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1.
Health Sociol Rev ; 30(3): 219-228, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720046

Assuntos
Sociologia , Humanos
2.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 255-270, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528486

RESUMO

From 1940 to 1980, studies of medical education were foundational to sociology, but attention shifted away from medical training in the late 1980s. Recently, there has been a marked return to this once pivotal topic, reflecting new questions and stakes. This article traces this resurgence by reviewing recent substantive research trends and setting the agenda for future research. We summarize four current research foci that reflect and critically map onto earlier projects in this subfield while driving theoretical development elsewhere in the larger discipline: (1) professional socialization, (2) knowledge regimes, (3) stratification within the profession, and (4) sociology of the field of medical education. We then offer six potential future directions where more research is needed: (1) inequalities in medical education, (2) socialization across the life course and new institutional forms of gatekeeping, (3) provider well-being, (4) globalization, (5) medical education as knowledge-based work, and (6) effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Sociologia , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Profissionalismo , Racismo , Sexismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sociologia/história , Sociologia/métodos , Sociologia/tendências
3.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 271-285, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528484

RESUMO

At the center of the COVID-19 pandemic lies a ubiquitous feature of medicine. Medicine is permeated with ignorance. Seizing this moment to assess the current state of medical sociology, this article articulates a sociology of medical ignorance. We join insights from earlier medical sociological scholarship on uncertainty with emerging research in the sociology of ignorance to help make sense of the omnipresent but sometimes invisible dynamics related to the unknowns in medicine. Then we examine two streams of inquiry with a focus on uncertainty and ignorance-(1) research on the interconnections between technology, medical authority, and ignorance and (2) research on lay expertise within the context of ever-present uncertainties. For decades, and to good effect, medical sociologists have asked, "What does medicine know, and what are the consequences of such knowing?" Going forward, we encourage medical sociologists to examine the unknown in medicine and the consequences of not knowing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Movimento contra Vacinação , Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sociologia , Tecnologia , Incerteza , Recusa de Vacinação
4.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(1): 66-76, 10 set. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292983

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo interdisciplinar foi usar curtas metragens produzidos por estudantes do ensino médio sobre temas da Química para o ensino de Sociologia. Neste sentido, foram produzidos mapas conceituais pelos estudantes, após a discussão dos curtas metragens, sob uma perspectiva sociológica. Nossos resultados mostram que os mapas conceituais podem atuar como instrumentos facilitadores para a aprendizagem, capazes de estimular a pesquisa e promover a autonomia dos estudantes durante o processo de construção do conhecimento.


The aimof this interdisciplinary study was useshort films produced by high school students about chemical themes to Sociology teaching. In this way, conceptual maps were constructedby students after short films discussion under a social perspective. Our results showed that conceptual maps could act as facilitating learning instrument, able to stimulate research and to promote student autonomy during the knowledge construction process.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Ensino , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Sociologia , Estudantes , Química
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(6): e20190827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the scientific productions about the history of graduate studies in Brazilian nursing in the light of Eliot Freidson's Sociology of the Professions. METHODS: an integrative review, carried out in the databases indexed in Virtual Health Library. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations were followed. Thematic content analysis and Eliot Freidson's concepts were adopted. RESULTS: two categories emerged: "Institutionalization of graduate courses in Brazilian nursing", highlighting the historical process of professionalization in nursing through transition from empirical to professional care, subsidized by the monopoly of the construction of one's own knowledge; "The scientific production of graduate nursing in Brazil", showing the strengthening of a new generation of nurse researchers, given the greater scientificity in teaching due to implementation of graduate studies. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the analyzes present the historicity of graduate studies' institutionalization, supporting the understanding of professionalization outlines of Brazilian nursing.


Assuntos
Sociologia , Brasil , Humanos
7.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 404-418, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355610

RESUMO

The 2010 special issue of Journal of Health and Social Behavior, titled "Fifty Years of Medical Sociology," defined the contours of the medical sociological perspective. We use this as a backdrop to outline and assess the continued integration of genetics into medical sociology research. We contend that the explosion of genetic and epigenetic data in population health data sources has made the medical sociological perspective increasingly relevant to researchers outside of sociology, including public health, epidemiology, and quantitative genetics. We describe vast, underappreciated, and mostly unsolved challenges that limit the scientifically appropriate interest in incorporating genetics into existing paradigms. It is our hope that medical sociologists continue this integration but redouble efforts to maintain the core insights in social science research, such as the importance of environmental and structural (i.e., nonbiological) factors in determining health processes and outcomes and the use of rich, integrated, and rigorous empirical analyses.


