiais. (AU)


Assuntos
Sirênios
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1674-1692, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980699

RESUMO

Brucella-exposure and infection is increasingly recognized in marine mammals worldwide. To better understand the epidemiology and health impacts of Brucella spp. in marine mammals of Brazil, molecular (conventional PCR and/or real-time PCR), serological (Rose Bengal Test [RBT], Competitive [c]ELISA, Serum Agglutination Test [SAT]), pathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and/or microbiological investigations were conducted in samples of 129 stranded or by-caught marine mammals (orders Cetartiodactyla [n = 124], Carnivora [n = 4] and Sirenia [n = 1]). Previous serological tests performed on available sera of 27 of the 129 animals (26 cetaceans and one manatee), indicated 10 seropositive cetaceans. Conventional PCR and/or real-time PCR performed in cases with available organs (n = 119) and/or blood or swabs (n = 10) revealed 4/129 (3.1%) Brucella-infected cetaceans (one of them with positive serology; the remaining three with no available sera). Pathological, IHC and/or microbiological analyses conducted in PCR/real-time PCR and/or seropositive cases (n = 13) revealed Brucella-type lesions, including meningitis/meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, pericarditis and osteoarthritis in some of those animals, and positive IHC was found in all of them (excepting two live-stranded animals without available organs). Brucella spp. culture attempts were unsuccessful. Our results demonstrated exposure, asymptomatic, acute and chronic Brucella sp. infection in several cetacean species in the Brazilian coast, highlighting the role of this pathogen in stranding and/or death, particularly in Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) off Ceará State. Novel hosts susceptible to Brucella included the franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei), the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Additionally, three coinfection cases involving Brucella spp. and cetacean morbillivirus, Edwarsiella tarda and Proteus mirabilis were detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first long-term and large-scale survey of Brucella spp. in marine mammals of South America, widening the spectrum of susceptible hosts and geographical distribution range of this agent with zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Cetáceos , Otárias , Sirênios , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(6): 1134-1147, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828717

RESUMO

As limits on O2 availability during submergence impose severe constraints on aerobic respiration, the oxygen binding globin proteins of marine mammals are expected to have evolved under strong evolutionary pressures during their land-to-sea transition. Here, we address this question for the order Sirenia by retrieving, annotating, and performing detailed selection analyses on the globin repertoire of the extinct Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), dugong (Dugong dugon), and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in relation to their closest living terrestrial relatives (elephants and hyraxes). These analyses indicate most loci experienced elevated nucleotide substitution rates during their transition to a fully aquatic lifestyle. While most of these genes evolved under neutrality or strong purifying selection, the rate of nonsynonymous/synonymous replacements increased in two genes (Hbz-T1 and Hba-T1) that encode the α-type chains of hemoglobin (Hb) during each stage of life. Notably, the relaxed evolution of Hba-T1 is temporally coupled with the emergence of a chimeric pseudogene (Hba-T2/Hbq-ps) that contributed to the tandemly linked Hba-T1 of stem sirenians via interparalog gene conversion. Functional tests on recombinant Hb proteins from extant and ancestral sirenians further revealed that the molecular remodeling of Hba-T1 coincided with increased Hb-O2 affinity in early sirenians. Available evidence suggests that this trait evolved to maximize O2 extraction from finite lung stores and suppress tissue O2 offloading, thereby facilitating the low metabolic intensities of extant sirenians. In contrast, the derived reduction in Hb-O2 affinity in (sub)Arctic Steller's sea cows is consistent with fueling increased thermogenesis by these once colossal marine herbivores.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Globinas/genética , Pseudogenes , Sirênios/genética , Animais , Conversão Gênica , Globinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Família Multigênica , Proteínas Mutantes Quiméricas , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Seleção Genética , Sirênios/metabolismo
6.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(2): 328-340, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517738

