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1.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103596, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628043

RESUMO

A 'compressed' shift schedule (substitution of a rest day by a shift, shortening the duration of work breaks) was introduced for a better fit with aircraft traffic load. Thereafter, the company asked for a survey assessing the effects of the compressed shift system. Air traffic controllers (ATCOs) completed retrospectively a specific questionnaire assessing the effects of shift schedule (modified vs. initial) and of traffic load on fatigue, alertness (on-shift, upon awakening, during daily non-work activities), and sleep (duration, satisfaction). Work organization had marginal and unexpected effects, which might indicate ATCOs' disapproval of the intervention. Traffic load affected sleep satisfaction and alertness during work and non-work activities. Specific effects of shift included reduced sleep time prior to morning shifts compared to night shifts, whereas alertness and fatigue were rated at comparable levels for both shifts. Results suggest that shiftwork features which favor sleep loss across a work cycle have deleterious consequences on alertness and increase the need for recovery, which are further enhanced by traffic load.


Assuntos
Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Atenção , Ritmo Circadiano , Fadiga , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
2.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103557, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411851

RESUMO

Irregular work times promote inconsistent completion of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among shift workers. We aimed to demonstrate the importance of testing the internal consistency and construct validity of the PSQI and of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) by presenting the methodology in a sample of long-haul truckers in South Africa. Internal consistency of the questionnaires was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (defined as raw alpha≥0.70), and construct validity by factor analysis. 302 participants (49.3%) reported at least one night shift/week. Overall, the PSQI and ESS's alpha were 0.42 and 0.85, respectively. The factors explained 19.6% of 57.0% of the variance. The PSQI's alpha was 0.46 in night shift workers and 0.38 in non-night shift workers. In this occupational group, the PSQI must be used with caution. Testing the internal consistency and construct validity among the assessed population seems necessary. Sleep questionnaires adapted to shift workers should be preferred.


Assuntos
Veículos Automotores , Sono , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103618, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775135

RESUMO

It is well known that exposure to light at the right time of the day is important to synchronise our circadian rhythm and enhance cognitive functioning. There is, however, a lack of field studies investigating which lighting characteristics are necessary to improve sleep and cognitive functioning. A controlled field study with 80 shift workers was set up, in which the impact of an integrative lighting (IL) scenario was investigated during the morning shift. Two groups were compared: a control group (no change in lighting settings) and a IL-group (exposed to a melanopic Equivalent Daylight Illuminance of 192 lux, i.e., bright light with a high fraction of short-wavelengths). Pre-post measurement of visual comfort, cognitive functioning (D2 task, go-nogo reaction time task) and sleep (MotionWatch8) were performed. The IL-settings ameliorated sleep efficiency and sleep latency during morning shift and enhanced alertness (not inhibition) compared to standard lighting conditions. Changing lighting settings in an industrial setting should be considered as it seems worthwhile for employees' sleep and cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Melatonina , Atenção , Ritmo Circadiano , Cognição , Humanos , Luz , Sono
4.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103617, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700190

RESUMO

Shift workers employed at a remote mining operation may experience sleep loss, impaired alertness, and consequently negative health and safety outcomes. This study determined the sleep behaviors and prevalence of risk for sleep disorders among shift workers; and quantified alertness for a roster cycle. Sleep duration was significantly less following; night shift by 77 ± 7 min and day shift by 30 ± 7 min. The wake after sleep onset was less by 23 ± 3 min for night shifts and 22 ± 3 min for day shifts (p < 0.05 for all). The prevalence of risk for sleep apnea was 31%, insomnia was 8%, and shiftwork disorder was 44%. Average alertness for all working hours was 75%. Shiftwork in remote mining operations is a significant factor that leads to sleep loss and reduced alertness, which is exacerbated by the high prevalence of risk for sleep disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Atenção , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/etiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
5.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 315-321, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of medical students in China have experienced home confinement and a reliance on online resources to study medicine since the outbreak of COVID-19. More time spent studying online during the COVID-19 pandemic may be a potential risk factor for problematic smartphone use, since smartphones have become the most commonly used device for accessing the internet. The objective of the present study was to explore the association between anxiety, smartphone problematic use and sleep disturbance among medical students during the enforced COVID-19 home confinement. METHODS: Altogether, 666 medical students validly answered a self-administered questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, Smartphone addiction scale - short version, and the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance scale (short form). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to explore the associated factors of anxiety. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test hypothesized associations. RESULTS: Anxiety was significantly associated with problematic smartphone use and sleep disturbance among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Problematic smartphone use not only directly affected anxiety, but also exerted a significant indirect effect on anxiety via sleep disturbance. A significant decrease of the path coefficient of problematic smartphone use on anxiety (from ß=0.53 to ß=0.22, P<0.01) was observed with sleep disturbance being modeled as a mediator. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include its cross-sectional design and samples recruited from only one medical school. CONCLUSIONS: The detrimental impact of problematic smartphone use and the importance of sleep health on mitigating anxiety should be highlighted and incorporated into medical education.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono , Smartphone
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 263-271, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460132

