Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.677
Filtrar
1.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 167, 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aims to elicit a value set based on the EQ-VT for the EQ-5D-5L that can be used to support decision-making in Sweden. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the general population based on age, sex and urban/rural area quota sampling from five regions across Sweden. In total, 785 interviews were conducted from February 2020 to April 2021 using the EQVT 2.1 protocol, and both composite time trade-off (c-TTO) and discrete choice experiments (DCE) were used to elicit health preferences. A variety of models have been tested for the c-TTO data (generalized least square, Tobit, heteroskedastic models) and DCE data (conditional logit model), as well as the combined c-TTO and DCE data (hybrid modelling). Model selection was based on theoretical considerations, logical consistency of the parameter estimates, and significance of the parameters (p = 0.05). Model goodness-of-fit was assessed by AIC and BIC, and prediction accuracy was assessed in terms of mean absolute error. The predictions for the EQ-5D-5L health states between models were compared using scatterplots. RESULTS: The preferred model for generating the value set was the heteroskedastic model based on the c-TTO data, with the health utilities ranging from -0.31 for the worst (55,555) to 1 for the best (11111) EQ-5D-5L states. CONCLUSION: This is the first c-TTO-based social value set for the EQ-5D-5L in Sweden. It can be used to support the health utility estimation in economic evaluations for reimbursement decision making in Sweden.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Suécia , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554541

RESUMO

Care robots have the potential to address the challenge of aging societies, such as labor shortages or the aging workforce. While previous studies have focused mainly on the productivity or workability of care robots, there has been an increasing need to understand the social value of care robots. This study attempted to identify the social values of care robots by conducting focus group interviews (FGIs) with twenty-four care recipients and caregivers and by using analytic hierarchy processes (AHPs) with thirteen individuals with expertise in the care service and care robot industries. Our results show that the labor- and health-related benefits, the technology innovation, and the provision of essential care work have the highest importance among the criteria of care robots' social values. The criteria that receive lowest priority are cost, the autonomy and needs of the care recipients, and the organizational innovation. Our study suggests that along with the private benefits and costs of care robots, their social values also need to be considered to improve the quality of care and to unlock the potential of the care robot industries.


Assuntos
Robótica , Humanos , Valores Sociais , Envelhecimento , Cuidadores
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19833, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400865

RESUMO

By implementing nature-based solutions (NBS), cities generate value for their residents, such as health and wellbeing. We estimate the aggregate social value to urban residents of 85 NBS projects implemented across Europe and find that the majority yield attractive social returns on investment. We offer a new metric to support investments for NBS by public and private actors for whom social value creation to residents is a core objective.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Valores Sociais , Cidades , Europa (Continente)
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278125, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413563

RESUMO

Concerns have been raised that immigrants coming to Europe bring fundamentally different social values, affecting the more liberal receiving societies negatively. However, the topic of immigrants' social values is understudied, and much research studies only one issue at a time, lacking a systematic approach to compare immigrants and native-born across issues. We study the social values of immigrants in Sweden using a large sample of newly arrived immigrants and their opinions on 35 different moral issues. Our results indicate a large heterogeneity across different issues, with, on average, a general tendency towards liberal social values among immigrants. We find that individual characteristics are more important than characteristics of the country of origin in explaining variation of social values between immigrants. Religiosity has the largest effect, with more religious individuals having more conservative stances. Using external data sources, we compare immigrants with native-born regarding both average positions on different issues, and the correlation between issue positions. Compared with the native-born, immigrants have, on average, somewhat more conservative values, but the underlying values structure is the same.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , Valores Sociais , Suécia , Europa (Continente)
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115465, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279794

