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1.
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 135-163, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467771

RESUMO

As soon as ethology's status diminished in the early 1970s, it was confronted with two successor disciplines, sociobiology and behavioral ecology. They were able to challenge ethology because it no longer provided markers of strong disciplinarity such as theoretical coherence, leading figures and a clear identity. While behavioral ecology developed organically out of the UK ethological research community into its own disciplinary standing, sociobiology presented itself as a US competitor to the ethological tradition. I will show how behavioral ecology took the role of legitimate heir to ethology by rebuilding a theoretical core and an intellectual sense of community, while sociobiology failed to use its public appeal to reach disciplinary status. Meanwhile, ethology changed its disciplinary identity to encompass all biological studies of animal behavior.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Etologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Emoções , Sociobiologia
2.
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 164-188, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258099

RESUMO

In the 1960s, scientists fascinated by the behavior of free-living animals founded research projects that expanded into multi-generation investigations. This paper charts the history of three scientists' projects to uncover the varied reasons for investing in a "long-term" perspective when studying animal behavior: Kenneth Armitage's study of marmots in the Rocky Mountains, Jeanne Altmann's analysis of baboons in Kenya, and Timothy Hugh Clutton-Brock's studies (among others) of red deer on the island of Rhum and meerkats in the Kalahari. The desire to study the behavior of the same group of animals over extended periods of time, I argue, came from different methodological traditions - population biology, primatology, and sociobiology - even as each saw themselves as contributing to the legacy of ethology. As scientists embraced and combined these approaches, a small number of long-running behavioral ecology projects like these grew from short pilot projects into decades-long centers of intellectual gravity within behavioral ecology as a discipline. By attending to time as well as place, we can see how this long-term perspective was crucial to their success; they measured evolutionary changes over generations of animals and their data provided insights into how the animals they studied were adapting (or not) to changing local and global environmental factors.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Ecologia , Etologia , Sociobiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19226, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584146

RESUMO

Understanding the dynamics of cooperative behavior of individuals in complex societies represents a fundamental research question which puzzles scientists working in heterogeneous fields. Many studies have been developed using the unitary agent assumption, which embeds the idea that when making decisions, individuals share the same socio-cultural parameters. In this paper, we propose the ECHO-EGN model, based on Evolutionary Game Theory, which relaxes this strong assumption by considering the heterogeneity of three fundamental socio-cultural aspects ruling the behavior of groups of people: the propensity to be more cooperative with members of the same group (Endogamic cooperation), the propensity to cooperate with the public domain (Civicness) and the propensity to prefer connections with members of the same group (Homophily). The ECHO-EGN model is shown to have high performance in describing real world behavior of interacting individuals living in complex environments. Extensive numerical experiments allowing the comparison of real data and model simulations confirmed that the introduction of the above mechanisms enhances the realism in the modelling of cooperation dynamics. Additionally, theoretical findings allow us to conclude that endogamic cooperation may limit significantly the emergence of cooperation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Diversidade Cultural , Modelos Psicológicos , Rede Social , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Sociobiologia/métodos
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(10): 1303-1313, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927367

RESUMO

Archaeological data and demographic modelling suggest that the peopling of Sahul required substantial populations, occurred rapidly within a few thousand years and encompassed environments ranging from hyper-arid deserts to temperate uplands and tropical rainforests. How this migration occurred and how humans responded to the physical environments they encountered have, however, remained largely speculative. By constructing a high-resolution digital elevation model for Sahul and coupling it with fine-scale viewshed analysis of landscape prominence, least-cost pedestrian travel modelling and high-performance computing, we create over 125 billion potential migratory pathways, whereby the most parsimonious routes traversed emerge. Our analysis revealed several major pathways-superhighways-transecting the continent, that we evaluated using archaeological data. These results suggest that the earliest Australian ancestors adopted a set of fundamental rules shaped by physiological capacity, attraction to visually prominent landscape features and freshwater distribution to maximize survival, even without previous experience of the landscapes they encountered.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Antropologia Física , Arqueologia , Austrália , Indicadores Ambientais , Geografia , Humanos , Sociobiologia
6.
Epidemics ; 33: 100410, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152622