RESUMO

This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of adding melatonin to the treatment protocol of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This was an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients were randomized into a treatment arm receiving melatonin plus standard care or a control arm receiving standard care alone. The trial's primary endpoint was sleep quality examined by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ). The trial's secondary endpoints were symptoms alleviation by Day 7, intensive care unit admission, 10-day mortality, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein status, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation. Ninety-six patients were recruited and allocated to either the melatonin arm (n = 48) or control arm (n = 48). Baseline characteristics were similar across treatment arms. There was no significant difference in symptoms on Day 7. The mean of the LSEQ scores was significantly higher in the melatonin group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in laboratory data, except for blood oxygen saturation, which has improved significantly in the melatonin group compared with the control group (95.81% vs. 93.65% respectively, p = 0.003). This clinical trial study showed that the combination of oral melatonin tablets and standard treatment could substantially improve sleep quality and blood oxygen saturation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150222, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520928

RESUMO

Using one-night sleep recordings from 852 subjects all living in Uppsala, Sweden, the present study represents one of the largest polysomnography investigations into the association of the 29.53-day long lunar cycle with sleep among men and women and across a wide age range (22-81 years). Following the day after the new moon until the day of the full moon (also named the waxing period), the moon's illumination increases, and the timing of the meridian of the moon is gradually shifted from noontime toward midnight. In contrast, from the day after the full moon until the day of the new moon (also named the waning period), the moon's illumination decreases, and the timing of the meridian of the moon is gradually shifted from early night hours toward noontime. Thus, we focused on the contrast between the waxing and waning periods. Sleep duration was shorter on nights during the waxing period as compared to waning period (P < 0.001). In addition, a significant interaction effect of participants' sex with the lunar period on sleep was noted (P < 0.05). Men, but not women, exhibited lower sleep efficiency (P < 0.001 and P = 0.748, respectively) and were longer awake after sleep onset (P = 0.010 and P = 0.890, respectively) on nights during the waxing period. All associations were robust to adjustment for confounders (including regular sleep disturbances). Our findings suggest that the effects of the lunar cycle on human sleep are more pronounced among men. Based on the cross-sectional design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the causality of the relations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Lua , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150191, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818802

