Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.712
Filtrar
1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 774, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956516

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the lives, health, and social well-being of people globally including presenting special challenges in low to middle income countries for people living with HIV. This study investigates the pandemic experiences of the four key HIV-positive populations in Indonesia: men who have sex with men, transgender women, female sex workers, and people who use drugs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 22 key population members recruited through 9 nongovernment HIV agencies in Jakarta and Bali, Indonesia. Indonesia's Large-scale Social Restrictions Policy mandating physical distancing and stay-at-home orders had been in effect for 7-10 months at the time of the interviews. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using NVivo™ (R1.7) software. A grounded theory approach identified key concepts along with similarities, differences, and reoccurring patterns of COVID-19 lived experience among participants. Participants recounted the impact of both the pandemic and the Restriction Policy on their interpersonal, financial, medical, and psychosocial well-being. When in need, they turned to formal and informal sources of financial and social support plus their own resourcefulness. Along with other factors, HIV medication shortages, HIV and COVID-19 related stigma, and fear of acquiring COVID-19 negatively impacted their antiretroviral adherence and the use of health services. The results point to the latent consequences of government attempts to curb a pandemic through public health lockdowns and enforced policies of physical separation. Its findings reveal the importance of ensuring that public safety nets for HIV key populations are available to supplement more informal personal sources of needed support.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Apoio Social , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pandemias , Entrevistas como Assunto , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1874, 2024 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004708

RESUMO

Workplace mental health challenges have emerged as a significant concern post-pandemic. Despite this, the pervasive stigma surrounding mental illness leads to the concealment of symptoms and reluctance to seek professional help among employees. This study aims to explore the perception of different stakeholders towards the 'Detection and disclosure' of workplace mental health challenges in the Indian context. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with human resource professionals, counselors, and employees who had previously experienced mental health challenge(s). Thematic analysis was done to identify recurring themes and sub-themes. Three critical pathways were identified: minimizing the inhibitory factors, including lack of awareness, denial, low self-efficacy, stigma, and underestimating organizational capability; maximizing the encouraging factors, including psychological safety, perceived social support, and communicating success stories; and implementing supportive organizational practices, including generating awareness and literacy, build the organizational capability, strengthen the role of managers, leadership advocacy, policies, and processes. By fostering a culture of support and prioritizing employee well-being, organizations in India can create healthier and more resilient work environments, benefiting both individuals and the larger society.


Assuntos
Estigma Social , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Índia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Revelação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 35(3): 189-200, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949901

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore the acceptance of HIV diagnosis of women in stable relationships. Based on eight semistructured interviews with cisgender Portuguese women, thematic analysis identified four interrelated themes that illustrated the emotional and psychosocial dynamics involved in this journey. Following an HIV diagnosis, participants grappled with complex emotions, societal perceptions, and the internalization of stigma. Marital relationships underwent profound changes, with trust breakdown and emotional distancing. Coping mechanisms ranged from seeking support to living in secrecy, which impacted psychological well-being. Acceptance of HIV diagnosis is influenced by self-stigmatization, societal perceptions of HIV, and gender dynamics. The findings contribute to the development of tailored interventions, emphasizing the interconnected nature of physical and psychological well-being in the diagnosis acceptance process.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Portugal , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Casamento/psicologia , Emoções , Relações Interpessoais
4.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 35(3): 234-244, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949902

