Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.600
Filtrar
1.
Lancet ; 401(10370): 13-14, 2023 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620973
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 995595, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388301

RESUMO

Introduction: On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck the Republic of Haiti. The human cost was enormous-an estimated 316,000 people were killed, and a further 300,000 were injured. The scope of the disaster was matched by the scope of the response, which remains the largest multinational humanitarian response to date. An extensive scoping review of the relevant literature was undertaken, to identify studies that discussed the civilian and military disaster relief efforts. The aim was to highlight the key-lessons learned, that can be applied to future disaster response practise. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidance was followed. Seven scientific databases were searched, using consistent search terms-followed by an analysis of the existent Haitian literature. This process was supplemented by reviewing available grey literature. A total of 2,671 articles were reviewed, 106 of which were included in the study. In-depth analysis was structured, by aligning data to 12 key-domains, whilst also considering cross-sector interaction (Civilian-Civilian, Military-Military, and Civilian-Military). Dominant themes and lessons learned were identified and recorded in an online spreadsheet by an international research team. This study focuses on explicitly analysing the medical aspects of the humanitarian response. Results: An unpreceded collaborative effort between non-governmental organisations, international militaries, and local stakeholders, led to a substantial number of disaster victims receiving life and limb-saving care. However, the response was not faultless. Relief efforts were complicated by large influxes of inexperienced actors, inadequate preliminary needs assessments, a lack of pre-existing policy regarding conduct and inter-agency collaboration, and limited consideration of post-disaster redevelopment during initial planning. Furthermore, one critical theme that bridged all aspects of the disaster response, was the failure of the international community to ensure Haitian involvement. Conclusions: No modern disaster has yet been as devastating as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Given the ongoing climate crisis, as well as the risks posed by armed conflict-this will not remain the case indefinitely. This systematic analysis of the combined civilian and military disaster response, offers vital evidence for informing future medical relief efforts-and provides considerable opportunity to advance knowledge pertaining to disaster response.


Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Socorro em Desastres , Humanos , Haiti , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde
4.
J Cancer Policy ; 34: 100370, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The invasion of Ukraine by Russia in February 2022 has resulted in destruction of healthcare infrastructure and triggered the largest wave of internally displaced populations and refugees since World War Two. Conflicts in transitioned countries such as Ukraine create new non-communicable disease (NCD) challenges, especially for cancer care for refugees and humanitarian assistance in host countries. In the early days, rapid attempts were made to model possible impacts. METHODS: By evaluating open source intelligence used in the first three months of the conflict through snowball search methods, we aimed to address: (i) burden of cancer in Ukrainian population, specifically considering translating to the refugees population, and its cancer care capacity; ii) baseline capacity/strengths of cancer systems in initial host countries. Moreover, using a baseline scenario based on crude cancer incidence in Ukraine, and considering data from UNHCR, we estimated how cancer cases would be distributed across host countries. Finally, a surveillance assessment instrument was created, intersecting health system's capacity and influx of internally displaced populations and refugees. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: The total new cancer patients per month in pre-conflict Ukraine was estimated as 13,106, of which < 1 % are paediatric cases. The estimated cancer cases in the refugee population (combining prevalent and incident), assuming 7.5 million refugees by July 2022 and a female:male ratio of 9:1, was 33,121 individuals (Poland: 19284; Hungary: 3484; Moldova: 2651; Slovakia: 2421; Romania: 5281). According to our assessments, Poland is the only neighbouring country classified as green/yellow for cancer capacity, i.e. sufficient ablility to absorb additional burden into national health system; Slovakia we graded as yellow, Hungary and Romania as yellow/red and Moldova as red.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Refugiados , Socorro em Desastres , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Nações Unidas , Atenção à Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1018092, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36249215