RESUMO

Nocturnal traffic noise can disrupt sleep and impair physical and mental restoration, but classical sleep scoring techniques may not fully capture subtle yet clinically relevant alterations of sleep induced by noise. We used a validated continuous measure of sleep depth and quality based on automatic analysis of physiologic sleep data, termed Wake Propensity (WP), to investigate temporal changes of sleep in response to nocturnal noise events in 3-s epochs. Seventy-two healthy participants (mean age 40.3 years, range 18-71 years, 40 females, 32 males) slept for 11 nights in a laboratory, during which we measured sleep with polysomnography. In 8 nights, participants were exposed to 40, 80 or 120 road, rail and/or aircraft noise events with maximum noise levels of 45-65 dB LAS,max during 8-h sleep opportunities. We analyzed sleep macrostructure and event-related change of WP during noise exposure with linear mixed models. Nocturnal traffic noise led to event-related shifts towards wakefulness and less deep, more unstable sleep (increase in WP relative to pre-noise baseline ranging from +29.5% at 45 dB to +38.3% at 65 dB; type III effect p < 0.0001). Sleep depth decreased dynamically with increasing noise level, peaking when LAS,max was highest. This change in WP was stronger and occurred more quickly for events where the noise onset was more rapid (road and rail) compared to more gradually time-varying noise (aircraft). Sleep depth did not immediately recover to pre-noise WP, leading to decreased sleep stability across the night compared to quiet nights, which was greater with an increasing number of noise events (standardized ß = 0.053, p = 0.003). Further, WP was more sensitive to noise than classical arousals. Results demonstrate the usefulness of WP as a measure of the effects of external stimuli on sleep, and show WP is a more sensitive measure of noise-induced sleep disruption than traditional methods of sleep analysis.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aeronaves , Nível de Alerta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Polissonografia , Sono , Adulto Jovem
9.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-7, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341797

RESUMO

A atração pelos sonhos é algo que acompanha os seres humanos há milhares de anos e em diferentes culturas. Nos dias de hoje, a interpretação de sonhos é bastante valorizada pela psicanálise, em especial nos trabalhos clínicos, seja nos atendimentos individuais, nos grupos terapêuticos ou em psicoterapias de casal e família. Mas, em todos estes casos, além do enfoque majoritariamente clínico, trabalha-se, em geral, a partir das associações realizadas e pela interpretação do material sonhado, lembrado e compartilhado por um dos participantes. O presente artigo baseia-se em uma comunicação científica que apresentou um dispositivo desenvolvido para ser utilizado como recurso para intervenções em diferentes grupos, inclusive os com finalidades não psicoterapêuticas: a produção e interpretação, de forma lúdica, de um sonho criado pelo grupo. Tal recurso pode ser aplicado em grupos com as mais variadas finalidades. Será apresentada a fundamentação teórica do dispositivo e apresentadas as etapas de elaboração da atividade, com a discussão de alguns resultados. Espera-se que o referido dispositivo possa ser aproveitado por outros profissionais para a promoção de saúde nos diferentes tipos de grupos.


Humans have showed interest in dream interpretation for thousands of years and in different cultures. In the current time, dream interpretation is highly valued by psychoanalysis, especially in psychotherapy, whether in individual care, therapeutic groups or couple and family psychotherapies. But, in all these cases, in addition to the predominantly clinical approach, they generally work from the associations made and the interpretation of the content dreamed, remembered and shared by one of the participants. Thus, the present work brings a differential, as part of the principles of elaboration and analysis of dreams presented by psychoanalysis, to propose the creation of a collective dream made in a playful way as a resource to enable the reading of group phenomena. This feature can be applied in groups with the most varied purposes. The stages of elaboration of the activity will be presented and some results will be discussed, which can be used by other professionals for health promotion in different types of groups.


Los humanos han mostrado interés en la interpretación de los sueños durante miles de años y en diferentes culturas. En la actualidad, la interpretación de los sueños es muy valorada por el psicoanálisis, especialmente en psicoterapia, ya sea en atención individual, grupos terapéuticos o psicoterapias de pareja y familia. Pero, en todos estos casos, además del enfoque predominantemente clínico, generalmente trabajan a partir de las asociaciones realizadas y la interpretación del contenido soñado, recordado y compartido por uno de los participantes. Así, el presente trabajo trae una diferencia, como parte de los principios de elaboración y análisis de los sueños presentados por el psicoanálisis, para proponer la creación de un sueño colectivo hecho de manera lúdica como un recurso para permitir la lectura de fenómenos grupales. Esta característica se puede aplicar en grupos con los más variados propósitos, ya que, por un lado, evidencia contenidos latentes y, por otro, preserva a sus participantes. Se presentarán las etapas de elaboración de la actividad y se discutirán algunos resultados, que pueden ser utilizados por otros profesionales para la promoción de la salud en diferentes tipos de grupos.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Sono , Terapêutica , Sonhos , Processos Grupais
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5382-5392, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738442

