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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 157-163, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723376

RESUMO

When people think about hazards, the types that easily come to their mind include natural hazards, such as earthquakes, tornados, and tsunamis, and manmade ones, such as plane crashes, bomb explosions, and exposure to toxic industrial chemicals. Disease outbreaks are a source of hazards that are often overlooked, and the largely forgotten smallpox was an example of such disease. This article provides a review of the emergency management practices that curtailed the potentially devastating spread of smallpox at Meschede, Germany in 1970. Lessons that can be transferred to the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Varíola , Surtos de Doenças , Alemanha , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Varíola/epidemiologia
3.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(5): 294-301, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794269

RESUMO

Smallpox was believed afferent before the Sui Dynasty. Some relatively accurate descriptions about smallpox were found in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. Smallpox was recognized as a severe infectious disease caused by pathogenic heat by the observation of its symptoms and appearance. It was believed that smallpox was caused by the heat accumulation in the Zang-Fu organs in the early period of the North Song Dynasty. After that, it was believed caused by the fetus ingesting the filthy liquid from the mother as the prototype of the fetal poison theory. This means that ancient Chinese physicians were able to distinguish the differences among chickenpox, measles and smallpox at that time. The exogenous theory of fetal poison became the mainstream in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Smallpox, therefore, was confirmed not to be re-infected after once infection, and was specifically described with the symptoms and the precise prognosis. It can be seen that the understanding of smallpox by ancient Chinese physicians developed with time, and these understandings opened a way for the invention of the human pox vaccination.


Assuntos
Varíola , China , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Mães
4.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(5): 157-161, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732641

RESUMO

Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is one of the most abundant seafood poisonings in the world. CP frequently occurred in the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. In Japan, CP cases have been reported annually, from the subtropical regions, including Okinawa Prefecture and Amami Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture. The principal toxins, named ciguatoxins (CTXs), are bio-synthesized by benthic dinoflagellate of genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. They are bio-transferred herbivorous animals to carnivorous fishes via the food chain.The Ogasawara Islands comprise more than 30 islands, Mukojima Islands, Chichijima (Bonin) Islands, Hahajima Islands, Iwo Islands, Nishinoshima, Minamitorishima, and Okinotorishima, which locate in the tropical to subtropical regions. The Mukojima Islands, Chichijima Islands, and Hahajima Islands locate approximately the same latitude as Okinawa. The distance from Tokyo is approximately 1,000 km for Chichijima, 1,700 km for Okinotorishima (the southernmost tip of Japan), and 1,900 km for Minamitorishima (the easternmost tip of Japan). These islands exist in a wide range of waters, latitudes from 20°25' to 27°44' North and longitudes from 136°04' to 153° 59' East. We collected 65 specimens of a grouper, Variola louti, the most frequent species implicated in CP in Japan, from the waters around the Chichijima, Mukojima, and Hahajima islands. The fish flesh specimens were analyzed CTXs using the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). While the peak whose retention time is almost identical to that of CTX1B was detected in all specimens on our routine protocol, no 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B nor 54-deoxyCTX1B was detected. The peak retention time was quite different from that of CTX1B when re-analyzing by changing the analytical column. Thus, the CTXs in the specimens in the waters of these islands seemed to be undetectable levels.


Assuntos
Bass , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas , Varíola , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Peixes , Ilhas , Japão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650651

RESUMO

The world confronts today a disease which was unknown as recently as early 2019. Now that there is a safe and effective vaccine against COVID-19, lessons can usefully be drawn from previous well documented vaccination efforts. Of these, the best documented and most successful is the Smallpox Eradication Program (SEP). A review was made of publications by major players in smallpox eradication, respecting the important differences between the disease, this review revealed several points of connection. Cultural factors loomed large both in the eradication of smallpox and progress, to date, in the control of COVID-19. Other points of similarity included political commitment, the set-up of strong surveillance mechanisms, and assurance of uniformly high quality vaccines tested and approved by the World Health Organization. The future of COVID-19 control depends, in part, on lessons learned from previous vaccination efforts. A review of those efforts will avoid repetition of past errors and permit adoption of best practices from the past. Such analyses must, of course, respect the important differences between COVID-19 and smallpox.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antivariólica/administração & dosagem , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Vacinação/métodos , Recusa de Vacinação
6.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(6): 767-773, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615562

