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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130680, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348198

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of different types of smoking materials on the flavor, heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) content, and sensory attributes of smoked chicken drumsticks. All smoked samples showed lower pH and L*-value and higher a*-value and b*-value than the control sample (P < 0.05), but no significant differences in water content and water activity (P > 0.05). The samples smoked with sucrose combined with pear-tree woodchips (SP) or green tea leaves (ST) had higher overall acceptability than other samples (P < 0.05). Smoking increased the total HAA content, and the ST sample exhibited the highest total HAA content (P < 0.05). A total of 54 volatile compounds was identified. Overall, SP and ST are suitable for smoked chicken considering the sensory properties, while S and SA are proper for smoked chicken considering the minimization of HAAs, which may provide a theory basis for the production of smoked chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Aminas/análise , Animais , Fumaça , Fumar
2.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 23-31, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801192

RESUMO

Significant disparities exist in lung cancer incidence and screening. Geographic, racial, gender, and socioeconomic disparities affect lung cancer incidence. As the leading cause of lung cancer, smoking varies among different racioethnic groups, genders, and socioeconomic statuses. In addition, environmental pollutants, such as radon, industrial toxins, and air pollution, are significant risk factors for lung cancer development that is disproportionately seen in working-class communities, as well as underserved and disabled populations. Lung cancer incidence depends on diagnosis. Literature examining lung cancer incidence and screening disparities have its limitations, as most studies are methodologically limited and do not adjust for important risk factors.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Classe Social
3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107074, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility of providing varenicline in combination with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and motivational interviewing (MI) to adult male smokers attending a clinic in a hostel for homeless people. METHODS: A single group pre- and post-treatment (12 weeks following intervention commencement) design with embedded process evaluation (at weekly counselling and fortnightly safety check-ins). Participants were 20 male smokers attending a health clinic within a homelessness service in Sydney, Australia, between December 2019 and March 2020. Participants set a target quit date 7-days post intervention commencement. Adverse events, self-reported abstinence, cigarettes per day, treatment adherence and acceptability of the study interventions were assessed 12 weeks post intervention commencement. Abstinence was biochemically verified. Results are complete cases. RESULTS: Retention was 65% at 12-weeks post-intervention commencement (n = 13). No related adverse events were reported. Three participants (15%) reported continuous abstinence. Two participants self-reported 30-day point prevalence abstinence (10%), confirmed by CO level. Participants who did not quit smoking (n = 10), reported a significant reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (19.4 vs 4.7, p < .01). Cravings, withdrawal symptoms, and psychological distress significantly decreased from baseline to 12-week follow-up (all < 0.01). Adherence to the pharmacological interventions was good, most used combination NRT and varenicline. Adherence to the counselling sessions was low, attending three of 12 sessions. Both NRT and MI were rated as highly acceptable. Some participants expressed concerns about the safety of varenicline. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was feasible and acceptable and associated with short-term smoking cessation and significant reductions in the number of cigarettes smoked-per-day.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Entrevista Motivacional , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Fumar , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico
4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 31-48, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635516