Assuntos
Sociologia Médica , Sociologia , Humanos , Comportamento Social
8.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 61: 335-374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266570

RESUMO

How do humans intuitively understand the structure of their society? How should psychologists study people's commonsense understanding of societal structure? The present chapter seeks to address both of these questions by describing the domain of "intuitive sociology." Drawing primarily from empirical research focused on how young children represent and reason about social groups, we propose that intuitive sociology consists of three core phenomena: social types (the identification of relevant groups and their attributes); social value (the worth of different groups); and social norms (shared expectations for how groups ought to be). After articulating each component of intuitive sociology, we end the chapter by considering both the emergence of intuitive sociology in infancy as well as transitions from intuitive to reflective representations of sociology later in life.


Assuntos
Normas Sociais , Sociologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
11.
J Health Soc Behav ; 62(3): 302-317, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283649

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a common, costly, and consequential health problem. However, despite some important analytic contributions, sociological research on pain has not yet coalesced into a unified subfield. We present three interrelated bodies of evidence and illustrative new empirical findings using 2010 to 2018 National Health Interview Survey data to argue that pain should have a central role in sociological investigations of health. Specifically, we contend that (1) pain is a sensitive barometer of population health and well-being, (2) pain is emblematic of many contested and/or chronic conditions, and (3) pain and pain treatment reflect and have wide-ranging implications for public policy. Overall, whether pain is analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively-focusing on its distribution in the population, its social causes and consequences, or its subjective meanings for individuals-pain reflects social conditions, sociopolitical context, and health-related beliefs of a society. Pain is thus an important frontier for future sociological research.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Saúde da População , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Sociologia
12.
J Aging Stud ; 57: 100926, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082996

RESUMO

Focusing on cultural narratives about men's midlife crises, this article explores the more subtle forms that medicalization takes by broadening and re-orientating the concept of successful ageing away from strictly political, medical or/and sociological discussions of health and ageing and towards cultural representations of masculinity, optimization and the handling of a personal crisis. Using two examples; the British comedy Swimming with Men (2018) and the novel Doppler (2014) by Erlend Loe the article discusses the entanglement of masculinity, crisis and ageing and in doing so argues that cultural narratives about men's midlife crises do more than merely comment on already existing understandings of ageing and should in fact be understood as important components in the ongoing medicalization of middle-aged masculinities.


Assuntos
Homens , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Sociologia
13.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(2): e20200656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to understand access in a day in the life Primary Health Care as a fundamental right to health, from users' perspective. METHODS: a holistic-qualitative multiple case study based on Comprehensive Sociology of Everyday Life. 77 Unified Health System (SUS) users participated in the study. RESULTS: according to users' voice, the right to health is still a matter of struggle, in more than 30 years of SUS. SUS is considered as the place where they have to appeal. The experiences are diverse, from the ease to the difficulty of access, neglecting users' needs, but despite the inequality in relation to the offer of services, the solution always arrives. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: to overcome this historical obstacle of comprehensive access to health, as a fundamental human right, it is necessary to overcome political and administrative decisions that hinder the construction of legitimate SUS, in a truly democratic participation of all social actors.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sociologia
14.
Sociol Health Illn ; 43(6): 1388-1404, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050536