RESUMO

Keratins are the main intermediate filament proteins of epithelial cells. In keratinocytes of the mammalian epidermis they form a cytoskeleton that resists mechanical stress and thereby are essential for the function of the skin as a barrier against the environment. Here, we performed a comparative genomics study of epidermal keratin genes in terrestrial and fully aquatic mammals to determine adaptations of the epidermal keratin cytoskeleton to different environments. We show that keratins K5 and K14 of the innermost (basal), proliferation-competent layer of the epidermis are conserved in all mammals investigated. In contrast, K1 and K10, which form the main part of the cytoskeleton in the outer (suprabasal) layers of the epidermis of terrestrial mammals, have been lost in whales and dolphins (cetaceans) and in the manatee. Whereas in terrestrial mammalian epidermis K6 and K17 are expressed only upon stress-induced epidermal thickening, high levels of K6 and K17 are consistently present in dolphin skin, indicating constitutive expression and substitution of K1 and K10. K2 and K9, which are expressed in a body site-restricted manner in human and mouse suprabasal epidermis, have been lost not only in cetaceans and manatee but also in some terrestrial mammals. The evolution of alternative splicing of K10 and differentiation-dependent upregulation of K23 have increased the complexity of keratin expression in the epidermis of terrestrial mammals. Taken together, these results reveal evolutionary diversification of the epidermal cytoskeleton in mammals and suggest a complete replacement of the quantitatively predominant epidermal proteins of terrestrial mammals by originally stress-inducible keratins in cetaceans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Diferenciação Celular , Cetáceos/genética , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Queratinas/genética , Sirênios/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia
7.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 481(1): 150-156, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171469

RESUMO

The structure of the papillomatous junction between epidermis and dermis (papillomatous netting, PN) in the skin of cetaceans (white whales, bowhead, and gray whales) and sirens (American manatee, dugong) was studied and compared using histophysiological and morphogeometric methods. The relative extent of PN development proved to be similar in members of both orders, but significant differences were found in PN configuration, the volume of "free area of grille", the degree of skin vertical compression, and skin density, which influence buoyancy. The differences are discussed from the viewpoint of species biology.


Assuntos
Beluga/metabolismo , Baleia Franca/metabolismo , Dugong/metabolismo , Sirênios/metabolismo , Trichechus manatus/metabolismo , Animais , Epiderme/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012746

RESUMO

Some aquatic mammals appear to care for their dead, whereas others abandon their live offspring when conditions are unfavourable. This incredible variety in behaviours suggests the importance of comparing and contrasting mechanisms driving death-related behaviours among these species. We reviewed 106 cases of aquatic mammals (81 cetaceans and 25 non-cetaceans) reacting to a death event, and extrapolated 'participant' (age class, sex, relationship and decomposition) and 'social' characteristics (escorting, calf dependence, alloparental care, herding and dispersal patterns) from published and unpublished literature. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was performed to explore the relationships between these characteristics and death-related behaviours, with species clustered based on MCA scores. Results showed that both cetaceans and non-cetaceans react to death but in different ways. Non-cetaceans, characterized by a short maternal investment, were observed to protect the dead (defending it from external attacks), while cetaceans spent much longer with their offspring and display carrying (hauling, spinning, mouthing with the carcass and diving with it) and breathing-related (lifting and sinking the carcass) activities with the dead generally in association with other conspecifics. Our work emphasizes the need of increased documentation of death-related cases around the world to improve our understanding of aquatic mammals and their responses to death.This article is part of the theme issue 'Evolutionary thanatology: impacts of the dead on the living in humans and other animals'.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Morte , Traços de História de Vida , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Mamíferos/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Caniformia/fisiologia , Caniformia/psicologia , Cetáceos/fisiologia , Cetáceos/psicologia , Filogenia , Sirênios/fisiologia , Sirênios/psicologia , Tanatologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(16): 4194-4199, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581289