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently one of the most frequent malignant neoplasms, ranking 3rd in incidence and 2nd in mortality both in the USA and across the world. The pathogenesis of CRC is a complex interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors such as exposure to metals. Therefore, the present study was intended to assess the imbalances in the concentrations of selected essential/toxic elements (Pb, Cr, Fe, Zn, As, Cd, Cu, Se, Ni, and Hg) in the serum of newly diagnosed colorectal carcinoma patients (n = 165) in comparison with counterpart controls (n = 151) by atomic absorption spectrometry after wet-acid digestion method. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) of the CRC patients was determined using immunoradiometric method. Body mass index (BMI) which is an established risk factor for CRC was also calculated for patients and healthy controls. Conversely, average Ni (2.721 µg/g), Cd (0.563 µg/g), As (0.539 µg/g), and Pb (1.273 µg/g) levels were significantly elevated in the serum of CRC patients compared to the healthy donors, while the average Se (7.052 µg/g), Fe (15.67 µg/g), Cu (2.033 µg/g), and Zn (8.059 µg/g) concentrations were elevated in controls. The correlation coefficients between the elements in the cancerous patients demonstrated significantly dissimilar communal relationships compared with the healthy subjects. Significant differences in the elemental levels were also showed for CRC types (primary colorectal lymphoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and adenocarcinoma) and CRC stages (stage-I, stage-II, stage-III, and stage-IV) among the patients. Majority of the elements demonstrated perceptible disparities in their levels based on dietary, habitat, gender, and smoking habits of the malignant patients and healthy subjects. Multivariate methods revealed noticeably divergent apportionment among the toxic/essential elements in the cancerous patients than the healthy counterparts. Overall, the study showed significantly divergent distribution and associations of the essential and toxic elemental levels in the serum of the CRC patients in comparison with the healthy donors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Oligoelementos , Humanos , Metais , Fumar , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Oligoelementos/análise
5.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107108, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509092

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that smoking is a self-regulatory strategy to relieve negative affect and that metacognitions about smoking may play a role in addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present research was designed to examine the direct and indirect roles of emotion dysregulation and negative affect in predicting urge to smoke and nicotine dependence via metacognitions about smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 450 nicotine-dependent men completed measures of urge to smoke, nicotine dependence, metacognitions about smoking, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation. The results showed that both emotion dysregulation and negative affect had indirect effects on urge to smoke via positive metacognitions about smoking as well as on nicotine dependence via negative metacognitions about smoking. The findings suggest that metacognitions about smoking have different roles in different patterns of nicotine use so that positive and negative metacognitions have important roles respectively in urge to smoke and nicotine dependence in smokers with high emotion dysregulation and negative affect. This study also adds to the literature on the metacognitive theoretical framework of addictive behaviors supporting the use of Metacognitive Therapy interventions in smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Tabagismo , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar
6.
Clin Chest Med ; 42(4): 711-727, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774177

RESUMO

Pneumothorax is a common problem worldwide. Pneumothorax develops secondary to diverse aetiologies; in many cases, there may be no recognizable lung abnormality. The pathogenetic mechanism(s) causing spontaneous pneumothorax may be related to an interplay between lung-related abnormalities and environmental factors such as smoking. Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for primary spontaneous pneumothorax; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is most frequently associated with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. This review article provides an overview of the historical perspective, epidemiology, classification, and aetiology of pneumothorax. It also aims to highlight current knowledge and understanding of underlying risks and pathophysiological mechanisms in pneumothorax development.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Pneumotórax , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 787-793, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814468