RESUMO

To investigate the changes of bile acid(BA) levels in mice with sleep deprivation and the regulatory effect of Jiaotai Pills(JTP) on bile acid metabolism, this study established an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 23 BAs in mice. A total of 24 ICR mice were randomized into normal group, model group, and JTP group. Mice in the model group and JTP group were deprived of sleep at 20 h·d~(-1) by sleep deprivation apparatus for 8 consecutive days. Mice in the JTP group were given(ig, qd) JTP 3.3 g·kg~(-1) and those in the normal group and model group received(ig) the same volume of purified water. UPLC conditions are as follows: Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm), gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water-methanol. MS conditions are as below: negative-ion electrospray ionization, multiple reaction monitoring(MRM). Thereby, the content of 23 BAs in serum, liver, and ileum was determined and methodological investigation of the method was performed. The results showed that 23 BAs could be accurately determined within 15 min and the correlation coefficients were all higher than 0.99. The precision, accuracy, specificity, reproducibility, matrix effect, and recovery of BAs all met the requirement. The levels of BAs were significantly increased in the serum, liver, and ileum of sleep-deprived mice, but JTP can significantly reduce the levels. The UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which can be used for the determination of 23 BAs in biological samples, and JTP can adjust the elevated BA levels of sleep-deprived mice.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sono
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21342, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725409

RESUMO

Community-wide lockdowns in response to COVID-19 influenced many families, but the developmental cascade for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially detrimental. Our objective was to evaluate behavioral patterns of risk and resilience for children with ASD across parent-report assessments before (from November 2019 to February 2020), during (March 2020 to May 2020), and after (June 2020 to November 2020) an extended COVID-19 lockdown. In 2020, our study Mobile-based care for children with ASD using remote experience sampling method (mCARE) was inactive data collection before COVID-19 emerged as a health crisis in Bangladesh. Here we deployed "Cohort Studies", where we had in total 300 children with ASD (150 test group and 150 control group) to collect behavioral data. Our data collection continued through an extended COVID-19 lockdown and captured parent reports of 30 different behavioral parameters (e.g., self-injurious behaviors, aggression, sleep problems, daily living skills, and communication) across 150 children with ASD (test group). Based on the children's condition, 4-6 behavioral parameters were assessed through the study. A total of 56,290 behavioral data points was collected (an average of 152.19 per week) from parent cell phones using the mCARE platform. Children and their families were exposed to an extended COVID-19 lockdown. The main outcomes used for this study were generated from parent reports child behaviors within the mCARE platform. Behaviors included of child social skills, communication use, problematic behaviors, sensory sensitivities, daily living, and play. COVID-19 lockdowns for children with autism and their families are not universally negative but supports in the areas of "Problematic Behavior" could serve to mitigate future risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Uso do Telefone Celular , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Atividades Cotidianas , Agressão , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Sono , Habilidades Sociais
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a significant decrease in physical activity, an increase in sedentary behavior, and thus also such things as screen time or a change in health behavior patterns. The survey aimed to compare levels of physical activity, screen time, hours spent sitting and sleeping time among Polish children aged 3-5 years of age before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We identified 3000 respondents under five years of age, at Polish kindergartens. The questionnaire consists of 62 questions according to the recommendations of health behavior in school-aged children. The questionnaire was completed by the parents of these children. RESULTS: Only 30.77% of children complied with WHO criteria before the pandemic. During the pandemic, the percentage of children meeting the recommendations for physical activity decreased even more. Children spent much more time in a sitting position before the restrictions. The children slept as recommended 10-13 h a day, and the pandemic caused an increase in sleep duration of 10-18%. Most children had a limited time allowed for the use of electronic devices already before the pandemic, but during the pandemic the results negatively decreased by 71.54%. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate decreased physical activity and increased screen time. It is also crucial to develop recommendations for prevention management strategies of sedentary lifestyles in the youngest group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have studied the link between risk perception and sleep in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of our study is to propose and test a theoretical model to understand the relationships between COVID-19 risk appraisals-risk perception and perception of collective coordinated defense (PCCD) in particular-and subjective sleep quality in Chinese adults in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19-related fear and rumination were examined as potential mediators of the relationships. METHODS: Data were collected using a self-report online questionnaire from a convenience sample of 224 Chinese adults during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. RESULTS: Risk perception and PCCD were found to predict poor sleep quality. Mediation analysis showed that both fear and rumination mediated the relationship between risk perception and sleep quality, whereas only fear mediated the relationship between PCCD and sleep quality. The model was an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 44% of the variance in sleep quality in Chinese adults. This study indicated that both perception of high risks of contracting COVID-19 and anticipations of collective disease preventive efforts had adverse effects on subjective sleep quality via increasing COVID-19-related fear. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need for addressing sleep problems induced by psychological consequences of the pandemic. While policy makers often deliver public messaging campaigns that frame disease prevention as a collective goal, developing evidence-based coping strategies to combat COVID-19 adverse impacts on psychological health is equally important.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770402

