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1.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(106): 341-352, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727505

RESUMO

Illness and disability are forms of vulnerability to which human beings are victims; they limit a person's ability to act and his real possibilities are reduced. These forms of vulnerability may correspond to the loss of capabilities. Armatya Sen presents the capabilities approach as a new theory of social justice, a new way of thinking about human well-being that overcomes the shortcomings of utilitarianism, the dominant approach of his time. Capability refers to what a person is really capable of doing. Medical care, therefore, appears as a form of help whose objective is to fight against vulnerability by re-mobilizing the capabilities of the patient who, at some point in his existence due to the disease, is found more or less momentary deprived of them. The development of the power to act and the power to be of the patient, through the care provided by the caregivers, consists of strengthening their capabilities that allow them to participate effectively and actively in social life and in the management of care and health system. The objective of this article is to highlight the contributions of capabilities to patient's care. For us, it will be a matter of considering capabilities as the basis of a new paradigm for understanding the care of sick and vulnerable people in medical practice.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Justiça Social
2.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(106): 353-362, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727506

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic disease with only ataluren like pharmaceutical treatment available. This drug received a conditional authorization by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2014, meaning that it was commercially available while waiting for more solid results that demonstrate the efficacy and safety. Currently, the authorization still maintains the ″conditional″ modality, and the actual health benefits of the drug still remain unclear. In Spain, ataluren is not financed by the National Health System. The decision of non-financing has generated a heated debate, especially because in those patients who se treatment were started prior to the non-financing decision the drug has continued being funded. This controversial situation encompasses complex aspects of pharmaceutical and health management related to scientific evidence, the motivations of regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry in the processes of drug investigation and authorization. Furthermore, as the center of the debate, some pillars of bioethics such as justice and equity, as well as certain legal principles, such as the protection of minors, are involved.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Oxidiazóis , Humanos , Justiça Social , Espanha
4.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780605

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Societal stigma gravely impedes occupational justice for transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) people, producing vast health disparities for this population. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of an intervention to reduce stigma and improve the well-being of TGNC people. DESIGN: A parallel, mixed-methods design was used to test feasibility in the areas of acceptability, demand, and limited efficacy. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two audience members and 5 TGNC interviewees. INTERVENTION: Virtual, narrative-informed play reading and moderated discussion about gender diversity and affirmative care. Outcomes and Measures: The valid and reliable Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Stigma was used to assess stigma beliefs. An open-ended, qualitative question assessed TGNC interviewees' experiences. RESULTS: Recruitment and participant responses to the intervention indicated feasibility in the areas of acceptability, demand, and limited efficacy. However, future efforts at obtaining a diverse TGNC sample are needed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The intervention decreased stigma beliefs in audience members and offered a positive experience for TGNC participants. Feasibility outcomes warrant future efficacy testing. What This Article Adds: This article adds an innovative intervention for promoting occupational justice to support the health and well-being of TGNC people. The community-based intervention facilitates change in societal attitudes and stigmatizing beliefs.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Estudos de Viabilidade , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Justiça Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769858

RESUMO

In the first quarter of 2020, Italy became one of the earliest hotspots of COVID-19 infection, and the government imposed a lockdown. During the lockdown, an online survey of 2053 adults was conducted that asked about health behaviors and about the psychological and overall impact of COVID-19. The present study is a secondary analysis of that data. We hypothesized that self-control, higher socio-economic status, existing health conditions, and fear of infection were all inversely related to actions (or intentions) that violated the lockdown (i.e., infractions). Using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), we found that only the fear of infection significantly dissuaded people from violating lockdown rules. Since it is not practical or ethical to sow a fear of infection, our study indicates that enacting rules and enforcing them firmly and fairly are important tools for containing the infection. This may become more important as vaccines become more widely available and people lose their fear of infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Justiça Social , Suínos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770126