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the prevalence of heart failure in China and to explore the prospective association between smoking behavior and the risk of incident heart failure. Methods: The subjects were from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) and the baseline survey was conducted from June 2004 to July 2008. A total of 487 197 subjects were included in this study, after excluding those with missing BMI information, lost follow-up immediately after baseline investigation, and self-reported coronary heart disease, stroke, or malignant tumor at baseline. This study included data from baseline and follow-up until December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between smoking behavior and the risk of heart failure. Results: The median follow-up time was 10.15 years, during which a total of 4 208 new cases of heart failure occurred, with a crude incidence rate of 0.87/1 000 person-years and a cumulative incidence rate of 0.86%. The higher the age at baseline, the higher the incidence of heart failure. The incidence of heart failure in high age group, rural area and male was higher than that in low age group, urban area and female population respectively. Compared with non-smokers, there was no significant difference in the risk of heart failure in occasional smokers (HR=1.05; 95%CI: 0.91-1.22), while former smokers (HR=1.48; 95%CI:1.31-1.67) and current smokers (HR=1.34;95%CI:1.22-1.49) increased risk. Former smokers (HR=1.33;95%CI:1.21-1.46) and current smokers (HR=1.46; 95%CI:1.31-1.64) had higher risk of heart failure than non-smokers or occasional smokers. No dose-response relationship was observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the risk of heart failure in current and former smokers (for trend P=0.347 and 0.066). Compared with non-smokers or occasional smokers, the hazard ratios of <5, 5-, 10- and ≥20 years since quit smoking were 1.61 (95%CI: 1.36-1.92), 1.55 (95%CI: 1.27-1.90), 1.24 (95%CI: 1.02-1.51) and 1.35 (95%CI: 1.08-1.68), respectively (for trend P=0.091). The hazard ratios of quitting smoking due to disease and other reasons were 1.62 (95%CI:1.41-1.86) and 1.23 (95%CI: 1.04-1.45). Healthy smoking behaviors had a significant protective effect on heart failure compared with non-healthy smoking behaviors (HR=0.75, 95%CI:0.69-0.81). Area and family history of coronary heart disease, and the smoking behaviors interacted with the risk of heart failure (for all interactions were P<0.05). Conclusions: The incidence of heart failure in China is higher in males than females, higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and increases with age. Both former smokers and current smokers had a higher risk of heart failure than nonsmokers or occasional smokers, regardless of the frequency, amount, duration, and reason for quitting. Smoking is an important risk factor for heart failure and comprehensive anti-smoking measures should be maintained.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Adulto , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 807-813, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814471

RESUMO

Objective: To understanding tobacco dependence and its influencing factors among smokers aged 40 or older in China and provide scientific data for the implementation of smoking cessation intervention. Methods: The data of this study were collected from 125 surveillance sites in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) surveillance in China (2014 and 2015). The relevant variables of smoking status and tobacco dependence among people aged 40 or older were collected by face-to-face interview. The weighted proportion of tobacco dependence and its 95%CI and influencing factors among current smokers and daily smokers aged 40 or older in China were estimated with complex sampling weights. Results: A total of 22 380 current smokers and 19 999 daily smokers were included in the analysis. The proportion of high tobacco dependence of current smokers aged 40 or older was 31.1% (29.3%-32.9%). The proportion of high tobacco dependence was higher in men than in women, and higher in rural smokers than urban smokers. The proportion was 33.3% (31.3%-35.2%) in 40 to 59 years old smokers, which was higher than older age group. The proportion of high tobacco dependence among daily smokers aged 40 or older was 35.0% (33.0%-37.0%), and was 35.8% (33.8%-37.8%) in men and 22.0% (16.8%-27.2%) in women. Among current smokers and daily smokers, with the decrease of education level, the proportion of high tobacco dependence increased. The proportion of high tobacco dependence of smokers who started smoking before 18 years old was significantly higher than those who started smoking after 18 years old. The ratio of high tobacco dependence of smokers with chronic respiratory symptoms was higher than that of asymptomatic smokers. There was no significant difference in the tobacco dependence between patients with chronic diseases or chronic respiratory diseases and non patients (P>0.05). Smokers with diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and hypertension had a slightly lower proportion of high tobacco dependence than smokers without above diseases (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that men, central and eastern regions, 40-59 age group, engaged in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery industry, water conservancy, manufacture, transportation and commercial services occupation, low education level and smoking onset age less than 18 years old had a high risk of high tobacco dependence. Conclusions: The proportion of high tobacco dependence among current smokers aged 40 or older is high in China, so there is a huge demand for smoking cessation interventions. Effective measures should be taken to promote smoking cessation intervention in China.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 1076-1079, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814510