RESUMO

Four extant lineages of mammals have invaded and diversified in the water: Sirenia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia, and Lutrinae. Most of these aquatic clades are larger bodied, on average, than their closest land-dwelling relatives, but the extent to which potential ecological, biomechanical, and physiological controls contributed to this pattern remains untested quantitatively. Here, we use previously published data on the body masses of 3,859 living and 2,999 fossil mammal species to examine the evolutionary trajectories of body size in aquatic mammals through both comparative phylogenetic analysis and examination of the fossil record. Both methods indicate that the evolution of an aquatic lifestyle is driving three of the four extant aquatic mammal clades toward a size attractor at ∼500 kg. The existence of this body size attractor and the relatively rapid selection toward, and limited deviation from, this attractor rule out most hypothesized drivers of size increase. These three independent body size increases and a shared aquatic optimum size are consistent with control by differences in the scaling of energetic intake and cost functions with body size between the terrestrial and aquatic realms. Under this energetic model, thermoregulatory costs constrain minimum size, whereas limitations on feeding efficiency constrain maximum size. The optimum size occurs at an intermediate value where thermoregulatory costs are low but feeding efficiency remains high. Rather than being released from size pressures, water-dwelling mammals are driven and confined to larger body sizes by the strict energetic demands of the aquatic medium.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Caniformia/anatomia & histologia , Cetáceos/anatomia & histologia , Metabolismo Energético , Lontras/anatomia & histologia , Sirênios/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Artiodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Basal , Evolução Biológica , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Caniformia/metabolismo , Cetáceos/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Fósseis , Modelos Biológicos , Lontras/metabolismo , Filogenia , Sirênios/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Difusão Térmica , Água
10.
Behav Processes ; 156: 16-36, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927965

RESUMO

Marine mammals include cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears, many of which are charismatic and popular species commonly kept under human care in zoos and aquaria. However, in comparison with their fully terrestrial counterparts their welfare has been less intensively studied, and their partial or full reliance on the aquatic environment leads to unique welfare challenges. In this paper we attempt to collate and review the research undertaken thus far on marine mammal welfare, and identify the most important gaps in knowledge. We use 'best practice case studies' to highlight examples of research promoting optimal welfare, include suggestions for future directions of research efforts, and make recommendations to strive for optimal welfare, where it is currently lacking, above and beyond minimum legislation and guidelines. Our review of the current literature shows that recently there have been positive forward strides in marine mammal welfare assessment, but fundamental research is still required to validate positive and negative indicators of welfare in marine mammals. Across all marine mammals, more research is required on the dimensions and complexity of pools and land areas necessary for optimal welfare, and the impact of staff absence for most of the 24-h day, as standard working hours are usually between 0900 and 1700.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Organismos Aquáticos , Caniformia , Cetáceos , Lontras , Sirênios , Ursidae , Animais , Humanos
11.
Conserv Biol ; 31(6): 1301-1311, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28489264

RESUMO

{en} Over the past decades, much research has focused on understanding the critical factors for marine extinctions with the aim of preventing further species losses in the oceans. Although conservation and management strategies are enabling several species and populations to recover, others remain at low abundance levels or continue to decline. To understand these discrepancies, we used a published database on abundance trends of 137 populations of marine mammals worldwide and compiled data on 28 potentially critical factors for recovery. We then applied random forests and additive mixed models to determine which intrinsic and extrinsic factors are critical for the recovery of marine mammals. A mix of life-history characteristics, ecological traits, phylogenetic relatedness, population size, geographic range, human impacts, and management efforts explained why populations recovered or not. Consistently, species with lower age at maturity and intermediate habitat area were more likely to recover, which is consistent with life-history and ecological theory. Body size, trophic level, social interactions, dominant habitat, ocean basin, and habitat disturbance also explained some differences in recovery patterns. Overall, a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors were important for species' recovery, pointing to cumulative effects. Our results provide insight for improving conservation and management strategies to enhance recoveries in the future.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Cetáceos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Traços de História de Vida , Sirênios , Animais , Modelos Teóricos
12.
Acta amaz ; 47(1): 7-18, jan. -mar. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121282

