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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 18, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of including social determinants of health (SDOH) in teaching for future doctors. However, the educational methods and the extent of integration into the curriculum vary considerably-this scoping review is aimed at how SDOH has been introduced into medical schools' curricula. METHODS: A systematic search was performed of six electronic databases, including PubMed, Education Source, Scopus, OVID (Medline), APA Psych Info, and ERIC. Articles were excluded if they did not cover the SDOH curriculum for medical students; were based on service-learning rather than didactic content; were pilot courses, or were not in English, leaving eight articles in the final study. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 654 articles after removing duplicates. In the first screening step, 588 articles were excluded after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment; we examined 66 articles, a total of eight included in the study. There was considerable heterogeneity in the content, structure and duration of SDOH curricula. Of the eight included studies, six were in the United States(U.S.), one in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and one in Israel. Four main conceptual frameworks were invoked: the U.S. Healthy People 2020, two World Health Organisation frameworks (The Life Course and the Michael Marmot's Social Determinants of Health), and the National Academic of Science, Engineering, and Medicine's (Framework For educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health). In general, programs that lasted longer appeared to perform better than shorter-duration programmes. Students favoured interactive, experiential-learning teaching methods over the traditional classroom-based teaching methods. CONCLUSION: The incorporation of well-structured SDOH curricula capturing both local specification and a global framework, combined with a combination of traditional and interactive teaching methods over extended periods, may be helpful in steps for creating lifelong learners and socially accountable medical school education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Currículo , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 4, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, structural racism has been well documented as an important social determinant of health (SODH) resulting in racial inequality related to health. Although studies on structural racism have increased over the years, the selection of appropriate designs, measures, and indexes of measurement that respond to SODH has not been comprehensively documented. Therefore, the lack of evidence seems to exist. This scoping review was conducted to map and summarize global evidence on the use of various designs, measures, and indexes of measurement when studying structural racism as a social determinant of health. METHODS: We performed a scoping review of global evidence from 2000 to 2022 published in 5 databases: PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo, Web of Science, ProQuest, and relevant grey literature on structural racism. We conducted a systematic search using keywords and subject headings around 3 concepts. We included peer reviewed original research/review articles which conceived the framework of social determinants of health (SODH) and studied structural racism. RESULTS: Our review identified 1793 bibliographic citations for screening and 54 articles for final review. Articles reported 19 types of study design, 87 measures of exposure and 58 measures of health outcomes related to structural racism. 73 indexes or scales of measurement were used to assess health impacts of structural racism. Majority of articles were primary research (n = 43/54 articles; 79.6%), used quantitative research method (n = 32/54 articles; 59.3%) and predominantly conducted in the United States (n = 46/54 articles; 85.2.6%). Cross-sectional study design was the most used design (n = 17/54 articles; 31.5%) followed by systematic review (n = 7/54 articles; 13.0%) and narrative review (n = 6/54 articles; 11.1%). Housing and residential segregation was the largest cluster of exposure with the highest impact in infant health outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our review found several key gaps and research priorities on structural racism such as lack of longitudinal studies and availability of structural or ecological data, lack of consensus on the use of consolidated appropriate measures, indexes of measurement and appropriate study designs that can capture complex interactions of exposure and outcomes related to structural racism holistically.


Assuntos
Racismo , Racismo Sistêmico , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(Suppl 3): 193, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694195

RESUMO

Since the 2008 publication of the reports of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health and its nine knowledge networks, substantial research has been undertaken to document and describe health inequities. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the need for a deeper understanding of, and broader action on, the social determinants of health. Building on this unique and critical opportunity, the World Health Organization is steering a multi-country Initiative to reduce health inequities through an action-learning process in 'Pathfinder' countries. The Initiative aims to develop replicable and reliable models and practices that can be adopted by WHO offices and UN staff to address the social determinants of health to advance health equity. This paper provides an overview of the Initiative by describing its broad theory of change and work undertaken in three regions and six Pathfinder countries in its first year-and-a-half. Participants engaged in the Initiative describe results of early country dialogues and promising entry points for implementation that involve model, network and capacity building. The insights communicated through this note from the field will be of interest for others aiming to advance health equity through taking action on the social determinants of health, in particular as regards structural determinants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Pandemias , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Política de Saúde
4.
Am J Public Health ; 113(S1): S65-S71, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696609