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Black women are essential to ending the HIV epidemic in the United States; yet prevention, access, testing, and structural racism affect how HIV disproportionately affects them. Limited public health research focuses on Black women attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and the ability to address HIV prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake. PrEP is a once-daily oral pill used to prevent HIV transmission and has suboptimal uptake within the Black community. This generic qualitative descriptive analysis identifies the barriers and facilitators of PrEP uptake among Black women attending an HBCU using the health belief model. Overall, 22 Black college women participated in a 60-minute focus group. Emergent categories were as follows: (a) Barriers-stigma, cost, and side effects; (b) Facilitators-PrEP's effectiveness, exposure to HIV, and unprotected sex. Our findings can inform future efforts to increase PrEP uptake among Black women attending an HBCU.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Humanos , Feminino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Universidades , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Racismo , Adolescente
5.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 107, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Key populations are defined as groups that are susceptible to HIV, including Men Sex with Men (MSM), Transgender (TG), Persons who Inject Drug (PID), and Female Sex Worker (FSW). These key populations groups are among the fastest-growing populations in Indonesia. These vulnerable groups are ostracized by society and health services, which makes it difficult to get treatment. This project was carried out to investigate the different experiences and perspectives of these key populations in facing and addressing social and spiritual exclusion. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological study using photovoice was carried out from July to December 2022. Key populations comprising MSM, TG, PID, and FSW were recruited from community-based peer groups in West Bandung Regency using snowball sampling. This was followed by the Photovoice stages, from workshops to focus group discussions and interviews with audio recordings. Furthermore, thematic data analysis was carried out by interpretative participant narratives and photographs supported by Atlas.ti software. RESULT: Eighteen participants comprising four MSM, five TG, four PIDs, and five FSWs participated in this research. Among these eighteen participants, six were HIV-negative, including 3 PIDs and 3 FSWs, while the remaining were positive. The analysis of the collected data identified four main themes: 1) limited access like unequal treatment, disadvantage, and harassment, 2) social and spiritual impact, 3) coping mechanisms, and 4) self-reflection through photovoice. These results showed that social exclusion occurred in an environment where community values, beliefs, and norms dehumanised these key populations, and where removal of support and care was prominent. Despite these challenges, participant resilience was evidenced by using internal resources and peer support as coping mechanisms. The participants considered photovoice as a tool to foster self-confidence and self-awareness through a reflective process. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlight the emphasis on participants' openness in sharing their experiences, which can build empathy and promote a more inclusive community in HIV prevention efforts. This research findings can be used to inform HIV policy and practice and inclusion of these key populations in the community. We advocate making the photovoice efforts accessible to a wider audience through exhibitions and various media.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Indonésia , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Fotografação , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia
6.
Acad Pediatr ; 24(5S): 25-31, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991798

RESUMO

Migrant youth who face forced displacement from their home countries have an emergent mental health burden, placing them at increased suicide risk. As such, it is crucial for pediatric providers to include suicide screening and assessment in their care for this population. Migrant families seek safety but, in many cases, encounter adverse events and psychosocial inequities in the migration journey and in the host community. Factors such as trauma, acculturative stress, and intersectionality influence suicide risk in migrants. Summative traumatic events contribute to the mental health load and worsen suicidal outcomes in migrant youth. Acculturative stress can lead to social marginalization in the host country, further adding to the existing mental health burden. Finally, intersectionality encompasses complex sociocultural influences, which shape the development of cultural identity in migrant youth and influence suicide risk. By examining these factors, the author advances cultural considerations in screening and assessment for suicide risk in migrant youth through evidence-based tools in pediatric clinical practice. Barriers to access to mental health services, stigma, and distrust of the health care system within the host community are also addressed. The author establishes recommendations for early suicide screening and prevention within this population through trauma-informed care, active advocacy, and cultural sensitivity.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Prevenção do Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Aculturação , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Estigma Social , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/etnologia , Migrantes/psicologia
7.
Health Expect ; 27(4): e14152, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39010636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Within 10 years of multiple sclerosis (MS) progression, nearly all women will have experienced symptoms associated with bladder, bowel and/or sexual health. Yet despite the impact these symptoms have on physical, psychological and social well-being, it remains an underserved area within the UK healthcare system. STUDY AIM: This research employs a participatory research approach framed within the principles of intersectional feminism to collaboratively investigate the lived experiences of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) and healthcare interactions among UK-based women with MS. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Women residing in the United Kingdom with MS were invited to participate in online interviews facilitated by the primary author. ANALYSIS: A thematic framework analysis offering a structured yet adaptable approach to data collection and interpretation. RESULTS: One focus group involving four women with MS and seven individual, one-to-one interviews with women with MS provided insights into the challenges associated with navigating both MS and PFD. Four main themes included: Navigating MS and PFD; Cycles of Control; Mind, Mobility and Bladder Embodiment; Silenced Voices: The Impact of Taboos/Stigma/Dismissal on Preventing Access and Resistance through Collective Community. Six subthemes were also identified. Taken together, these themes cumulatively reflect PFD as an unmet healthcare need. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore negative healthcare experiences, inadequate information provision and unmet needs related to PFD, emphasising the compounding effects of gender and disability biases. IMPACT: We hope that these insights can lay the groundwork for developing tailored therapeutic interventions and improved PFD healthcare for women with MS. Potential solutions include using existing MS support communities. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTIONS: Women with MS were actively involved in co-producing interview scripts for one-to-one interviews. The primary author shared study findings at an MS group event, engaging in discussions with over 30 individuals, including people with MS and their loved ones. MS advocates played a pivotal role in contextualising the study within the broader lived experience of MS.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Esclerose Múltipla , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/psicologia , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/terapia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Estigma Social
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 483, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this study was to understand the experiences and perspectives of immigrant Muslim women in Quebec living with mental illness, who have recently used formal mental health services such as an accredited therapist, psychologist, or clinician. Specific objectives included (i) eliciting and examining their self-identified barriers and facilitators to recovery; (ii) exploring links between religion and mental health; and (iii) self-reported satisfaction with mental health services received. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative approach, facilitating the prioritization of participant perspectives. This involved semi-structured interviews with 20 women who (i) identified as Muslim; (ii) had used mental health services in the last three years; and (iii) were 18 + years of age. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. RESULTS: Three prominent themes emerged from the analysis. These themes were (i) stigma and misunderstandings in families (especially parents) and sometimes in the ethno-religious community, both acting as barriers to health service utilization and recovery; (ii) frustrating clinical experiences within formal mental health care settings, in particular a perceived lack of cultural and religious competence, which negatively affected service utilization and the development of a therapeutic alliance; and (iii) deeply-held religious beliefs, practices and trust in God imparting a rhythm, purpose and meaning, which were strong facilitators to recovery. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: These findings suggest that recovery from mental illness can be advanced by a three-pronged approach in this population. First, anti-stigma mental health literacy interventions could be held in collaboration with Muslim community groups. Second, there is a need for further religious and cultural competence interventions, resources and trainings for mental health professionals working with Muslims. Third, self-care resources should be developed that harness aspects of religious practices that can give structure, meaning, purpose and hope. All this could ultimately foster recovery in this population.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Islamismo , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Satisfação do Paciente , Humanos , Feminino , Islamismo/psicologia , Adulto , Quebeque , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social
9.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4826, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967971