RESUMO

Em uma região particular da Amazônia ocidental, peixes-boi amazônicos (Trichechus inunguis) vivem em um ambiente que se torna inóspito para eles durante a água-baixa anual. Para fugir dele, realizam uma migração perigosa para o refúgio enquanto o nível da água desce rapidamente. Nosso objetivo foi compreender melhor o papel da variação da profundidade neste processo migratório. Analisamos os únicos dados de rastreamento de peixes-boi selvagens (n=10 machos), 30 anos de imagens Landsat, 14 anos de hidrógrafa e um modelo batimétrico 3-D. As rotas migratórias possuíam trechos mais rasos, denominados gargalos migratórios, que secaram no final da maioria das vazantes, bloqueando o acesso ao refúgio. Os peixes-boi começaram a migração em tempo justo para atravessar os gargalos mais distantes, sugerindo que a sintonizaram para maximizar o período se alimentando sem comprometer a segurança. Para tal, parecem ter estimado a profundidade nos gargalos. Adicionalmente, um gargalo foi criado em <15 anos, ilustrando o dinamismo do ambiente e o desafio que isto impõe aos peixes-boi. Esses resultados provavelmente valem para boa parte da área de distribuição da espécie. Argumentamos que peixes-boi possuem um mapa cognitivo atualizável do ambiente e são comportamentalmente plásticos. Os planos de construção de barragens hidrelétricas, se concretizados, criariam mais gargalos e regimes de inundação menos previsíveis, dificultando a migração e consequentemente aumentando a mortalidade de peixes-boi. Também particionariam a espécie em populações pequenas, vulneráveis à extinção no curto-prazo. O desfecho seria o segundo colapso da espécie. O crescimento econômico não deve vir às custas da extinção do icônico peixe-boi. (AU)


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema Amazônico , Sirênios
13.
Mol Biol Evol ; 33(9): 2182-92, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27329977

RESUMO

Mammal species have made the transition to the marine environment several times, and their lineages represent one of the classical examples of convergent evolution in morphological and physiological traits. Nevertheless, the genetic mechanisms of their phenotypic transition are poorly understood, and investigations into convergence at the molecular level have been inconclusive. While past studies have searched for convergent changes at specific amino acid sites, we propose an alternative strategy to identify those genes that experienced convergent changes in their selective pressures, visible as changes in evolutionary rate specifically in the marine lineages. We present evidence of widespread convergence at the gene level by identifying parallel shifts in evolutionary rate during three independent episodes of mammalian adaptation to the marine environment. Hundreds of genes accelerated their evolutionary rates in all three marine mammal lineages during their transition to aquatic life. These marine-accelerated genes are highly enriched for pathways that control recognized functional adaptations in marine mammals, including muscle physiology, lipid-metabolism, sensory systems, and skin and connective tissue. The accelerations resulted from both adaptive evolution as seen in skin and lung genes, and loss of function as in gustatory and olfactory genes. In regard to sensory systems, this finding provides further evidence that reduced senses of taste and smell are ubiquitous in marine mammals. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes underlying convergent organism-level characteristics on a genome-wide scale and without prior knowledge of adaptations, and provides a powerful approach for investigating the physiological functions of mammalian genes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Caniformia/genética , Cetáceos/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Sirênios/genética , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Evolução Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
14.
Metallomics ; 8(5): 508-13, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26923825