RESUMO

In 2010, the federal government and several state governments began using the social determinants of health (SDOH) framework to highlight contributing factors of health inequities and, in 2022, recognized that structural racism was associated with health inequities. Yet, efforts to eliminate health inequities have disproportionately focused on individualized solutions instead of addressing structural racism. Many racial/ethnic-minority workers have been segregated to low-wage occupations that lack access to paid sick leave, such as agricultural work, which has been associated with health inequities. Research shows these inequities are attributable to structural racism enforced through laws that structure the employment system to disadvantage agricultural workers, who are disproportionately racial/ethnic-minority individuals, which will not be addressed with individualized solutions. In this article, we explain why the current SDOH framework and efforts to eliminate health inequities are inadequate, discuss Yearby's revised SDOH framework that includes structural racism as one of the root causes of health inequities, and illustrate how Yearby's revised SDOH framework better captures the impact of structural racism, which is associated with health inequities for agricultural workers. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(S1):S65-S71. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307166).


Assuntos
Racismo , Racismo Sistêmico , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fazendeiros , Iniquidades em Saúde , Emprego
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 37, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health (SDoH) describe the complex network of circumstances that impact an individual before birth and across the lifespan. SDoH contextualize factors in a community that are associated with chronic disease risk and certain health disparities. The main objective of this study was to explore the impact of SDoH on the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, and whether these factors explain disparities in these health outcomes among Latinos in Southern California. METHODS: We utilized three composite indices that encompass different SDoH: the Healthy Places Index (HPI), Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), and CalEnviroScreen (CES). Univariate linear regression models explored the associations between index scores with adult obesity, adult diabetes, and childhood obesity. RESULTS: Communities with lower HPI scores were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic disease and a greater proportion of Latino residents. Cities in the lowest decile of HPI scores had 71% of the population identifying as Latino compared to 12% in the highest decile. HPI scores explained 61% of the variability in adult obesity (p < 0.001), 41% of the variability in childhood obesity (p < 0.001), and 47% of the variability in adult diabetes (p < 0.001). Similar results were observed when examining SVI and CES with these health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Latinos in Southern California live in communities with adverse SDoH and face a greater burden of adult obesity, diabetes, and childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hispânico ou Latino , California/epidemiologia
6.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 18(1): 5, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study identified patient profiles in terms of their quality of outpatient care use, associated sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and adverse outcomes based on frequent emergency department (ED) use, hospitalization, and death from medical causes. METHODS: A cohort of 18,215 patients with substance-related disorders (SRD) recruited in addiction treatment centers was investigated using Quebec (Canada) health administrative databases. A latent class analysis was produced, identifying three profiles of quality of outpatient care use, while multinomial and logistic regressions tested associations with patient characteristics and adverse outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Profile 1 patients (47% of the sample), labeled "Low outpatient service users", received low quality of care. They were mainly younger, materially and socially deprived men, some with a criminal history. They had more recent SRD, mainly polysubstance, and less mental disorders (MD) and chronic physical illnesses than other Profiles. Profile 2 patients (36%), labeled "Moderate outpatient service users", received high continuity and intensity of care by general practitioners (GP), while the diversity and regularity in their overall quality of outpatient service was moderate. Compared with Profile 1, they  were older, less likely to be unemployed or to live in semi-urban areas, and most had common MD and chronic physical illnesses. Profile 3 patients (17%), labeled "High outpatient service users", received more intensive psychiatric care and higher quality of outpatient care than other Profiles. Most Profile 3 patients lived alone or were single parents, and fewer lived in rural areas or had a history of homelessness, versus Profile 1 patients. They were strongly affected by MD, mostly serious MD and personality disorders. Compared with Profile 1, Profile 3 had more frequent ED use and hospitalizations, followed by Profile 2. No differences in death rates emerged among the profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent ED use and hospitalization were strongly related to patient clinical and sociodemographic profiles, and the quality of outpatient services received to the severity of their conditions. Outreach strategies more responsive to patient needs may include motivational interventions and prevention of risky behaviors for Profile 1 patients, collaborative GP-psychiatrist care for Profile 2 patients, and GP care and intensive specialized treatment for Profile 3 patients.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Geral/normas , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 36(2): 106-111, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the effects of nutrition security and social determinants of health (SDOHs) on pressure injury (PI) progression through a scoping review and retrospective review of patients reporting to New England's largest healthcare system. METHODS: Authors performed a scoping review for full-text, original articles reporting outcomes data specific to PIs in patients with socially informed nutrition insecurity. Investigators also performed a retrospective review of all patients from 2012 to 2021 to search for patients with PI documentation and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision Z codes related to the SDOHs. RESULTS: A full-text review of 2,323 articles from 1965 to 2020 failed to locate any eligible studies. Investigators identified 1,044 patients who met the inclusion criteria; 50.7% were men, 74.3% were White, and 13.3% had evidence of detrimental SDOHs. The average PI duration was 12.13 days (interquartile range, 6 days). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that PI duration was longer in men, Black patients, and patients with evidence of detrimental SDOHs compared with their converse counterparts (P < .0001). The presence of detrimental SDOHs independently predicted an increased duration of disease by 13.07 days (95% CI, 8.99-17.15; t = 6.29, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: A patient's SDOH history has a significant and considerably stronger correlation with disease progression than predictors that are traditionally studied such as sex, race, or body mass index. These findings are novel, as highlighted by the absence of data uncovered in the literature. These data carry relevance for plastic surgeons wishing to prevent early recurrence following operative closure of PI-related wounds.