RESUMO

The experience of homelessness is associated with strong stigmatization processes, which are often reflected in the treatment received from professionals and the healthcare system itself. This article aims to analyze the experiences of participants in a program for homeless individuals in Barcelona called Primer la Llar within the healthcare system, and how the stigma they suffer affects the care processes. This program follows the Housing First model, a social intervention that proposes providing housing without preconditions to individuals with long histories of street living, who suffer from severe mental disorders and/or addictions. Based on individual interviews with 20 participants conducted between 2016 and 2020, it is observed that in certain cases, entering the program, having housing availability, support from professionals, and the development of their own strategies had positive effects on improving their health, although they continue to perceive discriminatory attitudes in some medical settings. It is suggested that the transformation regarding stigmatization be understood broadly, affecting individuals, institutions, and society as a whole.


El tránsito por el sinhogarismo está asociado a procesos de fuerte estigmatización que, en muchas ocasiones, tienen su reflejo en el trato que reciben por parte de las y los profesionales y del propio sistema de atención en salud. Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las experiencias que tuvieron en el sistema sanitario las y los participantes de un programa para personas sin hogar en Barcelona llamado Primer la Llar, y cómo el estigma que sufren estas personas llega a condicionar los procesos de atención. Dicho programa sigue el modelo Housing First, una intervención social que propone la entrada a una vivienda sin condiciones previas a personas con largas trayectorias de vida en la calle, que sufren trastornos mentales graves y/o adicciones. A partir de entrevistas individuales con 20 participantes, realizadas entre 2016 y 2020, se observa que, en determinados casos, el ingreso en el programa, la disponibilidad de una vivienda, el soporte de profesionales y el desarrollo de estrategias propias tuvieron efectos positivos en la mejora de su salud, aunque continúan percibiendo actitudes discriminatorias en algunos espacios médicos. Se plantea la necesidad de que la transformación respecto a la estigmatización sea entendida en un sentido amplio, en las personas, en las instituciones y en la sociedad.