RESUMO

Bone remodelling is a crucial biological process needed to maintain elemental homeostasis. It is important to understand the trace elemental inventories that govern these processes as malfunctions in bone remodelling can have devastating effects on an organism. In this study, we use a combination of X-ray techniques to map, quantify, and characterise the coordination chemistry of trace elements within the highly remodelled bone tissues of extant and extinct Sirenia (manatees and dugongs). The dense bone structure and unique body chemistry of sirenians represent ideal tissues for studying both high remodelling rates as well as unique fossilisation pathways. Here, elemental maps revealed uncorrelated patterning of Ca and Zn within secondary osteons in both extant and fossil sirenians, as well as elevated Sr within the connecting canals of fossil sirenians. Concentrations of these elements are comparable between extant and fossil material indicating geochemical processing of the fossil bone has been minimal. Zn was found to be bound in the same coordination within the apatite structure in both extant and fossil bone. Accurate quantification of trace elements in extant material was only possible when the organic constituents of the bone were included. The comparable distributions, concentrations, and chemical coordination of these physiologically important trace elements indicate the chemistry of bone remodelling has been preserved for 19 million years. This study signifies the powerful potential of merging histological and chemical techniques in the understanding of physiological processes in both extant and extinct vertebrates.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Sirênios , Animais , Remodelação Óssea , Síncrotrons
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 91: 178-93, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26050523

RESUMO

The recently extinct (ca. 1768) Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was a large, edentulous North Pacific sirenian. The phylogenetic affinities of this taxon to other members of this clade, living and extinct, are uncertain based on previous morphological and molecular studies. We employed hybridization capture methods and second generation sequencing technology to obtain >30kb of exon sequences from 26 nuclear genes for both H. gigas and Dugong dugon. We also obtained complete coding sequences for the tooth-related enamelin (ENAM) gene. Hybridization probes designed using dugong and manatee sequences were both highly effective in retrieving sequences from H. gigas (mean=98.8% coverage), as were more divergent probes for regions of ENAM (99.0% coverage) that were designed exclusively from a proboscidean (African elephant) and a hyracoid (Cape hyrax). New sequences were combined with available sequences for representatives of all other afrotherian orders. We also expanded a previously published morphological matrix for living and fossil Sirenia by adding both new taxa and nine new postcranial characters. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data provide robust support for an association of H. gigas and D. dugon to the exclusion of living trichechids (manatees). Parsimony analyses of the morphological data also support the inclusion of H. gigas in Dugongidae with D. dugon and fossil dugongids. Timetree analyses based on calibration density approaches with hard- and soft-bounded constraints suggest that H. gigas and D. dugon diverged in the Oligocene and that crown sirenians last shared a common ancestor in the Eocene. The coding sequence for the ENAM gene in H. gigas does not contain frameshift mutations or stop codons, but there is a transversion mutation (AG to CG) in the acceptor splice site of intron 2. This disruption in the edentulous Steller's sea cow is consistent with previous studies that have documented inactivating mutations in tooth-specific loci of a variety of edentulous and enamelless vertebrates including birds, turtles, aardvarks, pangolins, xenarthrans, and baleen whales. Further, branch-site dN/dS analyses provide evidence for positive selection in ENAM on the stem dugongid branch where extensive tooth reduction occurred, followed by neutral evolution on the Hydrodamalis branch. Finally, we present a synthetic evolutionary tree for living and fossil sirenians showing several key innovations in the history of this clade including character state changes that parallel those that occurred in the evolutionary history of cetaceans.


Assuntos
Sirênios/classificação , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Proteínas do Esmalte Dentário/genética , Fósseis , Genes , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sirênios/anatomia & histologia , Sirênios/genética
18.
Biol Lett ; 10(11): 20140878, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25428930