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare two wearable sensors to each other and to a questionnaire in an adult population. For one week, participants aged 29.2 ± 5.5 years (n = 25) simultaneously wore a Clouclip, a spectacle-mounted device that records viewing distance and illuminance, and an Actiwatch, a wrist-worn device that measures illuminance and activity. Participants maintained a daily log of activities and completed an activity questionnaire. Objective measures of time outdoors, near (10-< 60 cm) and intermediate (60-100 cm) viewing, and sleep duration were assessed with respect to the daily log and questionnaire. Findings showed that time outdoors per day from the questionnaire (3.2 ± 0.3 h) was significantly greater than the Clouclip (0.9 ± 0.8 h) and Actiwatch (0.7 ± 0.1 h, p < 0.001 for both). Illuminance from the Actiwatch was systematically lower than the Clouclip. Daily near viewing duration was similar between the questionnaire (5.7 ± 0.6 h) and Clouclip (6.1 ± 0.4 h, p = 0.76), while duration of intermediate viewing was significantly different between methods (p < 0.001). In conclusion, self-reported time outdoors and viewing behaviors were different than objective measures. The Actiwatch and Clouclip are valuable tools for studying temporal patterns of behavioral factors such as near work, light exposure, and sleep.


Assuntos
Sono , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Punho , Articulação do Punho
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770537

RESUMO

Evoked and spontaneous K-complexes are thought to be involved in sleep protection, but their role as biomarkers is still under debate. K-complexes have two major functions: first, they suppress cortical arousal in response to stimuli that the sleeping brain evaluates to avoid signaling danger; and second, they help strengthen memory. K-complexes also play an important role in the analysis of sleep quality, in the detection of diseases associated with sleep disorders, and as biomarkers for the detection of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Detecting K-complexes is relatively difficult, as reliable methods of identifying this complex cannot be found in the literature. In this paper, we propose a new method for the automatic detection of K-complexes combining the method of recursion and reallocation of the Cohen class and the deep neural networks, obtaining a recursive strategy aimed at increasing the percentage of classification and reducing the computation time required to detect K-complexes by applying the proposed methods.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Fases do Sono , Nível de Alerta , Redes Neurais de Computação , Sono
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1344: 113-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773229

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterised by the core symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Similar to many other neuropsychiatric conditions, ADHD is associated with very high levels of sleep disturbance. However, it is not clear whether such sleep disturbances are precursors to, or symptoms of, ADHD. Neither is it clear through which mechanisms sleep and ADHD are linked. One possible link is via modulation of circadian rhythms. In this chapter we overview the evidence that ADHD is associated with alterations in circadian processes, manifesting as later chronotype and delayed sleep phase in ADHD, and examine some mechanisms that may lead to such changes. We also interrogate how the circadian clock may be a substrate for therapeutic intervention in ADHD (chronotherapy) and highlight important new questions to be addressed to move the field forward.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Relógios Circadianos , Cronoterapia , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Sono
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780611