Assuntos
Habitação , Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Estigma Social , Humanos , Pessoas Mal Alojadas/psicologia , Espanha , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e9, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major disease in children, affecting an estimated 1.8 million children and adolescents worldwide. Eswatini has the highest prevalence of HIV in the world. Only 76% of children in Eswatini are on anti-retroviral treatment. AIM:  This study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived experience of school-going children with HIV in Eswatini. Being aware of these children's experiences can assist schools in supporting them. SETTING:  The study was conducted in four primary health care facilities in Eswatini. METHODS:  Employing a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research design, 12 school-going children with HIV were interviewed through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The data were coded, categorised and clustered into themes and sub-themes using Georgi's data analysis. Ethical considerations and measures to ensure trustworthiness were adhered to throughout the study. RESULTS:  The findings revealed three themes: Experiences after HIV disclosure, experience of disclosure and discrimination, and experience of desire to fulfil educational needs. Six sub-themes were identified: A feeling of sadness and worry relating to knowledge of HIV diagnosis, a desire to disclose their status to their teachers but not to their peers, a need for protection against discrimination, a desire to learn, illness affecting their learning and expectation for teachers to be supportive in their educational needs.Conclusion and contribution: The findings of the study guided recommendations that may assist, the Eswatini Ministry of Health, schools, parents and caregivers, and siblings to support school-going children with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Essuatíni , Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estigma Social , Estudantes/psicologia
11.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 16(1): e1-e6, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Transgender women - individuals assigned male at birth but who identify as female - are disproportionately affected by, among others, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) and mental health issues. Studies show that transgender women often encounter discrimination and stigma when seeking healthcare from health facilities. AIM:  This study assessed the healthcare needs of transgender women, their experiences of the mainstream healthcare system and alternative strategies for navigating the healthcare system. SETTING:  The study was carried out in the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Council in South Africa's Gauteng province. METHODS:  A case study design was followed. Participants were purposively selected and included 10 transgender women aged 26-50. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted over 2 months. RESULTS:  Participants expressed a need for hormone replacement therapy, HIV treatment and prevention and treatment for STIs. Experiences of participants within the healthcare system were predominantly negative, with instances of discrimination, stigma and privacy violations being commonplace. Alternative strategies to meet their healthcare needs included the use of self-medication, consulting traditional healers and utilising non-governmental organisations. CONCLUSION:  There is an urgent need for equitable and inclusive health management of transgender women in South Africa.Contribution: This study provided a first look in a South African context into how and to what extent transwomen employ alternative healthcare strategies such as self-medication and utilising non-governmental organisations when faced with mainstream healthcare access barriers. The use of traditional doctors was identified as a novel, alternative strategy used by transwomen to access healthcare and treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Estigma Social , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto , África do Sul , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia
12.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(2): 167-174, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB) care and management, there are practical challenges existing at the patient-provider level leading to implementation barriers at the primary care level. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to explore the challenges and barriers faced by people with TB and health-care workers in TB care and management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was done as a part of a community intervention study between November 2021 and December 2022. Twenty interviews were taken with treatment for TB (n = 7) and health-care personnel (n = 13). Health-care personnel include nursing staff, medical officers, laboratory technicians, community health workers, and medical personnel from tertiary care hospital. Participants were recruited across all levels of health-care systems. Interviews were carried out in the Hindi language, audio recorded, and translated to English. Participants were asked about their experiences of challenges and barriers faced during TB care and management. Qualitative data were coded, and thematic analysis was done manually. RESULTS: The challenges and barriers at the level of people with TB were issues with communication between providers and people with TB, out-of-pocket expenditure, poor adherence to medicines, lack of proper diet, gender issues, and stigma. The challenges and barriers at the level of health-care providers were a lack of infrastructure and logistics, lack of awareness, COVID-19-related issues, lack of workforce, and technical issues. CONCLUSION: Communication between providers and people with TB must be improved to improve the drug adherence and satisfaction of the end user. Proper funding must be provided for the TB programs. People with TB must be counseled properly regarding the free health care services available near their homes to prevent out-of-pocket expenditure. These will help in fast-tracking the elimination of TB.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Índia , Adulto , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Estigma Social , Entrevistas como Assunto , COVID-19 , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação
13.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(2): 189-193, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the pandemic, quarantine was thought to be the most effective way to contain the spread of the virus among international travelers and any potential carriers. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the type of quarantine, compliance to quarantine measures (QM), mood, and any social stigma faced during that period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After approval from the institutional ethics committee, a telephonic interview survey was conducted. Individuals above 18 years of age visiting the only functioning COVID-19 screening outpatient department at Kasturba Hospital between March 1, 2020, and March 10, 2020 were included in the study. A total of 263 individuals were interviewed. RESULTS: Out of 263 respondents, 71% and 34% of individuals had a history of international travel and contact history, respectively. Only 63% had read the guidelines on home QM. Among individuals quarantined, 127 that living alone in their apartments, 60 were in a single room with relatives outside, 37 were living with family members because they did not have another room, and 39 were staying in a facility quarantine center. On assessing the QM followed, wearing a mask was the least followed (46%). The average score of compliance to QM was 82.6%. Seventy-two per cent rated their mood as "5" on a scale of 1-10. Social stigma was reported by 7.6% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Among the early set of quarantined individuals in the city during the first wave of the pandemic, average score of compliance to QM was high even though lesser people recalled reading the guideline on home QM.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem , Pandemias , Adolescente
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1273448, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952732