RESUMO

Objective: Diet balance index (DBI_16) was used to evaluate the dietary status of smoking adults in Tianjin, and the relationship between DBI_16 and serum uric acid was analyzed. Methods: A total of 1 478 inhabitants aged 18 and above were enrolled. The dietary status was obtained with a 3-day dietary recall and condiment weighing method. And their fasting venous blood was collected to detect uric acid. Food intake and DBI_16 scores of smokers and non-smokers were described, and the relationship among smoking, diet quality distance (DQD-DBI), and serum uric acid was analyzed. Results: The intake of vegetables, fruits, and milk of smokers in Tianjin was lower than while the salt, oil, cereals, and aquatic products were higher than that of non-smokers. The DBI_16 scores of vegetables and fruits, food types, milk, and beans of smokers were lower than those of non-smokers in Tianjin, and the scores of pure energy foods and condiments were higher than those of the non-smokers. The DQD-DBI, high bound score and low bound score of smokers in Tianjin were 42.0, 14.0, and 29.0 respectively, which were all higher than those of non-smokers. The main problems appeared as moderately inadequate intake (accounting for 67.0%), low, excessive intake (accounting for 70.9%), and moderate imbalance of intake (accounting for 67.2%). The serum uric acid of smokers was higher than in the non-smokers, and there the same result appeared under the conditions of "not suitable" in DQD-DBI. Conclusions: In Tianjin, the dietary imbalance was more evident in smokers than the non-smokers, and the serum uric acid was significantly higher than the non-smokers. Strategies as strengthening the nutrition education and intervention targeted for smokers were in urgent need.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácido Úrico , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Humanos , Fumar , Verduras
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 1200-1204, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814531

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status of tobacco use and related influencing factors in population in Shandong province. Methods: Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select respondents from 216 villages (communities) of 36 districts (counties) in Shandong province. Influencing factors on smoking were analyzed by logistic regression model. Results: The adequate sample size was 6 271 participants. After complex weighted, the current smoking prevalence was 23.93%,45.58% in males and 1.18% in females. The Public's smoking rates varied widely among different groups in the population. 45-64 age group had the highest smoking rate (25.07%). Smoking rates were substantially different in education levels, with the highest in junior high school (28.94%). The rate was higher in the rural area (24.98%) than that in the urban areas (23.08%). The average daily smoking rate was 20.23%. The average age of initiating smoking was 21.21 years. The average daily cigarette intake was 16.31 cigarettes. Among all the former and current smokers, the quitting rate was 20.79%. Multiple logistic regression model analysis showed that gender, age, occupation, region, and health knowledge score were correlated with smoking behavior. The current smoking rate of men was much higher than that of women (OR=49.625, 95%CI: 37.832-65.093). The current smoking rate in 45-64 age group was higher than that in the 15-24 age group (OR=1.830, 95%CI: 1.048-3.194). The current smoking rate of medical (OR=0.403, 95%CI: 0.187-0.866) and retired personnel (OR=0.648, 95%CI: 0.481-0.873) were lower than those engaging in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and the fishery ,respectively. The prevalence of residents living in the central part showed lower rate on current smoking than that in the eastern region (OR=0.724, 95%CI: 0.606-0.865). The current smoking prevalence of smoke hazard in 1-3 score group was higher than that in the group with 4-6 score (OR=1.432, 95%CI: 1.240-1.654). Conclusions: Smoking rate in adults in Shandong remained stable and at a high level. Comprehensive intervention measures such as tobacco control and health education should be carried out to reduce the smoking rate.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770175

