Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.288
Filtrar
1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 443-450, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073424

RESUMO

The Italian museum system made significant progress in terms of accessibility. Despite the considerable increase in the number of people with functional limitations who visit museums, the percentage of those who do not visit museums is still very high, whatever the presence of limitations. Based on this empirical evidence, a new approach to the problem of accessibility becomes necessary. The paper argues in favor of a performative conception of accessibility. More specifically, it will be shown how the approach of relational sociology and the philosophy of gesture allow for elaborating a broader notion of accessibility than the prescriptive one that currently inspires most interventions. By redefining accessibility in terms of a social relationship that combines the adaptive dimension with the transmission of meanings, new possibilities emerge to make a museum visit an attractive and engaging experience. This guiding idea started to be implemented through the experimental project Smart Cultural Heritage 4 All realized at the Museo Sannitico of Campobasso (Italy).


Assuntos
Gestos , Filosofia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Museus , Sociologia
2.
Nature ; 608(7921): 37-38, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915246

Assuntos
Economia , Sociologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2204967119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914142

RESUMO

Networks are fundamental for our understanding of complex systems. The study of networks has uncovered common principles that underlie the behavior of vastly different fields of study, including physics, biology, sociology, and engineering. One of these common principles is the existence of network motifs-small recurrent patterns that can provide certain features that are important for the specific network. However, it remains unclear how network motifs are joined in real networks to make larger circuits and what properties emerge from interactions between network motifs. Here, we develop a framework to explore the mesoscale-level behavior of complex networks. Considering network motifs as hypernodes, we define the rules for their interaction at the network's next level of organization. We develop a method to infer the favorable arrangements of interactions between network motifs into hypermotifs from real evolved and designed network data. We mathematically explore the emergent properties of these higher-order circuits and their relations to the properties of the individual minimal circuit components they combine. We apply this framework to biological, neuronal, social, linguistic, and electronic networks and find that network motifs are not randomly distributed in real networks but are combined in a way that both maintains autonomy and generates emergent properties. This framework provides a basis for exploring the mesoscale structure and behavior of complex systems where it can be used to reveal intermediate patterns in complex networks and to identify specific nodes and links in the network that are the key drivers of the network's emergent properties.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Biologia , Engenharia , Retroalimentação , Linguística , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Física , Sociologia , Biologia de Sistemas
4.
F1000Res ; 11: 891, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967974

RESUMO

In this editorial, we identify the key questions requiring further exploration in the sociology of vaccines. In doing so, we discuss the socio-structural forces shaping views towards knowledge about and access to vaccination, trust in vaccines and regulators/decision makers, the associated problem of financial interests in vaccine development and regulation, and global vaccine inequalities. Across the breadth of these issues, we additionally identify a range of theoretical perspectives and conceptual directions that sociologists might utilise when producing innovative empirical, methodological and theoretical research on vaccination relating to risk and uncertainty, conflicts of interest, power and inequality.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Sociologia , Vacinação
5.
JAMA ; 328(4): 401, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881134
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3711900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832209

RESUMO

The evolution of media technology has not only changed readers' reading ways and reading habits but also tried to reshape their social behaviour. From the perspective of sociology of sustainable knowledge, this essay explores the impacts of technological change on reading through the framework of activity theory. It is found that digital reading is of increasing characteristics of "front stage" performance and reading anxiety in society, and sustainable knowledge anxiety began to spread. The research shows that the existing digital reading mode is actually the consumption of media, which is not conducive to the transmission and production of sustainable knowledge. Also, with the further development of technology, reading will open up a new chapter. The wisdom of human symbiosis will be infinitely stored and strive toward the era of global brain, which will help to better inherit sustainable knowledge and activate the vitality of sustainable knowledge production.


Assuntos
Leitura , Sociologia , Humanos
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e99, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796373

RESUMO

Folk-sociology is a set of intuitive assumptions that organize our spontaneous theories about society, including the notion that social groups are agent-like. Pietraszewski's model may explain this folk-sociological assumption in an elegant way. However, large-scale group dynamics include features that seem to escape agent-like descriptions. Therefore, one may want to find out whether the "event-grammar" proposed here can account for these features.


Assuntos
Sociologia , Humanos
9.
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 261-264, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680614

RESUMO

The Farm Hall Transcripts appeared to offer a unique opportunity for a study in the history and sociology of science. My request for access to the transcripts was initially denied, but later was allowed thanks to the intervention of British intellectuals. The recorded opinions of the interned German scientists indicate that initially they had attempted to produce a nuclear weapon, but later abandoned it. The record also traces their development of a view of history, by which the relative morality of the German scientists' work could be judged, versus that of the Allies.