Assuntos
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673956

RESUMO

Work is a recognized social determinant of health. This became most apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers, particularly those in certain industries and occupations, were at risk due to interaction with the public and close proximity to co-workers. The purpose of this study was to assess how states collected work and employment data on COVID-19 cases, characterizing the need for systematic collection of case-based specific work and employment data, including industry and occupation, of COVID-19 cases. A survey was distributed among state occupational health contacts and epidemiologists in all 50 states to assess current practices in state public health surveillance systems. Twenty-seven states collected some kind of work and employment information from COVID-19 cases. Most states (93%) collected industry and/or occupation information. More than half used text-only fields, a predefined reference or dropdown list, or both. Use of work and employment data included identifying high risk populations, prioritizing vaccination efforts, and assisting with reopening plans. Reported barriers to collecting industry and occupation data were lack of staffing, technology issues, and funding. Scientific understanding of work-related COVID-19 risk requires the systematic, case-based collection of specific work and employment data, including industry and occupation. While this alone does not necessarily indicate a clear workplace exposure, collection of these data elements can help to determine and further prevent workplace outbreaks, thereby ensuring the viability of the nation's critical infrastructure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Ocupações , Indústrias
10.
Rural Remote Health ; 23(1): 7678, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to engage community members and practice partners across multiple sectors in a participatory strategy development process to identify social and organizational determinants of accessing health care, collectively prioritize identified issues, and develop strategies for change. METHODS: Using concept mapping, a mixed-methods approach, a collaborative team of academics, practice partners, and community health workers collected data from community members and agency representatives (n=366) across four counties through facilitated community forums and an online survey in four counties in the Bootheel region of Missouri, USA. These responses were consolidated into a set of statements that were used with a smaller group of participants (n=60, 15 per county) for sorting and rating purposes. The resulting concept maps were presented to community participants, who were guided through a structured process for prioritization of issues and strategy development. RESULTS: Participants identified several individual-, social-, community-, and organization-level barriers to accessing health care, including cost, lack of transportation, lack of information about services, lack of coordinated care, lack of trust, and racism and classism in local healthcare systems. CONCLUSION: While the key social and organizational determinants of access to health care were similar across counties, the prioritization of these determinants and the strategies developed to address key issues differed across the counties.


Assuntos
População Rural , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Missouri , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 318: 115634, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621085