RESUMO

Category A agents are biological pathogens that could pose a threat to health and human safety if used as bioweapons. The exploration and possibility of these threats must be comprehensively reviewed to create a preparedness plan to recognize outbreaks, to educate the public, and to offer vaccinations and/or treatment options, if available. A scoping review using PRISMA guidelines was performed to categorize current information on Category A biological agents as well as understand their potential for future threats. The results used 34 articles and found that while botulin neurotoxins were the most lethal, anthrax posed the most likely threat for use as a bioweapon. Most research was conducted on plague, though it is not the most likely threat. Smallpox is the most likely agent to vaccinate against as there is already a working vaccine that has proven effective and the issue at hand is the need for a larger stockpile. Ultimately, preparedness efforts should include vaccinations and continued research and development of them. Category A agents are a serious public health concern; updated and reformed bioterrorism preparedness plans could greatly minimize panic and mortality.


Assuntos
Antraz , Peste , Varíola , Antraz/epidemiologia , Bioterrorismo , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Varíola/epidemiologia
7.
Vaccine ; 39(41): 6174-6181, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521550

RESUMO

Vaccinia virus has been used as a smallpox vaccine. Now that smallpox has been eradicated, the vaccinia virus is expected to be used as a bioterrorism countermeasure and a recombinant vaccine vector for other infectious diseases, such as viral hemorrhagic fevers. Many vaccinia virus strains were used as smallpox vaccines in the smallpox eradication campaign coordinated by the World Health Organization. These strains can be classified into generations, according to the history of improving production methods and efforts to reduce the adverse reactions. Significantly, the third-generation of smallpox vaccine strains, which include modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and LC16m8, are currently popular as recombinant vaccine vectors due to their well-balanced safety and immunogenicity profiles. The present review firstly focuses on the characteristics of the smallpox vaccine generations. The historical background of the development of the third-generation smallpox vaccine strains is detailed, along with the history of the transition of the vaccinia virus generation used as vectors for hemorrhagic fever vaccines to the third generation. Among the vaccinia viruses, MVA is currently the most commonly used vector for developing hemorrhagic fever vaccines, including dengue fever, yellow fever, Ebola viral disease, Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. LC16m8 is a vaccine candidate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. The current status and recent advances in the development of these hemorrhagic fever vaccines using third-generation vaccinia strains are discussed.


Assuntos
Febres Hemorrágicas Virais , Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética
8.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 08 19.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523836

RESUMO

Between 1554 and 2021, the number of and mortality from epidemics in Amsterdam decreased sharply. The decrease in epidemic outbreaks, such as those of plague, smallpox and cholera, paralleled the decrease in chronic mortality from endemic ailments and diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria and dysentery. There are several theories about the reason for these declines, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive: better nutrition, greater prosperity, increasing altruism, and a growing understanding of cause and effect with targeted medical and public health measures. In the powder keg of chronic poverty and poor public health, a social crisis, such as war, migration, and natural disaster, usually was the spark that led to epidemic outbreaks. The nature and extent of poverty and ill health have changed and improved over the centuries, but the threat of man-made crises is unfortunately unabated.