RESUMO

This paper contributes to the debate on the patient-doctor relationship by focussing on a specific chronic disease: type 1 diabetes. This field is characterised by an increasing use of technology, specifically therapeutic devices and a significant requirement of patient self-management. This paper presents the main findings of research conducted in Italy in 2018. It is argued that this relationship is more properly described as an interdependent figuration of actors characterised by a dynamic process of power balances, which recalls Elias' (What is sociology? Columbia University Press, 1978) figurational-processual and relational sociology. In this theoretical context, patients may manage their (dis)satisfaction with their diabetologists by choosing different behaviours that stem from Hirschman's archetype (Exit, voice, and loyalty. Responses to decline firms, organizations, and states. Harvard University Press, 1970): voice, exit, loyalty and, we would add, resignation. These categories are fluid, and all of them can be experienced by patients over time, depending on the quality of the figurations built among these transactors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Médicos , Humanos , Itália , Relações Médico-Paciente , Sociologia
15.
Sociol Health Illn ; 43(4): 895-909, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056738

RESUMO

In 2008, Timmermans and Haas called for a 'sociology of disease' to develop and challenge the sociology of health and illness. A sociology of disease, they argued, would take seriously the biological and physiological processes of disease in theorising health and illness. Building on two decades of Science and Technology Studies and feminist work on biological actors such as hormones and genes, we propose a 'cortisol sociology' to push further at this argument. As a 'messenger of stress', cortisol is key to understanding human and non-human health as a biosocial phenomenon. We argue that sociologists should engage with cortisol through critical yet open-minded reading of the relevant science and critical triangulation studies, and by tracking cortisol's movements from science into public worlds of biosensing and self-monitoring.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Sociologia , Humanos
16.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 24(2): 88-97, maio-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1345113

RESUMO

RESUMO: Neste trabalho, alguns elementos centrais da teorização do psicanalista Heinz Kohut serão tomados como norteadores para a circunscrição desse autor dentro de um campo de reflexão de certas questões da atualidade. Para isso, será realizado um mapeamento de algumas coordenadas do ponto de vista sociológico sobre o mundo ocidental desde a década de 1970, em uma aposta de que o autor da psicologia do self pode oferecer ferramentas importantes para uma leitura psicanalítica acerca do cenário atual.


Abstract: In this work, some central elements about the psychoanalyst Heinz Kohut theorization will be taken as guiding for the circumscription of this author within a field of reflection of certain nowadays issues. For this, a mapping of some coordinates from the sociological point of view on the Western world will be carried out since the 1970s, in a bet that the author of the psychology of the self can offer important tools for a psychoanalytical reading about the current scenario.


Assuntos
Teoria Psicanalítica , Sociologia , Emprego , Ansiedade
17.
Br J Sociol ; 72(4): 909-929, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955008

RESUMO

This paper is an effort to understand Hogarth's unique position in early eighteenth century London, so as to grasp the rich complexity of his work. It begins by tracing two rival competing positions in the sociology of art, derived from Becker and Bourdieu, before taking a closer look at how Hogarth's work conjures up a new vision of the world, providing shape and meaning to the nation's changing understandings of morality, society, and the city. A fundamental transformation in the field of representation appears halfway through the eighteenth century and the interweaving of art theory, national identity, and systems of patronage are at the centre of this dynamic period. It is no accident that in Hogarth's world the main targets are those who seek to transgress their stations in life and cross class barriers. By combining two different sociological approaches to art the study builds a more nuanced picture of the artist and his work.


Assuntos
Sociologia , Humanos , Londres
18.
Nature ; 593(7859): 347-349, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911242
20.
Br J Sociol ; 72(3): 594-608, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666229

RESUMO

Sociological research has overlooked the political consequences of charismatic leadership that arises in existing democratic political bureaucracies. In this article, we theorize the consequences of charismatic leadership in democratic nations by revisiting Max Weber's theory of charismatic authority. Our extension of Weber's theory of charismatic authority helps to address a gap in the political polarization literature concerning the role of charismatic leadership. This article provides a foundational link in the research on charismatic authority-bridging the literatures on charisma and cross-national comparative sociology. This bridging is enabled by advances in data collection that include information on charismatic authority in cross-national context. This article makes use of a Driscoll and Kraay fixed-effects analysis across 76 democracies from 1960 to 2009 to explore the relationship between charismatic leadership and political polarization. Our findings suggest that nations with higher levels of charismatic leadership tend to have higher levels of political polarization. These results contribute to both the literature on political polarization and charisma-as well as support our extension of Weber's theory of charismatic authority.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Liderança , Humanos , Política , Sociologia
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