RESUMO

Introduction: COVID-19 has rapidly spread across the world. In March 2020, shortly after the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Ethiopia in March 2020, the government of Ethiopia took several measures. Purpose: This study aims to explore how stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic hinder engagement with HIV/AIDS care in public hospitals in Southwest Ethiopia. Additionally, we aim to explore the psychosocial challenges faced in accessing services during stay-at-home orders. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted from 20 May to 3 June 2020, using semi-structured, in-depth interviews. In total, 27 study participants were recruited from purposively selected people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who had experienced delays, declines, or discontinuation of care after COVID-19 was confirmed in Ethiopia on 13 March 2020. The participants were interviewed over the phone and their responses were audio-recorded. Data were transcribed verbatim, translated, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis in the Atlas ti.7.1 software package. Results: The main themes and sub-themes that emerged were psychosocial issues (such as depression, hopelessness, and fear), risk perception (including high risk, susceptibility, and severity), forceful enforcement of stay-at-home orders (such as police beatings, community leaders disgracing, and influence of families and relatives), socioeconomic factors (such as stigma, religion, and transportation costs), misinformation about COVID-19 (such as lockdowns and ART stock-outs), and healthcare factors (such as inadequate health information and long distances to healthcare facilities). Conclusion: Overall, these findings were similar to the challenges experienced by PLWHA in adhering to the recommended continuum of care. However, there are additional factors due to COVID-19, such as misinformation and the forceful implementation of the stay-at-home-orders, that impede the continuum of care. Therefore, it is important to strengthen information, education, and communication.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por HIV , Hospitais Públicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Etiópia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pandemias , Estigma Social
15.
JMIR Ment Health ; 11: e49879, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Journalistic reporting guidelines were created to curb the impact of unsafe reporting; however, how suicide is framed in news reports may differ by important characteristics such as the circumstances and the decedent's gender. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the degree to which news media reports of suicides are framed using stigmatized or glorified language and differences in such framing by gender and circumstance of suicide. METHODS: We analyzed 200 news articles regarding suicides and applied the validated Stigma of Suicide Scale to identify stigmatized and glorified language. We assessed linguistic similarity with 2 widely used metrics, cosine similarity and mutual information scores, using a machine learning-based large language model. RESULTS: News reports of male suicides were framed more similarly to stigmatizing (P<.001) and glorifying (P=.005) language than reports of female suicides. Considering the circumstances of suicide, mutual information scores indicated that differences in the use of stigmatizing or glorifying language by gender were most pronounced for articles attributing legal (0.155), relationship (0.268), or mental health problems (0.251) as the cause. CONCLUSIONS: Linguistic differences, by gender, in stigmatizing or glorifying language when reporting suicide may exacerbate suicide disparities.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Estigma Social , Suicídio , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto
16.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1743, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Weight stigma has negative consequences for both physiological and psychological health. Studies on weight stigma in adolescence, particularly from general populations, are scarce in the Mediterranean area. The main aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of experienced and internalized weight stigma among a representative sample of adolescents from the Spanish city of Terrassa, and to determine its association with sociodemographic variables and weight status. METHODS: Drawing on data from the initial assessment of a longitudinally funded project on weight stigma in adolescents, a cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted using random multistage cluster sampling. Weight stigma experiences, their frequency and sources, and weight bias internalization with the Modified Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBISM) were assessed in a sample of 1016 adolescents. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) between sociodemographic variables, weight status and having experienced weight stigma, and having reported high scores of WBISM (WBISM ≥ 4) were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of weight-related stigma experiences was 43.2% in the sample (81.8 in adolescents with obesity) and the prevalence of high levels of weight bias internalization was 19.4% (50.7 in adolescents with obesity). Other kids and school were the most prevalent sources of weight stigma, with society and family being other significant sources of stigma reported by girls. A significantly higher risk of having experienced weight stigma was observed in girls (AOR = 2.6) and in older adolescents (AOR = 1.9). Compared to normal weight adolescents, all weight statuses showed higher risk, being 3.4 times higher in adolescents with underweight and reaching 11.4 times higher risk in those with obesity. Regarding high levels of weight bias internalization, girls had a risk 6.6 times higher than boys. Once again, a "J-shaped" pattern was observed, with a higher risk at the lowest and highest weight statuses. The risk was 6.3 times higher in adolescents with underweight, and 13.1 times higher in adolescents with obesity compared to those with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of experienced and internalized weight stigma among adolescents in Spain, especially in adolescents with obesity and girls, it seems important to implement preventive strategies in different settings and address all sources of stigma.