RESUMO

To facilitate systematic work environment management, which should be a natural part of business development, a structured support model was developed. The Stamina model has previously been used in Swedish municipalities, showing positive results. The aim was to study how the Human Resources Index (HRI), relational justice, short-term recovery and perceived productivity changed in a recently reorganised perioperative setting in a hospital in Sweden that uses a structured support model for systematic work environment management. A longitudinal design that took measurements at four time points was used in a sample of 500 employees in a perioperative hospital department. The results for the overall sample indicated a positive trend in the HRI (Mt1 = 48.5, SDt1 = 22.5; Mt3 = 56.7, SDt1 = 21.2; p < 0.001). Perceived health-related production loss (Mdt1 = 2, IQR = 3; Mdt3 = 0, IQR = 3; p < 0.001) and perceived work environment-related production loss (Mdt1 = 2, IQR = 3; Mdt3 = 0, IQR = 4; p < 0.001) showed major improvements. Short-term recovery showed a minor improvement (Mt1 = 2.61, SDt1 = 1.33; Mt3 = 2.65, SDt3 = 1.22; p = 0.872). In conclusion, the implementation of the Stamina model, of which the HRI constitutes an important part, seems to be a helpful tool to follow-up on work environment processes, and minimise production losses due to health and work environment-related issues.


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Local de Trabalho , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Hospitais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suécia , Recursos Humanos
7.
Vertex ; XXXII(152): 17-19, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783790

RESUMO

The COVID-19 has changed the way of working of forensic doctors, and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has gained relevance. But its implementation, for psychiatric-forensic evaluations, should comply with standards endorsed by the scientific community. Psycho-legal instruments are necessary in order to determine the procedural capacity of an accused person to stand trial. In the Justice of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA), virtual proceedings are carried out, as the National Government decreed the obligatory social lockdown. In the case of the criminal jurisdiction, web platforms and electronic notifications are used for the processing of legal cases. However, in the practice of forensic medicine, there are difficulties in the use of ICTs to determine a person's capacity for criminal prosecution.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Justiça Social , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Competência Mental , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786354

RESUMO

COVID-19 poses a particular threat to refugees in Africa. Overcrowded living conditions and lack of effective sanitation make refugees highly vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, migration has the potential to undermine measures to control viral spread. As a result, vaccination of the refugee community in Africa must be considered key in the vaccination plan to end the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Although the WHO has approved vaccines for emergency use worldwide in vulnerable groups through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) program, there is a lack of a strategy for achieving vaccination in the African refugee population. A specific strategy for refugee vaccination must be among the top priorities at national, regional, and global levels to ensure all refugees and asylum seekers in African countries have equitable and quality vaccine assistance regardless of displacement, statelessness, and financial hardship. We call on leaders in Africa and worldwide to ensure that refugee vaccination is a priority to protect this highly at-risk population and achieve an end to the current pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equidade em Saúde , Refugiados , África/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Justiça Social
9.
Healthc Q ; 24(3): 18-22, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792443

RESUMO

This article weighs three important moral and ethical considerations for leaders in healthcare: their obligations to society, their privilege as leaders and how value goes beyond a simple cost analysis. Leaders highly motivated by the bottom line have avoided the long overdue action on moral and ethical considerations critical to a more just and fairer society. Leaders are now being tasked to develop strategies for health equity, anti-oppression, anti-racism, social justice, diversity, equity and inclusiveness, community engagement, the social determinants of health and environmental accountability, and to demonstrate that their disruptive work adds more value to society than what can be measured in spreadsheet metrics.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Liderança , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Justiça Social , Responsabilidade Social
10.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100975, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794720

RESUMO

Developed via an online collaborative writing project involving members of the Multi-species Dementia International Research Network, this article seeks to refocus "the lens of the dementia debate" (Bartlett & O'Connor, 2007) by bringing dementia's complicated relations with the more-than-human world into sharper relief. Specifically, the article explores four thematic areas (contours) within contemporary dementia studies (Care & Caring; Illness Experience & Disease Pathology; Environment, Self & Sustainability; Power, Rights & Social Justice) where the application of multi-species theories and concepts has potential to foster innovation and lead to new ways of thinking and working. Whilst incorporating multi-species perspectives within dementia studies can create new ways of responding and new spaces of response-ability, the potential for conflict and controversy remains high. It is imperative, therefore, that the field of dementia studies not only becomes a site within which multi-species perspectives can flourish, but that dementia studies also becomes a vehicle through which multi-species concepts may be refined.