Assuntos
Cólera , Epidemias , Peste , Varíola , Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Peste/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009633, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547055

RESUMO

Smallpox, caused by the solely human pathogen Variola virus (VARV), was declared eradicated in 1980. While known VARV stocks are secure, smallpox remains a bioterrorist threat agent. Recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of the first smallpox anti-viral (tecovirimat) therapeutic was a successful step forward in smallpox preparedness; however, orthopoxviruses can become resistant to treatment, suggesting a multi-therapeutic approach is necessary. Animal models are required for testing medical countermeasures (MCMs) and ideally MCMs are tested directly against the pathogen of interest. Since VARV only infects humans, a representative animal model for testing therapeutics directly against VARV remains a challenge. Here we show that three different humanized mice strains are highly susceptible to VARV infection, establishing the first small animal model using VARV. In comparison, the non-humanized, immunosuppressed background mouse was not susceptible to systemic VARV infection. Following an intranasal VARV challenge that mimics the natural route for human smallpox transmission, the virus spread systemically within the humanized mouse before mortality (~ 13 days post infection), similar to the time from exposure to symptom onset for ordinary human smallpox. Our identification of a permissive/representative VARV animal model can facilitate testing of MCMs in a manner consistent with their intended use.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Varíola , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Vírus da Varíola
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, jul.-set. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339968

RESUMO

Resumen Este artículo describe el inicio de las preocupaciones sanitarias vinculadas a las epidemias ocurridas durante el siglo XX en La Pampa, provincia argentina. Las epidemias, como las de la viruela, fueron un estímulo para estas políticas que frecuentemente tuvieron origen en Buenos Aires, la capital del país. El contagio de muchas epidemias dependía de carencias de infraestructura: agua, desagüe y desecho adecuado de basuras, de la ausencia de un número suficiente de trabajadores de salud, de la presencia de vectores transmisores de enfermedades como los mosquitos y, en última instancia, de la pobreza. La experiencia histórica descrita en este texto resalta la importancia de analizar el impacto del SARS-CoV-2 más allá de las grandes ciudades.


Abstract This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , História do Século XX , Varíola/história , Epidemias/história , COVID-19/história , Argentina/epidemiologia , Pobreza/história , Esgotos , Abastecimento de Água/história , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Varíola/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos/história , Vacinação/história , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Cidades/história , Cidades/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Erradicação de Doenças/história , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Insetos Vetores , Militares/história
12.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382930

RESUMO

Since the successful use of vaccinia virus (VACV) in the immunization strategies to eliminate smallpox, research has been focused on the development of recombinant VACV strains expressing proteins from various pathogens. Attempts at decreasing the side effects associated with exposure to recombinant, wild-type viral strains have led to the development of attenuated viruses. Yet while these attenuated VACV's have improved safety profiles compared to unmodified strains, their clinical use has been hindered due to efficacy issues in stimulating a host immune response. This deficiency has largely been attributed to decreased production of the target protein for immunization. Efforts to increase protein production from attenuated VACV strains has largely centered around modulation of viral factors, while manipulation of the translation of viral mRNAs has been largely unexplored. In this study we evaluate the use of translation enhancing element hTEE-658 to increase recombinant protein production in an attenuated VACV system. Optimization of the use of this motif is also attempted by combining it with strategies that have demonstrated effectiveness in previous research. We show that extension of the 5' leader sequence containing hTEE-658 does not improve motif function, nor does the combination with other known translation enhancing elements. However, the sole use of hTEE-658 in an attenuated VACV system is shown to increase protein expression levels beyond those of a standard viral promoter when used with a wild-type virus. Taken together these results highlight the potential for hTEE-658 to improve the effectiveness of attenuated VACV vaccine candidates and give insights into the optimal sequence context for its use in vaccine design.


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica/biossíntese , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vírus Vaccinia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Vacinas Atenuadas/biossíntese , Vacinas Sintéticas/biossíntese , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 354, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis variolosa is a self-limiting disease triggered by variola virus that cannot be prevented or repaired. Smallpox has been eradicated for 40 years, and complications that remain after smallpox has been cured have become a remarkable diagnostic challenge for contemporary physicians. In this systematic review, we searched PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Google Scholar for cases on complications, diagnosis, and treatment for osteomyelitis variolosa between January 1980 and February 2021. RESULTS: Ten papers and eleven finished cases, all patients from India, were included for comparison with the present case. In total, 100% of patients presented with bilateral elbow deformities, the ankle was the second most common site of lesion in 50%, and knee lesions accounted for 25% in this study. Flexion contracture, joint instability, secondary arthritis, and fracture are common complications of osteomyelitis variolosa, and most patients receive conservative treatment, while internal fixation has good results for combined fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Although osteomyelitis variolosa is not a direct threat to the safety of patients, severe skeletal deformities can have a significant impact on quality of life. With advances in surgical techniques, clinicians are offering an increasing number of treatment options for patients with osteomyelitis variolosa. However, most importantly, smallpox has basically been removed from the historical arena, and for areas where smallpox was once endemic, physicians need to deepen the understanding of this disease again.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular , Osteomielite , Varíola , Vírus da Varíola , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346995