Assuntos
Estigma Social , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Peso Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia
17.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(7): 445, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955839

RESUMO

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease that often leads to decreased quality of life. Prior research assessing stress and discrimination related to stigmatization of those with HS is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between HS and the following factors related to psychosocial well-being: stress, discrimination, and loneliness. We performed secondary analysis of participants 18 years and older registered in the National Institutes of Health's All of Us Research Program in March 2024. The study sample was limited to individuals who had completed ≥ 1 of 4 psychosocial well-being surveys. Among 1,352 individuals with HS, 135 were included in the sample. Among 208,290 individuals without HS, 56,902 were included. The following surveys assessed loneliness, stress, perceived discrimination in everyday settings, and perceived discrimination in medical settings, respectively: the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, Everyday Discrimination Scale, and Discrimination in Medical Settings Scale. The association between HS and survey scores was modeled using multivariable linear regression adjusted for self-reported sex, self-reported race and ethnicity, age, and income. In an unadjusted model, those with HS reported a significantly higher degree of stress (MeanHS (SD) = 21.5 (4.74); Meannon-HS (SD) = 19.8 (3.98); p < 0.001), discrimination in everyday settings (MeanHS (SD) = 18.9 (8.16); Meannon-HS (SD) = 16.0 (7.06); p < 0.0001), and discrimination in healthcare settings (MeanHS (SD) = 1.77 (0.64); Meannon-HS (SD) = 1.56 (0.62); p < 0.001). After adjusting for sex, race, age, and income, the association between HS and discrimination in healthcare settings was non-significant; however, associations between HS and increased levels of perceived stress and everyday discrimination remained significant. Low survey completion rates and demographic differences between those who did and did not complete the study surveys may limit generalizability of results. Findings suggest that those with HS may benefit from regular screening for psychosocial well-being and provision of support resources.


Assuntos
Hidradenite Supurativa , Solidão , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Hidradenite Supurativa/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente
18.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(7): E572-579, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958426