RESUMO

An accurate understanding of why zoonoses such as SARS-CoV-2 are emerging at an increased rate, is vital to prevent future pandemics from the approximately 700,000 viruses with zoonotic potential. Certain authors have argued that the consumption of wildlife, or human contact with bats was responsible for the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Others argue that a range of anthropogenic environmental degradations have played a vital role in the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonoses. In this opinion piece, I argue that these divergent viewpoints stem, in part, from different foundational conceptual frameworks - biomedical individualist and eco-social frameworks, respectively. Based on the fact that the eco-social framework provides a more complete account of the different types of causal factors underpinning the emergence of zoonoses, I propose that the COVID-19 pandemic provides an additional reason for the health sciences to ground its theory of health and disease in an eco-social conceptual framework.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Ecossistema , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sociobiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
8.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 173(4): 619-629, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evolution of human maternal investment strategies is hypothesized to be tied to biological constraints and environmental cues. It is likely, however, that the socioecological context in which mothers' decisions are made is equally important. Yet, a lack of studies examining maternal investment from a cross-cultural, holistic approach has hindered our ability to investigate the evolution of maternal investment strategies. Here, we take a systems-level approach to study how human life history characteristics, environments, and socioecology influence maternal investment in their children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We test how infant age and sex, maternal age, parity, and child loss, and the composition of a child's cooperative breeding network are associated with maternal investment across three small-scale (hunter-gatherer, horticultural, and agropastoral), sub-Saharan populations (N = 212). Naturalistic behavioral observations also enable us to illustrate the breadth and depth of the human cooperative breeding system. RESULTS: Results indicate that infant age, maternal age and parity, and an infant's cooperative childcare network are significantly associated with maternal investment, controlling for population. We also find that human allomaternal care is conducted by a range of caregivers, occupying different relational, sex, and age categories. Moreover, investment by allomothers is widely distributed. DISCUSSION: Our findings illustrate the social context in which children are reared in contemporary small-scale populations, and in which they were likely reared throughout our evolutionary history. The diversity of the caregiving network, coupled with life history characteristics, is predictive of maternal investment strategies, demonstrating the importance of cooperation in the evolution of human ontogeny.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Mãe-Filho/etnologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Antropologia , Cuidadores , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Sociobiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev. med. cine ; 16(3): 175-183, sept. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197480

RESUMO

Se plantea la respuesta a una pregunta que hasta el día de hoy es muy discutible, ¿hay vida luego de la muerte? En este documento daremos una respuesta desde la perspectiva de la Teoría Sociobiológica Informacional. Para esto precisamos momentos exactos de la película Coco (2017), en el cual gracias al cine se puede dar aplicación a esta teoría, cabe indicar primero que en la película hay dos aspectos de un mismo lado. Una vida como información social y una vida como sistema psíquico consciente, entonces el momento clave que nos sirve como ejemplo para explicar este fenómeno es cuando el personaje «Chicharrón» desaparece del mundo de los muertos cuando nadie en el mundo real lo recuerda, sin embargo cuando la anciana «Coco» recuerda a su padre fallecido «Héctor», este logra revivir informacionalmente. A su vez también señalamos y felicitamos la buena calidad gráfica en los detalles que caracterizan la animación. En síntesis, vamos a decir que, en efecto, sí, existe la vida (informacionalmente hablando) después de la muerte. Y esto porque cuando aparecemos en el mundo empezamos a vivir como información social, entonces nacemos, y nuestra vida como información social crece en complejidad creciente