RESUMO

Short root anomaly (SRA) is a dental anomaly with short dental roots and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study investigated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and SRA in offspring. A survey was conducted on 558 children aged 8-16 years from two public schools in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. SRA was diagnosed using cases with a root-crown ratio of maxillary central incisors of ≤1.0. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess maternal lifestyle habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and SRA in offspring after adjusting for possible confounders. The prevalence of SRA in these children was 14.2%. Children whose mothers smoked from pregnancy to date were found to be 4.95 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-14.79) more likely to have SRA than those whose mothers never smoked, after adjusting for possible confounders. Additionally, children whose mothers had been exposed to passive smoking during pregnancy were found to be 1.86 times (95% CI: 1.02-3.40) more likely to have SRA than those whose mothers had not been exposed to passive smoke. Our population-based study suggests that maternal and passive smoking exposure during pregnancy can affect tooth root formation in children.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e27875, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viewing their habitual smoking environments increases smokers' craving and smoking behaviors in laboratory settings. A deep learning approach can differentiate between habitual smoking versus nonsmoking environments, suggesting that it may be possible to predict environment-associated smoking risk from continuously acquired images of smokers' daily environments. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to predict environment-associated risk from continuously acquired images of smokers' daily environments. We also aim to understand how model performance varies by location type, as reported by participants. METHODS: Smokers from Durham, North Carolina and surrounding areas completed ecological momentary assessments both immediately after smoking and at randomly selected times throughout the day for 2 weeks. At each assessment, participants took a picture of their current environment and completed a questionnaire on smoking, craving, and the environmental setting. A convolutional neural network-based model was trained to predict smoking, craving, whether smoking was permitted in the current environment and whether the participant was outside based on images of participants' daily environments, the time since their last cigarette, and baseline data on daily smoking habits. Prediction performance, quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and average precision (AP), was assessed for out-of-sample prediction as well as personalized models trained on images from days 1 to 10. The models were optimized for mobile devices and implemented as a smartphone app. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants completed the study, and 8008 images were acquired. The personalized models were highly effective in predicting smoking risk (AUC=0.827; AP=0.882), craving (AUC=0.837; AP=0.798), whether smoking was permitted in the current environment (AUC=0.932; AP=0.981), and whether the participant was outside (AUC=0.977; AP=0.956). The out-of-sample models were also effective in predicting smoking risk (AUC=0.723; AP=0.785), whether smoking was permitted in the current environment (AUC=0.815; AP=0.937), and whether the participant was outside (AUC=0.949; AP=0.922); however, they were not effective in predicting craving (AUC=0.522; AP=0.427). Omitting image features reduced AUC by over 0.1 when predicting all outcomes except craving. Prediction of smoking was more effective for participants whose self-reported location type was more variable (Spearman ρ=0.48; P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Images of daily environments can be used to effectively predict smoking risk. Model personalization, achieved by incorporating information about daily smoking habits and training on participant-specific images, further improves prediction performance. Environment-associated smoking risk can be assessed in real time on a mobile device and can be incorporated into device-based smoking cessation interventions.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Fumantes , Fumar , Fumar Tabaco
13.
Anticancer Res ; 41(11): 5739-5747, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells is a predictive biomarker of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade therapy. This study sought to clarify predictors of the efficacy of nivolumab in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with PD-L1 expression-negative tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of advanced NSCLC patients between January 2016 and April 2019, and investigated the predictive marker of nivolumab including the status of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). RESULTS: A total of 70 NSCLC patients were included. Overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) were better in patients with a heavy smoking history (smoking index: SI≥600) than in those without (SI<600) [ORR: 20.6% vs. 2.8%, (p=0.02), and PFS: 2.4 months vs. 1.8 months, (p=0.04)]. A high density of CD8+ TILs was significantly associated with a heavy smoking history (p=0.04). Conlusion: Heavy smoking history (SI≥600), which was correlated with a large number of CD8+ TILs, could be a predictor of the efficacy of nivolumab in NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression-negative tumors.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 614602, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744578

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a university tobacco-free policy by examining differences in students' attitudes, perceptions of compliance and policy benefits, after one year of the policy's implementation. Methods: Cross-sectional studies were undertaken to collect data pre- and 1 year post-policy implementation. The two samples were selected using stratified random sampling. Results: The prevalence of smoking decreased from 26% pre-policy implementation to 21% 1 year after (p = 0.035). The proportion of smokers who thought the policy had contributed to a reduction in smoking frequency increased from 10% to 70% (p < 0.001). Smokers' support for the policy rose from 42 to 58% (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Against the background of a strongly pro-tobacco environment in Lebanon, it is possible to create a positive change in the mindset of smokers at the levels of the education and smoking cessation and more efforts should be expended to bring it about.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Estudantes , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Percepção , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
15.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(10): 974-983, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766323