RESUMO

Structural determinants of health frameworks must express antiracism to be effective, but racial and ethnic inequities are widely documented, even in harm reduction programs that focus on person-centered interventions. Harm reduction strategies should express social justice and health equity, resist stigma and discrimination, and mitigate marginalization experiences among people who use drugs (PWUD). To do so, government and organizational policies that promote harm reduction must acknowledge historical and ongoing patterns of racializing drug use. This article gives examples of such racialization and offers recommendations about how harm reduction programming can most easily and effectively motivate equitable, antiracist care for PWUD.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Equidade em Saúde , Justiça Social , Humanos , Redução do Dano/ética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Estigma Social , Usuários de Drogas , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/ética
19.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 232, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-frequency headache/migraine (HFM) and overuse of acute medication (medication overuse [MO]) are associated with increased disability and impact. Experiencing both HFM and MO can potentially compound impacts, including stigma; however, evidence of this is limited. The objective of this report was to evaluate self-reported stigma, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), disability, and migraine symptomology in US adults with HFM + MO from the Harris Poll Migraine Report Card survey. METHODS: US adults (≥ 18 yrs., no upper age limit) who screened positive for migraine per the ID Migraine™ screener completed an online survey. Participants were classified into "current HFM + MO" (≥ 8 days/month with headache/migraine and ≥ 10 days/month of acute medication use over last few months) or "previous HFM + MO" (previously experienced HFM + MO, headaches now occur ≤ 7 days/month with ≤ 9 days/month of acute medication use). Stigma, HRQoL, disability, and most bothersome symptom (MBS) were captured. The validated 8-item Stigma Scale for Chronic Illnesses (SSCI-8) assessed internal and external stigma (scores ≥ 60 are clinically significant). Raw data were weighted to the US adult population. Statistically significant differences were determined by a standard t-test of column proportions and means at the 90% (p < 0.1) and 95% (p < 0.05) confidence levels. RESULTS: Participants (N = 550) were categorized as having current (n = 440; mean age 41.1 years; 54% female; 57% White, not Hispanic; 24% Hispanic; 11% Black, not Hispanic) or previous (n = 110; mean age 47.2 years; 49% female; 75% White, not Hispanic; 13% Hispanic; 4% Black, not Hispanic) HFM + MO. Compared to those with previous HFM + MO (21%), adults with current HFM + MO were more likely to experience clinically significant levels of stigma (47%). Men with current HFM + MO (52% compared to men with previous HFM + MO [25%] and women with current [41%] or previous [18%] HFM + MO), non-Hispanic Black (51% compared to White, not Hispanic [45%] and Hispanic [48%] current HFM + MO groups and White, not Hispanic previous HFM + MO [12%]), current HFM + MO aged 18-49 years (50% compared to those with current HFM + MO aged ≥ 50 years [33%] and those with previous HFM + MO aged 18-49 [34%] and ≥ 50 years [4%]), and employed respondents (53% current and 29% previous compared to those not employed [32% current and 12% previous]) reported higher rates of clinically significant stigma. Those with current HFM + MO were more likely to have worse HRQoL and disability due to headache/migraine. Respondents aged ≥ 50 years with current HFM + MO were more likely than respondents aged 18-49 years with current HFM + MO to indicate that their overall quality of life (66% vs. 52%) and their ability to participate in hobbies/activities they enjoy were negatively impacted by headache/migraine (61% vs. 49%). Pain-related symptoms were identified as the MBS. CONCLUSIONS: Together these data suggest that current and previous HFM + MO can be associated with undesirable outcomes, including stigma and reduced HRQoL, which were greatest among people with current HFM + MO, but still considerable for people with previous HFM + MO.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Qualidade de Vida , Estigma Social , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/psicologia , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico
20.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 378, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965633

RESUMO

Mental health literacy is vital for well-being in educational settings, extending beyond academics to include social and emotional development. It empowers individuals, allowing them to recognize and address their mental health needs and provide essential support to their peers. Despite the acknowledged importance of modifiable factors, there is a noticeable research gap in those amenable to change through educational interventions. Thus, this systematic review aims to identify potentially modifiable predictors of mental health literacy in the educational context. A systematic search was conducted for quantitative studies published between 2019 and October 2023 using several databases following PRISMA guidelines. Studies needed to focus on potentially modifiable predictors of mental health literacy in the educational context. Study quality was assessed using the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS tool). In total, 3747 titles and abstracts were screened, 60 articles were assessed in full-text screening, and 21 were included in the review. Significant correlations between mental health literacy and modifiable predictors, including stigma toward professional help, self-efficacy, attitudes toward help-seeking, social support, positive psychological states, receiving mental health training, and psychological distress, were identified. By addressing these factors, educational institutions can cultivate community's adept in mental health, fostering an environment marked by empathy, understanding, and proactive engagement in addressing mental health issues. The implications serve as a foundation for future research, policy development, and implementing of practical strategies to enhance mental health literacy in diverse educational settings.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Estigma Social , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Apoio Social , Autoeficácia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...