Assuntos
Atitude , Sociologia , Fazendas , Princípios Morais
10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648160

RESUMO

In the context of health promotion in terms of the Ottawa Charter, a series of tasks and functions are attributed to schools, including the reduction of health and social inequalities. However, important theoretical considerations and empirical findings from the sociology of education, which analyzes school as a hierarchizing, segregating, inequality-producing, and reproducing institution, hardly find place in the public health debate on school health promotion. In this discussion article, some positions on schools from the sociology of education and the normative framework for health promotion in schools are presented. Furthermore, the contradictions between the goals of health promotion and the current conditions in schools, are discussed. In conclusion, some conceptual considerations are introduced from a perspective that rethinks education from the health promotion point of view and connects with inclusion, democracy education, and human rights.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Pública , Alemanha , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sociologia
11.
Sociol Health Illn ; 44(8): 1287-1304, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692110

RESUMO

Since the 1990s, the sociology of rationing has developed in explicit opposition to health economic and bioethical approaches to healthcare rationing. This implies a limited engagement with other disciplines and a limited impact on political debates. To bring the sociology of rationing into an interdisciplinary dialogue, it is important to understand the disciplines' analytical differences and similarities. Based on a critical interpretive literature synthesis, this article examines four disciplinary perspectives on healthcare rationing and priority setting: (1) Health economics, which seeks to develop decision models to provide for more rational resource allocation; (2) Bioethics, which seeks to develop normative principles and procedures to facilitate a just allocation of resources; (3) Health policy studies, which focus on issues of legitimacy and implementation of decision models; and lastly (4) Sociology, which analyses the uncertainty of rationing and the resulting value conflicts and negotiations. The article provides an analytical overview and suggestions on how to advance the impact of sociological arguments in future rationing debates: Firstly, we discuss how to develop the concepts and assumptions of the sociology of rationing. Secondly, we identify specific themes relevant for sociological inquiry, including the recurring problem of how to translate administrative priority setting decisions into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Sociologia , Incerteza
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115001, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617762

RESUMO

Diet is understood to be one of the most important influences on public health and chronic disease, and is particularly implicated in the so-called 'obesity epidemic'. Yet interventions aiming to improve the population's dietary habits have failed to translate into widespread health improvements. Simultaneously, the knowledge landscape has become increasingly contentious, with fat activism challenging dominant approaches to how obesity is framed and addressed. This paper is based on 24 ethnographic interviews, and explores the work of health practitioners promoting therapeutic carbohydrate restriction ('low-carb' diets) for people with metabolic health conditions. Drawing on Michel Callon's study of technological innovation, I show practitioners engaging in 'on-the-job sociology'-situated sociological work to justify, and forge a space for, innovative dietary intervention. These innovators employ physiological explanations of hormones, satiety (or hunger), and pleasure (or shame), supported with personal experience, to emphasise material connections between particular eating habits and the sustainability of dietary improvement in everyday life. They resist fat activist influence on healthcare practice (that has resulted in practitioners avoiding conversations about diet, fatness and health), as well as the more extensively critiqued practices of health promotion. Deflecting blame/shame from individuals, innovators spotlight the role of the food industry in undermining public understandings of food and physiology, and dietary improvement that is achievable and sustainable. Through on-the-job sociology, innovators forge a space to engage patients in collaborative dietary experimentation and improvement. This study highlights the importance of on-the-job sociology in the contemporary knowledge landscape, providing new insights about public health in the making.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Sociologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
13.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 94: 1-7, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605317

RESUMO

The paper focuses on the relevance of Kant's anthropologically oriented idea of the pragmatic use of reason for specific theoretical approaches in sociology. As I show in the first part, Kant's explicit presence in 20th-century sociology does not refer much to his anthropology and specifically to its cornerstone - the pragmatic use of reason which establishes a subtle connection between the theoretical and practical functions of reason. As an instrument for gaining systematic knowledge about the social world and ourselves as beings both passively and actively involved in this process, Kant's pragmatic use of reason serves a specific form of the theoretical use of reason. At the same time, it embodies a kind of practical reasoning concerning the "general welfare" in the social sphere. Building on the key arguments in the first part, I then address the question of whether we can view Kant's pragmatic approach as a possible third way for sociology today, beyond the simplifying opposition of 'theoretical' normativity and 'realistic' empiricism, and whether this third way can help us in clearing specific sociological issues. Here, I focus on two examples, namely the use of Kant's notion of "unsocial sociability" in Ralf Dahrendorf's conflict theory and on the criticism of Kant's cosmopolitanism in Ulrich Beck's reformed sociology of cosmopolitanism.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Filosofia , Antropologia/história , Empirismo , Conhecimento , Filosofia/história , Sociologia
14.
Soc Stud Sci ; 52(4): 618-634, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635027

RESUMO

This article maps the rise and fall of the idea of a (social) group across medicine in the context of contemporary analyses in psychology and sociology. This history shows the early 20th century emergence and growth of group medicine, group therapy and group comparisons. In recent decades, however, the idea that groups constituted the basic units of society has been replaced with the emergence of populations and systems that offer a more virtual and abstract context for individual relationships. This has implications for explanation itself as the demise of groups has changed the epistemological ground-rules for understanding identity formation and social change.