We propose the answer to a question that until today is very questionable, is there life after death? In this document we will give an answer from the perspective of the Sociobiological Informational Theory. For this we need exact moments of the movie Coco (2017), in which this theory can be applied, thanks to the cinema. It should be noted first that in the film there are two aspects of the same side. A life as social information and a life as a conscious-psy- chic system, then the key moment that serves as an example to explain this phenomenon is when the character «Chicharrón» disappears from the world of the dead when no one in the real world remembers. However, when the old «Coco» remembers her deceased father «Hector», he manages to revive informationally. At the same time, we also indicate and congratulate the upright graphic quality in the details that characterize the animation. In short, we are going to say that, indeed, yes, there is life (informationally speaking) after death. And this because when we appear in the world we begin to live as social information, then we are born, and our life as social information grows in increasing complexity


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos , Morte , 51835 , Comportamento Social , Sociobiologia , Ciência nas Artes , Consciência
11.
Behav Processes ; 172: 104043, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953131

RESUMO

Waiting for the right moment to strike, avoiding the ingestion of harmful foods, or ignoring stimuli associated with ephemeral or depleted resources requires the inhibition of prepotent responses. Good response inhibition facilities flexibility in behaviour which is associated with survival in unpredictable environments. To investigate differences in behavioural flexibility in lizards, we tested reversal learning in the sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa asper) and compared its performance to the relatively closely related eastern blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua scincoides scincoides). We presented both species with a choice between either a light and dark blue stimulus or a triangle and X shape. Both species were able to learn to discriminate between these stimuli and showed similar learning ability during the acquisition of the discrimination. Sleepy lizards, however, demonstrated a higher probability of making a correct choice at the start of the reversal, hinting towards enhanced stimulus response inhibition. Sleepy lizards and blue-tongue skinks inhabit different environments and show differences in ecology and sociobiology, all of which could possibly lead to adaptive specialisation in cognitive ability. Although further research is required, we propose that selection might have led to a change in stimulus response inhibition in the arid-adapted sleepy lizard, because better response inhibition may help them avoid the costs of repeated choices towards stimuli which no longer predict a beneficial outcome.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Inibição Psicológica , Lagartos/fisiologia , Reversão de Aprendizagem , Sociobiologia , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Percepção de Cores , Percepção de Forma , Aprendizagem , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(1): 22-32, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the reporting rates of adverse drug events (ADEs) with apixaban and empagliflozin as reports move up to the next level of spontaneous reporting. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of outpatients who discontinued apixaban or empagliflozin within 3 years of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. We enriched the sample using an active surveillance strategy to identify subsets of patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes possibly associated with an ADE. Stratified random samples of charts were reviewed to determine if patients discontinued the medication due to an ADE. If so, we ascertained whether these were uploaded into the Veterans Administration (VA) electronic health record reporting system (Adverse Reaction Tracking System [ARTS]), VA national Web-based system (VA Adverse Drug Event Reporting System [VA ADERS]), and FDA MedWatch. RESULTS: From the cohort of 2,973 patients who discontinued apixaban, 321 patients (10.8%) were randomly sampled for chart review (including 61 patients with relevant ICD codes). During chart review, 88 ADEs were identified, with 40/61 (65.6%) from the subset with ICD codes. Of the total of 88 ADEs, 18.2%, 10.2%, and 6.8% were reported in ARTS, VA ADERS, and MedWatch, respectively. Of the 1,555 patients who discontinued empagliflozin, 179 patients (11.5%) were randomly sampled for chart review (40 patients with relevant ICD codes). During chart review, 78 ADEs were identified, with 19/40 (47.5%) from the subset with ICD codes. Of the 78 ADEs, 28.2%, 19.2%, and 7.7% were reported in ARTS, VA ADERS, and MedWatch, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found substantial underreporting of apixaban and empagliflozin ADEs that became worse at each higher level of spontaneous reporting.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociobiologia , Estados Unidos
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1316-1324, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040131