RESUMO

The Kommandorskiye Islands population of Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was extirpated ca 1768 CE. Until now, Steller's sea cow was thought to be restricted in historic times to Bering and Copper Islands, Russia, with other records in the last millennium from the western Aleutian Islands. However, Steller's sea cow bone has been obtained by the authors from St Lawrence Island, Alaska, which is significantly further north. Bone identity was verified using analysis of mitochondrial DNA. The nitrogen-15 (δ(15)N)/carbon-13 (δ(13)C) values for bone samples from St Lawrence Island were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different from Bering Island samples, indicating a second population. Bone samples were dated to between 1030 and 1150 BP (approx. 800-920 CE). The samples date from close to the beginning of the mediaeval warm period, which could indicate that the population at St Lawrence Island was driven to extinction by climate change. A warming of the climate in the area may have changed the availability of kelp; alternatively or in addition, the animals may have been driven to extinction by the expansion of the Inuit from the Bering Strait region, possibly due to opening waterways, maybe following bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), or searching for iron and copper. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown population of sea cows in the North Pacific within the past 1000 years and a second Steller's sea cow extirpation event in recent history.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Sirênios/fisiologia , Alaska , Animais , Mudança Climática , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Evol Dev ; 16(6): 382-93, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339599

RESUMO

Meristic variation is often limited in serially homologous systems with high internal differentiation and high developmental modularity. The mammalian neck, an extreme example, has a fixed (at seven) count of diversely specialized segments. Imposition of the mammalian cervical constraint has been tentatively linked to the origin of the diaphragm, which is muscularized by cells that migrate from cervical somites during development. With six cervical vertebrae, the genus Trichechus (manatee) has apparently broken this constraint, although the mechanism of constraint escape is unknown. Hypotheses for the developmental origin of Trichechus cervical morphology include cervical rib 7 repatterning, a primaxial/abaxial patterning shift, and local homeosis at the cervical/thoracic boundary. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by documenting vertebral morphology, axial ossification patterns, regionalization of the postcranial skeleton, and the relationship of thoracic ribs to sternal subunits in a large data set of fetal and adult Trichechus and Dugong specimens. These observations forced rejection of all three hypotheses. We propose alternatively that a global slowing of the rate of somitogenesis reduced somite count and disrupted alignment of Hox-generated anatomical markers relative to somite (and vertebral) boundaries throughout the Trichechus column. This hypothesis is consistent with observations of the full range of traditional cervical morphologies in the six cervical vertebrae, conserved postcranial proportions, and column-wide reduction in count relative to its sister taxon, Dugong. It also suggests that the origin of the mammalian cervical constraint lies in patterning, not in count, and that Trichechus and the tree sloths have broken the constraint using different developmental mechanisms.


Assuntos
Sirênios/embriologia , Coluna Vertebral/embriologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Padronização Corporal , Osteogênese , Sirênios/genética , Sirênios/fisiologia
20.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 35(4): 591-594, out.-dez. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-859169

RESUMO

In this study we report the hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters in a juvenile male Amazonian manatee measured before transport, immediately after transport, and during adaptation to a new facility. The animal was transported from Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, to São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil, (2,733 km) within 6 hours. Among all blood parameters analyzed, we observed obvious neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and increases in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and serum glucose and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, but these parameters subsequently returned to normal. These results suggest that transport and changes in the environment are temporary stressful events for Amazonian manatees. We, therefore, recommend monitoring the hematological and biochemical parameters before and after translocation to minimize the effects of handling stressors in this species.


Neste estudo, são relatados os parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos e hormonais em um peixe-boi da Amazônia macho jovem, medidos antes do transporte, imediatamente depois, e durante a sua adaptação a um novo recinto. O animal foi transportado de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, para São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, (2.733 km) durante 6h de viagem. Entre os parâmetros sanguíneos analisados, foi observada clara neutrofilia, linfopenia e aumento na relação neutrófilo/linfócito e nos níveis de glicose e aspartato aminotransferase (AST), mas estes parâmetros posteriormente voltaram aos valores normais. Estes resultados sugerem que o transporte e as mudanças no ambiente são eventos estressantes para o peixe-boi da Amazônia. Desta forma, é recomendável o monitoramento dos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos antes e após a translocação para minimizar os efeitos de agentes estressores nesta espécie.


Assuntos
Animais , Bioquímica , Hidrocortisona , Sirênios , Trichechus inunguis , Hematologia
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