RESUMO

Research shows mental health is impacted by poor-quality physical and social-environmental conditions. Subsequently state-led redevelopment/regeneration schemes focus on improving the physical environment, to provide better social-environmental conditions, addressing spatial and socioeconomic inequities thus improving residents' health. However, recent research suggests that redevelopment/regeneration schemes often trigger gentrification, resulting in new spatial and socioeconomic inequalities that may worsen health outcomes, including mental health, for long-term neighborhood residents. Using the right to the city and situating this within the framework of accumulation by dispossession and capitalist hegemony, this paper explores the potential mechanisms in which poor mental health outcomes may endure in neighborhoods despite the implementation of redevelopment/regeneration projects. To do so, we explored two neighborhoods in the city of Glasgow - North Glasgow and East End - and conducted a strong qualitative study based on 25 in-depth semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. The results show that postindustrial vacant and derelict land spaces and socioeconomic deprivation in North and East Glasgow are potential mechanisms contributing to the poor mental health of its residents. Where redevelopment/regeneration projects prioritize economic goals, it is often at the expense of social(health) outcomes. Instead, economic investment instigates processes of gentrification, where long-term neighborhood residents are excluded from accessing collective urban life and its (health) benefits. Moreover, these residents are continually excluded from participation in decision-making and are unable to shape the urban environment. In summary, we found a number of potential mechanisms that may contribute to enduring poor mental health outcomes despite the existence of redevelopment/regeneration projects. Projects instead have negative consequences for the determinants of mental health, reinforcing existing inequalities, disempowering original long-term neighborhood residents and only providing the "right" to the unhealthy deprived city. We define this as the impossibility to benefit from material opportunities, public spaces, goods and services and the inability to shape city transformations.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Características de Residência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
13.
Stroke ; 54(2): 379-385, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689593

RESUMO

Inequities in stroke care and outcomes have been documented both within and among countries based on factors, such as race, geography, and socioeconomic status. Research can help us to identify, understand, and address inequities, and this article offers considerations for scientists working in this area. These include designing research aimed at identifying the underlying causes of inequities, recognizing the importance of the social determinants of health, considering interventions that go beyond the individual patient and provider to include policies and systems, acknowledging the role of structural racism, performing community-engaged participatory research, considering intersecting social identities, learning from cross-national comparisons, maintaining the data sources needed for inequities research, using terminology that advances health equity, and improving diversity across the research enterprise.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Classe Social , Políticas
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 11, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant challenges in 2020 in the world and Iran. To help vulnerable groups such as refugees during the response and recovery phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying the quality of life (QOL) and its associated factors is helpful. Considering that research in this field is limited, this study evaluated the effect of social determinants of health on the quality of life among Afghan refugees in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 300 Afghan refugees and migrants in Alborz province, Iran, from February to May 2022 using Convenience sampling. Data were completed using the socioeconomic status scale (SES), World Health Organization's quality of life -BREF (WHOQOL), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21), and COVID-19 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (COVID-PTSD). In addition, path analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships among the research variables with quality of life. RESULTS: 64.3% of the study participants were male, with a mean of 29.29 ± 9.64 years. The path analysis showed that SES had the most positive relationship (B = .266), and the number of COVID-19 cases had the most negative relationship (B = -.169) with the quality of life from both paths. The self-rated health had the most positive relationship (B = .25), and the DASS score had the most negative relationship (B = -.2) with the quality of life through only one path. Access to medical services was the only variable that indirectly had a positive causal relationship with QOL (B = .044). CONCLUSION: We provided an empirical model that illustrates the relationships between quality of life and social determinants of health among Afghan refugees and migrants during the Covid19 pandemic. The negative emotional states of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress (DAS) as a mediator play an essential role in the quality of life and other variables.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Pandemias , Refugiados/psicologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2250416, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630135