RESUMO

El desarrollo histórico inicial de la neurología peruana tiene como figura a Oscar Trelles quien funda las bases de su progreso. Sin embargo, aún no se ha descrito los hitos ni las personalidades notables de la neurología peruana en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en adelante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue escribir la etapa científica de la neurología en el Perú durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, proponiendo la obra de Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas como una propuesta disruptiva e innovadora en la neurología. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, se diverjo las escuelas formadoras de neurología en la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos y la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, sendas representada por Honorio Delgado y Oscar Trelles. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, Pedro Ortiz da forma a la información como la materia que organiza a los sistemas vivos, en su Teoría Sociobiológica Informacional. En esta plantea que la información se a complejizado en cinco niveles organizativos de sistemas vivos. Conforme las consideraciones de desarrollo de la neurología en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en el Perú, resaltamos a Pedro Ortiz como un pionero que propone una redefinición del entendimiento de la información en los sistemas vivos.


The initial historical development of Peruvian neurology includes Oscar Trelles who is the founder of the groundwork and its progress. However, the milestones of noteworthy individuals in Peruvian neurology work, during the second half of the 20th century and beyond, have not yet been described. The objective of this work was to address the scientific stage of neurology in Peru during the second half of the 20th century, proposing the work of Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas as a disruptive and innovative proposal in neurology. During the second half of the 20th century, the neurology training schools were divided into the National University of San Marcos and the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, represented by Honorio Delgado and Oscar Trelles. During the second half of the twentieth century, Pedro Ortiz relates information as the material that organizes living systems, in his Informational Sociobiological Theory. In this work it is stated that information becomes more complex in five organizational levels of living systems. According to the development considerations of neurology in the second half of the 20th century in Peru, we highlight Pedro Ortiz as a pioneer who proposes a redefinition of the understanding of information in living systems.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Sociobiologia/história , Neurologia/história , Peru , Neurociências/história
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(R2): R170-R179, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647093

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) is increasingly used to make causal inferences in a wide range of fields, from drug development to etiologic studies. Causal inference in MR is possible because of the process of genetic inheritance from parents to offspring. Specifically, at gamete formation and conception, meiosis ensures random allocation to the offspring of one allele from each parent at each locus, and these are unrelated to most of the other inherited genetic variants. To date, most MR studies have used data from unrelated individuals. These studies assume that genotypes are independent of the environment across a sample of unrelated individuals, conditional on covariates. Here we describe potential sources of bias, such as transmission ratio distortion, selection bias, population stratification, dynastic effects and assortative mating that can induce spurious or biased SNP-phenotype associations. We explain how studies of related individuals such as sibling pairs or parent-offspring trios can be used to overcome some of these sources of bias, to provide potentially more reliable evidence regarding causal processes. The increasing availability of data from related individuals in large cohort studies presents an opportunity to both overcome some of these biases and also to evaluate familial environmental effects.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , População/genética , Reprodução/genética , Família , Características da Família , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Viés de Seleção , Sociobiologia/educação
15.
J Biosci ; 44(4)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502584

RESUMO

The role of genetic relatedness in social evolution has recently come under critical attention. These arguments are here critically analyzed, both theoretically and empirically. It is argued that when the conceptual structure of the theory of natural selection is carefully taken into account, genetic relatedness can be seen to play an indispensable role in the evolution of both facultative and advanced eusociality. Although reviewing the empirical evidence concerning the evolution of eusociality reveals that relatedness does not play a role in the initial appearance of helper phenotypes, this follows simply from the fact that natural selection - of which relatedness is a necessary component - does not play a causal role in the origin of any traits. Further, separating two logically distinct elements of causal explanation - necessity and sufficiency - explains why the debate lingers on: although relatedness plays a necessary role in the evolution of helping and advanced eusociality, relatedness alone is not sufficient for their appearance. Therefore, if the relatedness variable in a given data set is held at a uniformly high value, then it indeed may turn out that other factors occupy a more prominent role. However, this does not change the fact that high relatedness functions as a necessary background condition for the evolution of advanced eusociality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aptidão Genética/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Seleção Genética/genética , Animais , Aptidão Genética/genética , Insetos/genética , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Seleção Genética/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Sociobiologia
16.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 14(4): 408-415, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432735