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Chronic conditions often cause functional impairments in activities of daily living (ADLs) and rest and sleep, leading to decreased independence and self-efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To aid occupational therapy practitioners in making informed decisions regarding self-management interventions to improve ADLs and rest and sleep for community-dwelling adults with chronic conditions. DATA SOURCES: We identified literature published from 1995 to 2019 through searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and OTseeker. Study Selection and Data Collection: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to abstract and assess data quality and validity. The review followed American Occupational Therapy Association Evidence-Based Practice Project methodology. Studies addressing self-management interventions for community-dwelling adults ages 18 and older with chronic cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, chronic respiratory problems, or kidney disease were included. FINDINGS: Fifteen articles met inclusion criteria and were categorized into ADLs and sleep. Strong evidence supports education to improve diabetic foot self-care. Low evidence addresses exercise and education to improve ADLs for people with heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Moderate evidence supports mind-body self-care education to enhance sleep. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Occupational therapy practitioners working with adults with diabetes are encouraged to routinely offer education that includes discussion of risk factors and daily foot inspections and hygiene. When addressing sleep, education that addresses sleep hygiene, nutrition, relaxation techniques, and physical activity should routinely be provided to adults with chronic conditions. Further research is needed to understand the dosage needed. What This Article Adds: This systematic review supports the role of occupational therapy in providing self-management interventions to address ADLs and sleep for adults with diabetes and other chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Descanso , Sono
19.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780630

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may experience sleep difficulties that worsen into adulthood and negatively influence both child and family, yet the experience is not well understood. Understanding the family's experience can inform occupational therapy providers, future research, and practice guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To examine experiences surrounding sleep for families raising a young adult with ASD (YA-ASD). DESIGN: Qualitative study in the phenomenological tradition of Moustakas (1994). Experienced researchers analyzed transcripts from in-depth, in-person interviews to triangulate data, distill themes, and construct the essence of family experience. Trustworthiness was established through member checking, audit trails, and epoché diaries that were maintained throughout data analyses. SETTING: Community setting (large city in the northeastern United States). PARTICIPANTS: People who self-identified as living in a family arrangement that included a YA-ASD age 15-21 yr, able to verbally participate in English. Families with children diagnosed with developmental disabilities other than ASD were excluded. RESULTS: Six eligible families identified through volunteer sampling participated. The participants' sociodemographic diversity was limited across household income, education level, and ethnicity. All YA-ASD in this study were limited verbally and unable to contribute. Analyses of interview transcripts revealed five themes that form the essence of the families' experience surrounding sleep. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Sleep issues for YA-ASD continue into adulthood and affect the entire family because of continuous co-occupation; occupational therapy support is therefore important for families of YA-ASD. The lack of effective evidence-based interventions supporting the YA-ASD population also reveals an area for growth. What This Article Adds: The results indicate the importance of addressing sleep for YA-ASD and their families in occupational therapy practice because of its considerable impact on family life.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Família , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sono , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781355

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience difficulty in performing activities of daily living (ADLs), which affects their perceived quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To examine the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve performance and participation in ADLs, rest, and sleep in adults with PD. DATA SOURCES: Databases searched were MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and Cochrane Collection. Included articles were published between January 2011 and December 2018. Study Selection and Data Collection: Articles describing Level 1b, 2b, and 3b studies that examined outcomes related to ADLs, rest, and sleep in people with PD were included following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. FINDINGS: Forty-five articles (10 Level 1b, 27 Level 2b, and 8 Level 3b) met the inclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Strong strength of evidence was found to support inpatient multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) to improve ADLs, and moderate strength of evidence that MIRT improves sleep performance. Low strength of evidence was present for outpatient occupational therapy to improve ADL and sleep outcomes. Low strength of evidence was found for resistance exercise programs to improve ADLs, but moderate strength of evidence indicates that multimodal exercise programs and targeted exercise programs can improve ADLs. Low to moderate strength of evidence suggested that alternative therapies and cognitive-behavioral therapy have a positive impact on ADLs and sleep. These results can be used to inform evidence-based occupational therapy practice. What This Article Adds: This article provides information for practitioners on the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice to improve ADLs and sleep.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Doença de Parkinson , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Sono
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