Assuntos
Mudança Social , Sociologia , História do Século XX , Conhecimento
15.
Integr Psychol Behav Sci ; 56(2): 506-512, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471474

RESUMO

This commentary reflects on articles by Liu et al., (2022) on the formation of an ethnoburb of Albany, New Zealand and by Liu (2022) on how queer psychology has misrepresented Sinophone queers. Drawing upon a sociological disciplinary standpoint, it identifies a theme of anti-essentialism that these works share, and suggests methods that would be helpful to use in further research that builds upon these articles. Specifically, as the work by Liu et al., (2022) could be the basis for future, deeper examinations of how ethnoburb residents interpret and experience their communities, exemplars are recommended of related qualitative projects using thoughtful sampling designs, attending to reflexivity, and creatively incorporating an immediate experience of space. Turning to Liu (2022), the recommendations flow from first considering how psychology and sociology each take up the term culture. Finding Liu's view of not only culture but also individual agency to sound quite sociological, methods of furthering her project that borrow from the sociological bookshelf are recommended; in particular, these are narrative analysis methods and participatory action research.


Assuntos
Asiáticos , Sociologia , China , Feminino , Humanos
16.
J Health Soc Behav ; 63(2): 191-209, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392693

RESUMO

The study of social networks is increasingly central to health research for medical sociologists and scholars in other fields. Here, we review the innovations in theory, substance, data collection, and methodology that have propelled the study of social networks and health from a niche subfield to the center of larger sociological and scientific debates. In particular, we contextualize the broader history of network analysis and its connections to health research, concentrating on work beginning in the late 1990s, much of it in this journal. Using bibliometric and network visualization approaches, we examine the subfield's evolution over this period in terms of topics, trends, key debates, and core insights. We conclude by reflecting on persistent challenges and areas of innovation shaping the study of social networks and health and its intersection with medical sociology in the coming years.


Assuntos
Sociologia Médica , Sociologia , Humanos , Rede Social , Sociologia/história
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(4): 1423-1433, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475823

RESUMO

In Brazil, and indeed worldwide, one encounters a discrepancy between estimates of the effects of exposure to occupational risks on health and official statistics on professional diseases. Despite the innovations in the official lists, mainly in the period from 1999 to 2007, the statistical underestimation has not changed. The documentary analysis provided elements to identify the production of scientific ignorance, the current legal order and the functioning of the medical-administrative entities that produce the social invisibility of occupational diseases. It was discussed how this invisibility is produced by different logical structures and normative horizons that underlie the diagnosis, communication, and registration of these diseases. The hypotheses were developed in line with the constructs of the sociology of science and public inaction.


Verifica-se no Brasil e no mundo uma discrepância entre as estimativas dos efeitos da exposição aos riscos ocupacionais sobre a saúde e as estatísticas oficiais de doenças profissionais. Em que pese as inovações nas listas oficiais, principalmente, no período 1999-2007, a subestimação estatística não foi modificada. A análise documental forneceu elementos para identificar a produção da ignorância científica, o ordenamento jurídico vigente e o funcionamento das entidades médico-administrativas que produzem a invisibilidade social das doenças profissionais. Discutiu-se de que maneira essa invisibilidade é produzida por diferentes estruturas lógicas e horizontes normativos que fundamentam o diagnóstico, comunicação e registro dessas doenças. As hipóteses foram desenvolvidas em linha com os constructos da sociologia da ciência e inação pública.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Brasil , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Sociologia
18.
JAMA ; 327(12): 1190, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315900
19.
J Health Soc Behav ; 63(2): 177-190, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227106

RESUMO

Medical sociology gives limited attention to age-a surprising observation given the aging of the population and the fact that age is among the strongest determinants of health. We examine this issue through an analysis of articles published in Journal of Health and Social Behavior (JHSB) and Sociology of Health & Illness (SHI) between 2000 and 2019. One in 10 articles focused on age or aging, with attention increasing over the period. However, the journals differed. More JHSB than SHI articles addressed it, but fewer focused on the latest life stages when frailty often appears. We discuss three dimensions of age that would enrich medical sociology: as a dimension of inequality akin to race and gender with similar health effects, as an institution interacting with the medical one, and as an identity-again, akin to race and gender-through which people process their experiences in ways that affect health.


Assuntos
Sociologia Médica , Sociologia , Envelhecimento , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Comportamento Social
20.
Br J Sociol ; 73(3): 643-653, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325469

RESUMO

Time and temporality are common themes in the social sciences and sociology. The sociological literature on time remains solipsistically empirical, while theoretical elaborations are focused on modernity, capitalism, and technology, through notions of speed and acceleration. Although existing studies on time are imbued with political issues and processes, as the subfield that studies relations of power and politics, political sociology has yet to consolidate a temporal lexicon for studying structures of power and political phenomena. This review situates three recent books on time and politics within a broader sociological literature on time and calls for a political sociology of time. I argue that developing a conceptual apparatus that takes time as an element of power is fundamental to building dialogue across the empirical material and across disciplines. I conclude by offering three avenues for the development of a political sociology of time.


Assuntos
Ciências Sociais , Sociologia , Capitalismo , Humanos , Política
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...