RESUMO

Along with a dearth of regulatory guidance, little empirical research has examined factors related to participant payment in research. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 institutional review board (IRB)-approved sociobehavioral human subjects research protocols at a large research university in Southern California. The proportion of studies that paid participants differed significantly by type of research (p < .001) and study population (p = .009). The average payment amount also differed significantly by study population (p < .001) and type of participation (in-person vs. remote; p < .001). In addition, studies that required more visits (p < .001) and more time (p = .011) paid significantly more than studies with fewer and shorter visits, respectively. These findings provide data to help inform future ethical payment practices.


Assuntos
Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Pesquisa/economia , Universidades , California , Estudos Transversais , Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos , Sociobiologia
18.
J Hist Biol ; 52(4): 597-633, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689139

RESUMO

This paper examines the history of animal behavior studies after the synthesis period. Three episodes are considered: the adoption of the theory of natural selection, the mathematization of ideas, and the spread of molecular methods in behavior studies. In these three episodes, students of behavior adopted practices and standards developed in population ecology and population genetics. While they borrowed tools and methods from these fields, they made distinct uses (inclusive fitness method, evolutionary theory of games, emphasis on individual selection) that set them relatively apart and led them to contribute, in their own way, to evolutionary theory. These episodes also highlight some limitations of "conjunction narratives" centered on the relation between a discipline and the modern synthesis. A trend in conjunction narratives is to interpret any development related to evolution in a discipline as an "extension," an "integration," or as a "delayed" synthesis. I here suggest that this can lead to underestimate discontinuities in the history of evolutionary biology.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Etologia/história , Genética Populacional/história , Seleção Genética , Animais , História do Século XX , Modelos Biológicos , Sociobiologia/história
19.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(1): e12544, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549185

RESUMO

Emotion recognition represents the ability to encode an ensemble of sensory stimuli providing information about the emotional state of another individual. This ability is not unique to humans. An increasing number of studies suggest that many aspects of higher order social functions, including emotion recognition, might be present in species ranging from primates to rodents, indicating a conserved role in social animals. The aim of this review is to examine and compare how emotions are communicated and perceived in humans and other animals, with the intent to highlight possible new behavioral approaches and research perspectives. We summarize the evidence from human emotion recognition, and latest advances in the development of nonhuman animal behavioral tests, using or implying the use of this cognitive function. The differential implication of sensory modalities used by animals to communicate and decipher emotional states is also discussed. The opportunity to measure emotion recognition abilities in rodents may allow us to better identify the neural mechanisms mediating this complex function, thus promoting the development of new intervention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social cognitive dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Inteligência Emocional , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Social , Sociobiologia/métodos , Sociobiologia/normas
20.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(4): 699-706, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043270

RESUMO

RESUMEN La Teoría Sociobiológica Informacional propone una definición radicalmente distinta de los sistemas vivos, y con lo mismo es la única teoría neurológica existente que evade el problema mente-cerebro y que explica la naturaleza de la conciencia humana. Fue desarrollada por Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas entre 1984 y 2011. En este documento vamos a realizar un recuento de todas sus obras más importantes. Incluimos, adicionalmente, material inédito de los años 1998, 1999, 2006, y 2009.


ABSTRACT The Informational Sociobiological Theory proposes a radically-different definition of living systems and, therefore, is the only existing neurological theory that evades the mind-brain problem and explains the nature of human consciousness. It was developed by Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas between 1984 and 2011. In this document we are presenting a listing of his main works. We include, additionally, unpublished material of the years 1998, 1999, 2006, and 2009.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Sociobiologia/história , Teoria da Informação/história , Peru
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