RESUMO

Importance: As the field of medicine strives for equity in care, research showing the association of social determinants of health (SDOH) with poorer health care outcomes is needed to better inform quality improvement strategies. Objective: To evaluate the association of SDOH with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) among Black and White patients with prostate cancer. Data Sources: A MEDLINE search was performed of prostate cancer comparative effectiveness research from January 1, 1960, to June 5, 2020. Study Selection: Two authors independently selected studies conducted among patients within the United States and performed comparative outcome analysis between Black and White patients. Studies were required to report time-to-event outcomes. A total of 251 studies were identified for review. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Three authors independently screened and extracted data. End point meta-analyses were performed using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed, and 2 authors independently reviewed all steps. All conflicts were resolved by consensus. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was PCSM, and the secondary outcome was OS. With the US Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2030 initiative, an SDOH scoring system was incorporated to evaluate the association of SDOH with the predefined end points. The covariables included in the scoring system were age, comorbidities, insurance status, income status, extent of disease, geography, standardized treatment, and equitable and harmonized insurance benefits. The scoring system was discretized into 3 categories: high (≥10 points), intermediate (5-9 points), and low (<5 points). Results: The 47 studies identified comprised 1 019 908 patients (176 028 Black men and 843 880 White men; median age, 66.4 years [IQR, 64.8-69.0 years]). The median follow-up was 66.0 months (IQR, 41.5-91.4 months). Pooled estimates found no statistically significant difference in PCSM for Black patients compared with White patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 [95% CI, 0.99-1.19]; P = .08); results were similar for OS (HR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.95-1.07]; P = .68). There was a significant race-SDOH interaction for both PCSM (regression coefficient, -0.041 [95% CI, -0.059 to 0.023]; P < .001) and OS (meta-regression coefficient, -0.017 [95% CI, -0.033 to -0.002]; P = .03). In studies with minimal accounting for SDOH (<5-point score), Black patients had significantly higher PCSM compared with White patients (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17-1.41; P < .001). In studies with greater accounting for SDOH variables (≥10-point score), PCSM was significantly lower among Black patients compared with White patients (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that there is a significant interaction between race and SDOH with respect to PCSM and OS among men with prostate cancer. Incorporating SDOH variables into data collection and analyses are vital to developing strategies for achieving equity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Próstata
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e36477, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The key to effective stroke management is timely diagnosis and triage. Machine learning (ML) methods developed to assist in detecting stroke have focused on interpreting detailed clinical data such as clinical notes and diagnostic imaging results. However, such information may not be readily available when patients are initially triaged, particularly in rural and underserved communities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop an ML stroke prediction algorithm based on data widely available at the time of patients' hospital presentations and assess the added value of social determinants of health (SDoH) in stroke prediction. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of the emergency department and hospitalization records from 2012 to 2014 from all the acute care hospitals in the state of Florida, merged with the SDoH data from the American Community Survey. A case-control design was adopted to construct stroke and stroke mimic cohorts. We compared the algorithm performance and feature importance measures of the ML models (ie, gradient boosting machine and random forest) with those of the logistic regression model based on 3 sets of predictors. To provide insights into the prediction and ultimately assist care providers in decision-making, we used TreeSHAP for tree-based ML models to explain the stroke prediction. RESULTS: Our analysis included 143,203 hospital visits of unique patients, and it was confirmed based on the principal diagnosis at discharge that 73% (n=104,662) of these patients had a stroke. The approach proposed in this study has high sensitivity and is particularly effective at reducing the misdiagnosis of dangerous stroke chameleons (false-negative rate <4%). ML classifiers consistently outperformed the benchmark logistic regression in all 3 input combinations. We found significant consistency across the models in the features that explain their performance. The most important features are age, the number of chronic conditions on admission, and primary payer (eg, Medicare or private insurance). Although both the individual- and community-level SDoH features helped improve the predictive performance of the models, the inclusion of the individual-level SDoH features led to a much larger improvement (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.694 to 0.823) than the inclusion of the community-level SDoH features (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.823 to 0.829). CONCLUSIONS: Using data widely available at the time of patients' hospital presentations, we developed a stroke prediction model with high sensitivity and reasonable specificity. The prediction algorithm uses variables that are routinely collected by providers and payers and might be useful in underresourced hospitals with limited availability of sensitive diagnostic tools or incomplete data-gathering capabilities.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Triagem , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem/métodos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Medicare , Aprendizado de Máquina , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Hospitais
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 119, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attributes defining the Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) are associated with disproportionate exposures to environmental hazards and differential health outcomes among communities. The dynamics between SDoH, disproportionate environmental exposures, and differential health outcomes are often specific to micro-geographic areas. METHODS: This study focused on children less than 20 years of age who lived in Douglas County, Nebraska, during 2016-2019. To assess the role of SDoH in differential exposures, we evaluated the association between SDoH metrics and criteria pollutant concentrations and the association between SDoH and pediatric asthma exacerbations to quantify the role of SDoH in differential pediatric asthma outcomes. The Bayesian Poisson regression model with spatial random effects was used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: We identified significant positive associations between the annual mean concentration of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, particulate matter2.5, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) with race (Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino), financial stability, and literacy. Additionally, there were significant positive associations between higher rates of pediatric asthma emergency department visits and neighborhoods with more Non-Hispanic Black children, children without health insurance coverage, and households without access to a vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino children living in Douglas County, NE experience disproportionately higher exposure to criteria pollutant concentrations. Additionally, higher rates of asthma exacerbations among Non-Hispanic Black children could be due to reduced access to respiratory care that is potentially the result of financial instability and vehicle access. These results could inform city planners and health care providers to mitigate respiratory risks among these higher at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Asma , Poluentes Ambientais , Criança , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Teorema de Bayes , Asma/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
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