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of premature mortality, incurring substantial economic costs. Aims: To estimate the rate and cost of premature mortality attributable to smoking in the 24 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries in 2015. Methods: Smoking attributable fractions were estimated. Twenty-four smoking-related diseases were included in the analysis. For each country, the total number of deaths by disease, age, and gender among individuals aged ≥ 15 years were derived from a World Health Organization database. Human capital approach was used in calculating cost of premature mortality. Results: Smoking was responsible for 465 285 deaths in MENA countries, resulting in 7 122 706 years of potential life lost, or an average of 15.23 years lost per smoking-related death. Of the total 465 285 smoking-related deaths, 412 415 (88.6%) occurred in men, accounting for 37% of all deaths from the diseases considered in this analysis among men. The total mortality cost attributable to smoking was estimated at US$ 29.7 billion in 2015 (0.76% of MENA's gross domestic product). Turkey was the country most affected by the tobacco epidemic, representing 41% of smoking-related mortality cost in the whole region, followed by Saudi Arabia (8.76%) and Egypt (7.88%). Conclusion: Smoking is an important preventable cause of premature mortality in MENA countries. Substantial decline in smoking-attributable deaths and significant economic cost saving can be achieved in this region through more effective tobacco control policies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura , Fumar , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco , Turquia
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731981, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805064

RESUMO

To date, most of the evidence suggests that smoking is negatively associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. However, evidence has several methodological limitations. Using an outpatient sample population, we analyzed the association of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and smoking considering comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Baseline data were obtained from a cohort during the first wave of the pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland (March-April 2020). RT-PCR tests were carried out on individuals suspected of having SARS-CoV-2 according to the testing strategy at that time. Logistic regressions were performed to test the association of smoking and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and further adjusted for comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors. The sample included 5,169 participants; 60% were women and the mean age was 41 years. The unadjusted OR for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 0.46 (CI: 0.38-0.54). After adjustment for comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors, smoking was still negatively associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (OR: 0.44; CI: 0.35-0.77). Women (OR: 0.79; CI: 0.69-0.91), higher postal income (OR: 0.97; CI: 0.95-0.99), having respiratory (OR: 0.68; CI: 0.55-0.84) and immunosuppressive disorders (OR: 0.63; CI: 0.44-0.88) also showed independent negative associations with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. Smoking was negatively associated with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 independently of comorbidities, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Since having respiratory or immunosuppressive conditions and being females and healthcare workers were similarly negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 positive testing, we hypothesize that risk factor-related protective or testing behaviors could have induced a negative association with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Suíça/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive lung diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and smoking are associated with greater risk of respiratory infections and hospitalisations, but conflicting data exist regarding their association with severity of COVID-19, and few studies have evaluated whether these associations differ by age. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between asthma, COPD and smoking on the severity of COVID-19 among a cohort of hospitalised patients, and to test for effect modification by age. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, assigning the maximal WHO Clinical Progression Scale score for each patient during the first 28 days following hospital admission. Using ordered logistic regression, we measured the association between maximal severity score and asthma, COPD and smoking and their interaction with age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1391 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we found an increased risk of severe disease among patients with COPD and prior smoking, independent of age. We also found evidence of effect modification by age with asthma and current smoking; in particular, asthma was associated with decreased COVID-19 severity among older adults, and current smoking was associated with decreased severity among younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study identifies age as a modifying factor for the association between asthma and smoking on severity of COVID-19. Our findings highlight the complexities of determining risk factors for COVID-19 severity, and suggest that the effect of risk factors may vary across the age spectrum.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar/efeitos adversos
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022433, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755518