RESUMO

This study explores parental expectations and value-making processes in respect to pediatric clinical genomic sequencing for socially disadvantaged families. Drawing on interviews and ethnographic observations with parents of children with undiagnosed physical and/or intellectual differences seeking to find whether these differences have a genetic etiology, we explore expectations and parental assessments of the value of genomic sequencing within the context of an ongoing research study. We demonstrate how the value of sequencing to parents goes well beyond finding diagnostic results or receiving prescriptive guidance as to the best care and treatment of their child; instead, value is co-created by parents, clinicians, and genetic counsellors throughout the enrollment and return of results process. Parents in our study found that clinicians and genetic counsellors repeatedly reenforce that parents need to lower their expectations and be prepared to wait for genetic science to provide more definitive answers. At the same time, parents experience that clinical teams validate parents for having made a good choice in their undertaking of genomic sequencing and, no matter the result, that they are not to blame for their child's symptoms. The experience of many parents (although not all) is that genomic science reduces or removes their sense of guilt for their child's condition, providing a platform that affirms them as "good parents." Moreover, rather than being voiceless and isolated, socially disadvantaged parents who enter into diagnostic sequencing find themselves in a familial-biosocial framework wherein they are co-partners in a socially and biologically authoritative vision of the future.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras , Valores Sociais , Criança , Humanos , Doenças Raras/genética , Pais , Família , Genômica
6.
Health Expect ; 25(6): 3307-3314, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Scottish Government introduced a free Baby Box scheme for all new parents in 2017, modelled on the Finnish scheme, to give every baby 'an equal start in life'. There is little evidence that it results in better health outcomes, but there has been limited research into different perspectives and discourses on such schemes. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted with 21 parents in North-East Scotland. Recordings were transcribed verbatim, anonymized and analysed thematically with NVivo 12 software. Our thematic analysis was both inductive and deductive-remaining open to themes identified by participants themselves but also informed by the social policy literature on universalism and social cohesion. RESULTS: Across all the focus groups, we found a high degree of positivity about the principle of the Baby Box scheme, and for the most part the practical value of the contents. This was remarkably consistent across different communities and backgrounds. There was little evidence of the strongly polarized views present in media reporting. Parents seemed considerably less focused than the media on safety and health outcomes, and more focused on practical, material and social impacts. They reported little in the way of feeling patronized or monitored by the government. CONCLUSION: Our findings have important implications for future economic evaluations of the baby box. Such evaluations should broaden the valuation space beyond health outcomes to allow for the value of feelings of inclusion, solidarity and being part of a community. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: This small project was designed in response to parent views already collected in the early roll-out of the Baby Box scheme in Scotland, about their priorities and responses to the scheme. Additional views were sought on the topic guide for the focus groups, and local community groups advised us on recruitment and the best timing and location for the focus groups to be held. The focus groups themselves were conducted as research, but with the intent of ensuring parent views featured more prominently in a debate that has been largely dominated by clinical and public health perspectives.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais , Escócia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274600, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178876

RESUMO

This study enumerates the evolution of basic human values orientations and the dynamic relationship between them, computed from Schwartz's value survey conducted in European nations. For this purpose, eight datasets related to the human value scale were extracted from the European Social Survey; each corresponds to a single round conducted cross-sectionally every two years since 2001. Change detection algorithm was implemented to the cluster solutions of temporal datasets, and the evolution of important clusters was traced. Finding of the study reveals that Universalism and Benevolence values are on the rise in European societies in the last couple of decades. Most of the European inhabitants believe in the smooth group functioning and form the organismic needs of cooperation. The people prefer anxiety-free life, and love for nature, environment, humanity, and kindness to other beings in society are essential constructs for them. They avoid self-centred behaviour and prefer social physiognomies.


Assuntos
Valores Sociais , Beneficência , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 906286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062109

RESUMO

Introduction: Making the case for investing in preventative public health by illustrating not only the health impact but the social, economic and environmental value of Public Health Institutes is imperative. This is captured by the concept of Social Value, which when measured, demonstrates the combined intersectoral value of public health. There is currently insufficient research and evidence to show the social value of Public Health Institutes and their work across the life course, population groups and settings, in order to make the case for more investment. Methods: During July 2021, a quantitative online self-administered questionnaire was conducted across international networks. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out with nine representatives to gain a deeper understanding. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the data collected. Results: In total, 82.3% (n = 14) were aware of the terminology of social value and 58.8% (n = 10) were aware of the economic method of Social Return on Investment. However, only two Institutes reported capturing social and community impacts within their economic analysis and only 41.2% (n = 7) currently capture or measure the social value of their actions. Interviews and survey responses indicate a lack of resources, skills and buy-in from political powers. Finally, 76.5% (n = 12) wanted to do more to understand and measure wider outcomes and impact of their actions. It was noted this can be achieved through enhancing political will, developing a community of best practice and tools. Conclusion: This research can inform future work to understand how to measure the holistic social value of Public Health Institutes, in order to strengthen institutional capacity and impact, as well as to achieve a more equitable society, and a more sustainable health system and economy, making the case for investing in public health, as we recover from COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Clin Ethics ; 33(3): 198-201, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137201