RESUMO

This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/história , Epidemias/história , Varíola/história , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/história , Erradicação de Doenças/história , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Militares/história , Pobreza/história , Eliminação de Resíduos/história , Esgotos , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/história , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/história
16.
Vaccine ; 39(36): 5214-5223, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334254

RESUMO

Smallpox, a disease caused by the variola virus, is one of the most dangerous diseases and had killed numerous people before it was eradicated in 1980. However, smallpox has emerged as the most threatening bio-terrorism agent; as the first- and second-generation smallpox vaccines have been controversial and have caused severe adverse reactions, new demands for safe smallpox vaccines have been raised and some attenuated smallpox vaccines have been developed. We have developed a cell culture-based highly attenuated third-generation smallpox vaccine candidate KVAC103 strain by 103 serial passages of the Lancy-Vaxina strain derived from the Lister in Vero cells. Several clones were selected, taking into consideration their shape, size, and growth rate in mammalian cells. The clones were then inoculated intracerebrally in suckling mice to test for neurovirulence by observing survival. Protective immune responses in adult mice were examined by measuring the levels of neutralization antibodies and IFN-γ expression. Among several clones, clone 7 was considered the best alternative candidate because there was no mortality in suckling mice against a lethal challenge. In addition, enhanced neutralizing antibodies and T-cell mediated IFN-γ production were observed in clone 7-immunized mice. Clone 7 was named "KVAC103" and was used for the skin toxicity test and full-genome analysis. KVAC103-inoculated rabbits showed reduced skin lesions compared to those inoculated with the Lister strain, Lancy-Vaxina. A whole genome analysis of KVAC103 revealed two major deleted regions that might contribute to the reduced virulence of KVAC103 compared to the Lister strain. Phylogenetic inference supported the close relationship with the Lister strain. Collectively, our data demonstrate that KVAC103 holds promise for use as a third-generation smallpox vaccine strain due to its enhanced safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Vírus da Varíola , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , Coelhos , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Células Vero
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256014, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Eradicated infectious diseases like smallpox can re-emerge through accident or the designs of bioterrorists, and cause heavy casualties. Presently, the populace is largely susceptible as only a small percentage is vaccinated, and their immunity is likely to have waned. And when the disease re-emerges, the susceptible individuals may be manipulated by disinformation on Social Media to refuse vaccines. Thus, a combination of countermeasures consisting of antiviral drugs and vaccines and a range of policies for their application need to be investigated. Opinions regarding whether to receive vaccines evolve over time through social exchanges via networks that overlap with but are not identical to the disease propagation networks. These couple the spread of the biological and information contagion and necessitate a joint investigation of the two. METHODS: We develop a computationally tractable metapopulation epidemiological model that captures the joint spatio-temporal evolution of an infectious disease (e.g., smallpox, COVID-19) and opinion dynamics. RESULTS: Considering smallpox, the computations based on the model show that opinion dynamics have a substantial impact on the fatality count. Towards understanding how perpetrators are likely to seed the infection, we identify a) the initial distribution of infected individuals that maximize the overall fatality count; and b) which habitation structures are more vulnerable to outbreaks. We assess the relative efficacy of different countermeasures and conclude that a combination of vaccines and drugs minimize the fatalities, and by itself, drugs reduce fatalities more than the vaccine. Accordingly, we assess the impact of increase in the supply of drugs and identify the most effective among a collection of policies for administering of drugs for various parameter combinations. Many of the observed patterns are stable to variations of a diverse set of parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a quantitative foundation for various important elements of public health discourse that have largely been conducted qualitatively.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Opinião Pública , Varíola/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mortalidade , Densidade Demográfica , Guerra Psicológica , Varíola/tratamento farmacológico , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/transmissão , Vacina Antivariólica/uso terapêutico , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Processos Estocásticos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia
18.
J Community Health ; 46(5): 1036-1049, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435304