Assuntos
Demência , Humanos , Justiça Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Bioeth Inq ; 18(3): 365-370, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669092
13.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S204-S207, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709861

RESUMO

At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, neither government officials nor members of the news media fully grasped what was happening in the Latino community. Underreporting of COVID-19 cases led to a systematic neglect of the Latino population and resulted in disproportionately high rates of infection, hospitalization, and death. Illinois Unidos was formed to engage in community mobilization, health communication, advocacy, and policy work in response to inequalities exacerbated by COVID-19 in Latino communities in Illinois. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S204-S207. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306407).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Comunicação em Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Justiça Social , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Área Carente de Assistência Médica
14.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706902

RESUMO

American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) land rights, sovereignty conflicts, and health outcomes have been significantly influenced by settler colonialism. This principle has driven the numerous relocations and forced assimilation of AI/AN children as well as the claiming of AI/AN lands across the United States. As tribes across the country begin to reclaim these lands and others continue to struggle for sovereignty, it is imperative to recognize that land rights are a determinant of health in AI/AN children. Aside from the demonstrated biological risks of environmental health injustices including exposure to air pollution, heavy metals, and lack of running water, AI/AN children must also face the challenges of historical trauma, the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Peoples crisis, and health care inequity based on land allocation. Although there is an undeniable relationship between land rights and the health of AI/AN children, there is a need for extensive research into the impacts of land rights and recognition of sovereignty on the health of AI/AN children. In this article we aim to summarize existing evidence describing the impact of these factors on the health of AI/AN children and provide strateg ies that can help pediatricians care and advocate for this population.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Nativos Estadunidenses , Colonialismo , Trauma Histórico , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Aculturação , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Nativos do Alasca/psicologia , Nativos Estadunidenses/psicologia , Criança , Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Trauma Histórico/história , Trauma Histórico/psicologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Homicídio/psicologia , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Justiça Social
15.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(10): 545-551, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clarification of best practices in teaching social justice concepts is necessary to prepare undergraduate nursing students to address health care disparities. METHOD: An integrative literature review was used to analyze literature describing coursework, teaching methods, sites for application of learning, and methods to evaluate student learning. RESULTS: Junior- and senior-level coursework and optional opportunities were identified. Traditional and nontraditional approaches to teaching also were evident. Nursing students applied knowledge at sites where health care was provided and vulnerable populations were served, as well as in simulated environments. Evaluation of learning occurred related to students' abilities to inform an empathetic understanding, analyze the community, and become change agents. CONCLUSION: Social justice can be threaded throughout the curriculum with the use of traditional and nontraditional teaching strategies. The application of learning can occur in a variety of settings with evaluation demonstrating students' ability to take action to advocate for social justice. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(10):545-551.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Justiça Social , Ensino
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14746-14757, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668703

RESUMO

Methane superemitters emit non-methane copollutants that are harmful to human health. Yet, no prior studies have assessed disparities in exposure to methane superemitters with respect to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and civic engagement. To do so, we obtained the location, category (e.g., landfill, refinery), and emission rate of California methane superemitters from Next Generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) flights conducted between 2016 and 2018. We identified block groups within 2 km of superemitters (exposed) and 5-10 km away (unexposed) using dasymetric mapping and assigned level of exposure among block groups within 2 km (measured via number of superemitter categories and total methane emissions). Analyses included 483 superemitters. The majority were dairy/manure (n = 213) and oil/gas production sites (n = 127). Results from fully adjusted logistic mixed models indicate environmental injustice in methane superemitter locations. For example, for every 10% increase in non-Hispanic Black residents, the odds of exposure increased by 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.17). We observed similar disparities for Hispanics and Native Americans but not with indicators of socioeconomic status. Among block groups located within 2 km, increasing proportions of non-White populations and lower voter turnout were associated with higher superemitter emission intensity. Previously unrecognized racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to California methane superemitters should be considered in policies to tackle methane emissions.