RESUMO

We respond to Autumn Fiester's critique that our proposed bioethical consensus project amounts to "ethical hegemony," and evaluate her claim that ethicists should restrict themselves to "mere process" recommendations. We argue that content recommendations are an inescapable aspect of clinical ethics consultation, and our primary concern is that, without standardization of bioethical consensus, our field will vacillate among appeals to the disparate claims in the 22 "Core References," unsustainable efforts to defend value-neutral process recommendations, or become a practice of Lone Ranger clinical ethicists. We contend that a consensus document that captures the basic moral commitments of patients and careproviders is the next step in the professional evolution of our field.


Assuntos
Análise Ética , Consultoria Ética , Temas Bioéticos , Consenso , Eticistas , Humanos , Valores Sociais
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274111, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084064

RESUMO

This study investigated value change during two phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, one of the most affected countries in the world. The first wave of data was collected in summer 2020, when the virus was on the retreat. The second wave was collected in autumn, at the peak of the second pandemic wave (November 2020). We investigated how Schwartz's higher-order values changed over the two waves of the study, using economic condition as a predictor of change. We also examined whether value change predicted subsequent value-expressive behavior. Results showed no mean-level change for self-enhancement, self-transcendence, conservation, and openness to change values, but significant interindividual differences in the amount of change for each of the four values. Economic condition emerged as a significant predictor of change in conservation values: Individuals with a decreasing income since the beginning of the pandemic were more likely to increase the importance assigned to these values with respect to individuals whose economic well-being has remained unchanged. Moreover, an increase in conservation and openness to change values predicted behaviors that are mostly expressive of these values, above and beyond value importance at Time 1. Results and their implications for the study of values are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Valores Sociais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 17(1): 12, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175911

RESUMO

With the current pandemic, many scholars have contended that clinical criteria offer the best way to implement triage. Further, they dismiss the criteria of social value as a good one for triage. In this paper, I respond to refute this perspective. In particular, I present two sets of arguments. Firstly, I argue that the objections to the social value criteria they present apply to the clinical criteria they favor. Secondly, they exaggerate the negative aspects of the social value criteria, while I suggest it is reasonable to use this. I end the article by recommending how operative public values can be a good way to make triaging decisions.


Assuntos
Valores Sociais , Triagem , Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Pandemias
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960293

RESUMO

The article is devoted to the issue of studying attitude of students to their own health, to healthy lifestyle, to regional health care system. The results of sociological survey carried out in February-April 2021 are presented. The factors and conditions contributing to preservation and strengthening of youth health were identified. The conclusions and recommendations concerning formation of value orientations for healthy lifestyle of students were formulated.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Valores Sociais , Adolescente , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886523

RESUMO

This study examines consumers' intentions to purchase plant-based meat alternatives (PBMA), which have been created to protect animal rights, the global environment, and consumers' health. Data from 319 Korean consumers were analyzed to establish a causal relationship among personal values (egoistic, biospheric, and social-altruistic), the dual concern theory (anticipated positive effect and empathetic concern), and PBMA purchase intentions. Multigroup analysis was performed for all paths according to generation, divided into Generation MZ and the older generation; "MZ" is a compound term referring to millennials and Generation Z, who have grown up in a digital environment; this collective generation comprises individuals born after 1980. Our analysis revealed that, among personal values, biospheric and social-altruistic values had positive effects on both anticipated positive effect and empathetic concern. In turn, these aspects positively influenced PBMA purchase intentions. Particularly, anticipated positive effect had a strong influence. Finally, a moderating effect was confirmed for two paths, and only Generation MZ demonstrated the enhancing influence of biospheric value on both anticipated positive effect and empathetic concern. This study has several implications and contributes to the sustainable growth and development of PBMA and the overall food service industry.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Intenção , Animais , Carne , Valores Sociais
17.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1605000, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898801