RESUMO

Between 1100 A.D. and 1700 A.D., terracotta statues were created in the Interior Delta of the Niger River in what is now the Republic of Mali. They are known as Djenné-Jeno terracottas because of their geographic proximity to an ancient town of that name. Some of these statues possess surface excrescences that have long perplexed archaeologists, art historians, curators, and others. This study of these surface excrescences employed clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiological methodologies to elucidate their possible meanings. It has not been possible to ascribe these excrescences to a single cause. However, examination of all the evidence permitted consideration of several possibilities. These include diseases such as smallpox, onchocerciasis, and the secondary stage of venereal syphilis. On certain statues, the anatomic placement of excrescences possibly symbolizes intentional cicatrization that resulted in keloid formation which may have been a form of beautification.


Assuntos
Oncocercose , Varíola , Sífilis , Cidades , Humanos , Mali/epidemiologia
19.
Vaccine ; 39(39): 5541-5547, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the rates of myopericarditis (primary objective) and rates of cardiovascular and neurological adverse events (secondary objectives) in temporal association with ACAM2000® smallpox vaccine. METHODS: Observational cohort study conducted through monthly surveillance from 2009 to 2017 of electronic medical records of military service members (SM) for pre-specified cardiac and neurological International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes reported in the 30 days following smallpox vaccination. ICD codes potentially predictive of myopericarditis and codes for encephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and sudden death were classified into Group 1. All other cardiovascular and neurological ICD codes were classified into Group 2. Medical records containing Group 1 codes were individually reviewed to confirm coding accuracy and to seek additional data in support of myopericarditis adjudication, which was performed by an independent clinical panel. Chart reviews were not performed for Group 2 codes, which were reported in aggregate only. RESULTS: 897,227 SM who received ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine and 450,000 SM who received Dryvax smallpox vaccine were included in the surveillance population. The rate of adjudicated myopericarditis among ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine recipients was 20.06/100,000 and was significantly higher for males (21.8/100,000) than females (8.5/100,000) and for those < 40 years of age (21.1/100,000) than for those 40 years or older (6.3/100,000). Overall rates for any cardiovascular event (Group 1 plus Group 2) were 113.5/100,000 for ACAM2000 vaccine and 439.3/100,000 for Dryvax vaccine; rate ratio, 0.26 (95% CI, 0.24-0.28). The rates of subjects with one or more defined neurological events were 2.12/100,000 and 1.11/100,000 for ACAM2000 and Dryvax vaccines respectively; rate ratio, 1.91 (95% CI, 0.71-5.10). CONCLUSIONS: Electronic records surveillance of the entire vaccinated SM population over a ten-year period found rates of myopericarditis, of defined neurological events, and of overall cardiac events that were consistent with those of prior passive surveillance studies involving Dryvax or ACAM2000 smallpox vaccines. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00927719.


Assuntos
Militares , Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vacina Antivariólica/efeitos adversos , Vacinação
20.
Vaccine ; 39(34): 4914-4919, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272094

RESUMO

This history of vaccinology article outlines the work of William Money (1790-1843), who conducted a study related to smallpox disease, immunity, and vaccination. His hitherto unpublished study demonstrated that smallpox could be contracted more than once; notably, results from his studies showed that vaccination was not dangerous. He was also the author of a celebrated Vade Mecum in human anatomy. Here, we outline the work he conducted in England: from serving as the house surgeon at Northampton Infirmary to his post as a surgeon at the Royal Metropolitan Hospital in London.


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Inglaterra , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Londres , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
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