Assuntos
Metano , Justiça Social , California , Grupos Étnicos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2126714, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652448

RESUMO

Importance: Tensions around COVID-19 and systemic racism have raised the question: are hospitals advocating for equity for their Black patients? It is imperative for hospitals to be supportive of the Black community and acknowledge themselves as safe spaces, run by clinicians and staff who care about social justice issues that impact the health of the Black community; without the expression of support, Black patients may perceive hospitals as uncaring and unsafe, potentially delaying or avoiding treatment, which can result in serious complications and death for those with COVID-19. Objective: To explore how hospitals showed public-facing support for the Black community as measured through tweets about social equity or the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a retrospective longitudinal cohort study design, tweets from the top 100 ranked hospitals were collected, starting with the most recent over a 10-year span, from May 3, 2009, to June 26, 2020. The date of the George Floyd killing, May 25, 2020, was investigated as a point of interest. Data were analyzed from June 11 to December 4, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Tweets were manually identified based on 4 categories: BLM, associated with the BLM movement; Black support, expressed support for Black population within the hospital's community; Black health, pertained to health concerns specific to and the creation of health care for the Black community; or social justice, associated with general social justice terms that were too general to label as Black. If a tweet did not contain any hashtags from these categories, it remained unlabeled. Results: A total of 281 850 tweets from 90 unique social media accounts were collected. Each handle returned at least 1279 tweets, with 85 handles (94.4%) returning at least 3000 tweets. Tweet publication dates ranged from 2009 to 2020. A total of 274 tweets (0.097%) from 67 handles (74.4%) used a hashtag to support the BLM movement. Among the tweets labeled BLM, the first tweet was published in 2018 and only 4 tweets (1.5%) predated the killing of George Floyd. A similar trend of low signal observed was detected for the other categories (Black support: 244 tweets [0.086%] from 42 handles [46.7%] starting in 2013; Black health: 28 tweets [0.0099%] from 15 handles [16.7%] starting in 2018; social justice: 40 tweets [0.014%] from 21 handles [23.3%] starting in 2015). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings reflect the low signal of tweets regarding the Black community and social justice in a generalized way across approximately 10 years of tweets for all the hospital handles within the data set. From 2009 to 2020, hospitals rarely engaged in issues pertaining to the Black community and if so, only within the last half of this time period. These later entrances into these discussions indicate that these discussions are relatively recent.


Assuntos
Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Justiça Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Racismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Justiça Social/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Torture ; 31(1): 88-92, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606480

RESUMO

In front of the current ongoing debate on the need to actively engaging torture survivors in the global fight against torture, IRCT held a webinar at the request of IRCT member centres. The webinar examined torture survivor engagement in the rehabilitation process of rebuilding lives, seeking justice and torture prevention. Lived experience can be emancipating and also paralysing, but foremost, it is precious to combat what has been suffered in the first person (Henry, 2021). How to recognise that contribution and engage torture survivors in the global fight against torture? What role do survivors play in society? How to involve survivors in advocacy and policy-making processes? What are the existing power (in)balances at play? Who gets to decide whether a survivor should speak up or not? Acknowledging that it can prompt some organisational, therapeutic, and professional considerations, what are the limits? How do we ensure that the survivor's well-being is protected along the process? To what extend should survivors be engaged in our organisation's decision-making? Léonce Byimana, Feride Rushiti, Kolbassia Haoussou and Vasfije Karsniqi-Goodman walked us through these questions. The discussion was enhanced with inputs from other IRCT-members.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tortura , Humanos , Justiça Social , Sobreviventes , Caminhada
20.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 30(5): 151098, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635283

RESUMO

Peer review is an essential tool for institutions and providers to meet the modern goals of safety and quality in health care. It is a mechanism that leads to a just culture within a health care institution whereby errors and complications are considered products of the system rather than isolated actions by an individual. The benefits and potential drawbacks of peer review are outlined in this review with a special emphasis on the interface between peer review and principles of medical ethics. It is argued that peer review, in the ideal setting, is founded upon the principles of beneficence and justice, and to varying levels on non-maleficence and autonomy.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Justiça Social , Beneficência , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Revisão por Pares
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