RESUMO

Objectives: Women's healthcare is a potential source of cross-cultural conflicts. Diverging values between healthcare providers and patients challenges the provision of culturally sensitive care and meeting migrant women's needs. The aim is to investigate healthcare providers' values in relation to sexual and reproductive rights, gender equality, migration and religion in Swedish sexual and reproductive healthcare. Methods: A national cross-sectional study was carried out. The questionnaire was distributed through a non-probability sample to midwives or other nurses, gynaecologists and obstetricians, and hospital social workers (n = 1,041). Through descriptive statistics, we mapped their values, comparing healthcare provider data to external representative population survey data. Results: Healthcare providers in sexual and reproductive healthcare displayed homogeneous liberal social values, being permissive towards sexual and reproductive rights and restrictive against gender-based violence. They were for gender equality, expressed low anti-immigrant sentiments, and had even more liberal values than the Swedish population and a demographically comparative sub-population. Conclusion: Individuals with very liberal values are selected to work in Swedish sexual and reproductive healthcare. Healthcare providers need self-reflexivity to avoid conflicts in clinical encounters in a diversified society.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Valores Sociais , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Suécia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742211

RESUMO

Past research has identified social value orientation (e.g., prosocial vs. proself) as possible underlying facilitators of pro-environmental intentions. However, recent studies have failed to draw a causal relationship using an experimental design such as priming. The current study attempted to address this issue by revisiting the relationship using a decomposed game. In addition, the current study extended the relationship between social value orientation and different aspects of pro-environmentalism (e.g., environmental attitude, identity, and self-reported pro-environmental intention). The "Attitude-Identity-Intention" path was explored in prosocial and proself groups. One hundred and fifty participants completed the decomposed game (prosocial and proself value orientations) and their respective environmental attitude, identity, and self-reported pro-environmental intentions (PEIs) were compared. We found that prosocial participants had higher levels of environmental identity, attitude, and self-reported participatory PEIs than proself participants, but not on the leadership PEIs. In addition, environmental identity mediated the relationship between environmental attitude and self-reported PEIs. This mediation only existed among the prosocial participants. The results suggest that the decomposed game is still a valid measure in social value orientation and the relationship can be extended to different aspects of environmentalism.


Assuntos
Intenção , Valores Sociais , Atitude , Humanos , Liderança , Comportamento Social
19.
Monash Bioeth Rev ; 40(2): 188-213, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705839

RESUMO

During the Covid-19 pandemic, ethicists and researchers proposed human challenge studies as a way to speed development of a vaccine that could prevent disease and end the global public health crisis. The risks to healthy volunteers of being deliberately infected with a deadly and novel pathogen were not low, but the benefits could have been immense. This essay is a history of the three major efforts to set up a challenge model and run challenge studies in 2020 and 2021. The pharmaceutical company Johnson and Johnson, the National Institutes of Health in the United States, and a private-public partnership of industry, university, and government partners in Britain all undertook preparations. The United Kingdom's consortium began their Human Challenge Programme in March of 2021.Beyond documenting each effort, the essay puts these scientific and ethical debates in dialogue with the social, epidemiological, and institutional conditions of the pandemic as well as the commercial, intellectual, and political systems in which medical research and Covid-19 challenge studies operated. It shows how different institutions understood risk, benefit, and social value depending on their specific contexts. Ultimately the example of Covid-19 challenge studies highlights the constructedness of such assessments and reveals the utility of deconstructing them retrospectively so as to better understand the interplay of medical research and research ethics with larger social systems and historical contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Valores Sociais , Tomada de Decisões
20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268681, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679271

RESUMO

This study examined the mediating effect of moral obligation and moderating effect of social value orientation on the relationship between empathy and fairness behavior in Chinese teachers. Seven hundred and twenty-six Chinese teachers completed self-reported questionnaires regarding empathy, moral obligation, social value orientation, and fairness behavior. The results revealed that moral obligation mediated the link between empathy and teachers' fairness behavior. Teachers' social value orientation moderated the associations between empathy and moral obligation and moral obligation and fairness behavior. The associations between empathy and moral obligation and moral obligation and fairness behavior were more robust for those with high SVO scores (i.e., prosocial). This study identified the critical factors associated with teachers' fairness behavior, supplying empirical support for existing theories and providing practical implications for interventions designed to improve Chinese teachers' classroom environment.


Assuntos
Empatia , Valores Sociais , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Autorrelato , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...