RESUMO

Background The relationship between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke is poorly understood due to potential unmeasured confounding and reverse causation. We aimed to leverage genetic data to triangulate reported associations. Methods and Results Analyses primarily focused on critical COVID-19, defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or resulting in death. Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate genetic correlations of critical COVID-19 with ischemic stroke, other related cardiovascular outcomes, and risk factors common to both COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease (body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation, estimated using C-reactive protein). Mendelian randomization analysis was performed to investigate whether liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular outcome for which genetic correlation was identified. There was evidence of genetic correlation between critical COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (rg=0.29, false discovery rate [FDR]=0.012), body mass index (rg=0.21, FDR=0.00002), and C-reactive protein (rg=0.20, FDR=0.00035), but no other trait investigated. In Mendelian randomization, liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] per logOR increase in genetically predicted critical COVID-19 liability 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P-value=0.03). Similar estimates were obtained for ischemic stroke subtypes. Consistent estimates were also obtained when performing statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusting for potential genetic confounding through body mass index, smoking, and chronic inflammation. There was no evidence to suggest that genetic liability to ischemic stroke increased the risk of critical COVID-19. Conclusions These data support that liability to critical COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The host response predisposing to severe COVID-19 is likely to increase the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of other potentially mitigating risk factors.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , COVID-19 , AVC Isquêmico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/virologia , Proteína C-Reativa , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/genética , AVC Isquêmico/virologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 110: 106486, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776121

RESUMO

Smoking rates are disproportionately high among people living with HIV. Smokers living with HIV (SLWH) are also largely unaware of the HIV-specific deleterious effects of smoking and often lack motivation and confidence in their ability to quit tobacco. To address these issues, we developed the Wellness Intervention for Smokers Living with HIV (WISH). WISH is grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model and is designed for all SLWH, regardless of their initial motivation to quit. It follows evidence-based, best practice guidelines for nicotine dependence treatment, but is innovative in its use of a comprehensive wellness approach that addresses smoking within the context of HIV self-management including treatment adherence and engagement, stress management, substance use, and other personally relevant health behavior goals. The described randomized trial will enroll SLWH who are receiving care at Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and compare WISH's impact on smoking behavior to standard care services offered through the National VA Quitline and SmokefreeVET texting program. It will also assess intervention impact on markers of immune status and mortality risk. If effective, WISH could be disseminated to Veterans nationwide and could serve as a model for designing quitline interventions for other smokers who are ambivalent about quitting. The current paper outlines the rationale and methodology of the WISH trial, one of a series of studies recently funded by the National Cancer Institute to advance understanding of how to better promote smoking cessation among SLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Fumantes , Fumar , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
20.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to clarify the transition to the implementation of smoking prohibition at eating and drinking establishments one year before and after April 2020, the time when they became "nonsmoking" in principle following the implementation of the amendment bill for the Health Promotion Act of Japan. METHODS: The total number of nonsmoking/smoking eating and drinking establishments by industry were obtained using the data from "Tabelog®." The number of people who tested positive for COVID-19 by the polymerase chain reaction test on the day of the survey nationwide and the bankruptcy status of the companies (eating and drinking establishments, etc.) for each month were ascertained. RESULTS: In 2020, a state of emergency was declared owing to the increase in the number of people positive for COVID-19, and many eating and drinking establishments went bankrupt. Despite these circumstances, the number of nonsmoking eating and drinking establishments exceeded that of smoking establishments in March 2020 and continued to increase thereafter. Additionally, the number of nonsmoking "restaurants" increased and exceeded that of smoking restaurants in June 2020. The number of nonsmoking "cafes" already exceeded that of smoking "cafes" at the beginning of this survey and continued to increase. The number of nonsmoking "bars" increased, but that of smoking "bars" remained high. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to promote measures against passive smoking while paying attention to the trends for different types of eating and drinking establishments, rather than considering all establishments together.


Assuntos
Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , COVID-19 , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Política Pública/tendências , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
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