RESUMO

Background: Poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is linked to adverse health, and quality of life, particularly during emergencies. Although in recent times increased emphasis is being laid upon MHM during humanitarian crises-pandemics, disasters and conflicts, the essential components of complete MHM during an emergency are not clearly spelt out. We conducted a systematic review to examine, analyse and describe the existing evidence related to the challenges experienced by women and girls in practicing MHM during humanitarian crises and / or public health emergencies. Methods: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 guidelines and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022328636). We searched online repositories: PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO for articles published between January 2000 and April 2022. For presenting key findings, we used the descriptive statistics and thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a total of 1,078 published articles, out of which 78 were selected for a full-text review, and finally 21 articles were included. The pooled prevalence of lack of access to sanitary pads during humanitarian crises was 34 percent (95 percent CI 0.24-0.45). The prevalence of safe and proper sanitary pad disposal practices ranged from 11 to 85 per cent, with a pooled prevalence of 54 per cent (95 per cent CI 0.21-86). Qualitative analyses projected three themes that emerged on MHM during humanitarian crises (1) Availability and affordability of menstrual products, and accessibility to water, sanitation and health (WASH) services, (2) Availability of support system and coping with "period poverty," and (3) Gender dimensions of menstrual hygiene management. Most studies reported non-availability of MHM products and WASH services during emergencies. Existence of barriers at systemic and personal level posed challenges in practicing menstrual hygiene. Privacy was identified as a common barrier, as emergency shelters were reportedly not women-friendly. Conclusion: Availability of limited evidence on the subject is suggestive of the need to invest resources for strengthening primary research in low- and middle-income countries and more specifically during emergencies. Context-specific state level policies on MHM during emergencies would help to guide district and sub-district managers in strengthening systems and address barriers for the provision of MHM services during emergencies. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022328636, identifier CRD42022328636.


Assuntos
Higiene , Socorro em Desastres , Países em Desenvolvimento , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Qualidade de Vida , Água
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 8)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36210070

RESUMO

Humanitarian crises and emergencies are prevalent all over the world. With a surge in crises in the last decade, humanitarian agencies have increased their presence in these areas. Initiatives such as the Sphere Project and the Minimum Initial Service Package known as MISP were formed to set standards and priorities for humanitarian assistance agencies. MISP was initiated to coordinate and standardise data and collection methods and involve locals for programme sustainability. Developing policies and programmes based on available data in humanitarian crises is necessary to make evidence-based decisions. Data sharing between humanitarian agencies increases the effectiveness of rapid responses and limits duplication of services and research. In addition, standardising data collection methods helps alleviate the risk of inaccurate information and allows for comparison and estimates among different settings. Big data is a new collection method that can help assemble timely data if resources are available and turn the data into information. Further research on setting priority indicators for humanitarian situations can help guide agencies to collect quality data.


Assuntos
Socorro em Desastres , Coleta de Dados , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Políticas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293949

RESUMO

The armed conflict in Ukraine has caused a lot of emotions around the world. Many countries have been involved in helping brutally attacked people, especially mothers and children. The versatile involvement of large powers is monitored and noticeable by the media. Active help from Poland is a very visible sign of human solidarity with the suffering Ukrainian nation. Open hearts, houses and institutions and humanitarian and medical aid are elements of Polish kindness and empathy. The aim of the research was to collect Poles' opinions about the need to provide humanitarian aid to Ukrainians from the territories of the Russian-Ukrainian war. Capturing feelings of Poles towards Ukrainians during the war is an interesting issue that shows subjective opinions about the existential situation perceived in the space of mutual personal interactions. The results showing opinions on help were collected from a group of 1012 people throughout Poland with the help of an authorial questionnaire. The obtained data shows a positive attitude of Poles to Ukrainians. The most willing to help are people over 49 years old, more often with a good and very good financial situation. Respondents believe that general assistance from other countries and the European Parliament is not sufficient. Military support is accepted the most by the oldest participants of research, and less by the age group up to 30 years who support medical help more. More concerned about the ongoing conflict are respondents under the age of 30 and the least wealthy, including, more often, women. The richest respondents are least afraid of the effects of the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian conflict. The conducted research confirms the openness of Polish society to refugees and brings opinions about existential solidarity with the suffering Ukrainian nation.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Socorro em Desastres , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atitude , Etnicidade , Federação Russa
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231996

RESUMO

We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of an e-service learning course, "Social Marketing for Health Promotion", offered to full-time and part-time students enrolled in the Master of Public Health at our institution. In a quasi-experimental trial, we introduced e-service learning in 2018, comparing a traditional face-to-face section to a blended course (33% online). Based on the positive feedback received, we progressively increased the online component in the following academic years, reaching 100% online in Fall 2020. We compared the quantitative and qualitative indicators evaluating three e-service learning-course iterations with a face-to-face control. The impact indicators included participation and engagement in the course, the attainment of the learning outcomes, satisfaction with the course, instructors and mode of delivery, and the impact of the experience beyond the classroom. Over the years, we trained 73 students whose engagement with the course remained relatively stable. The attainment of the learning outcomes and general course satisfaction steadily increased over time, demonstrating a positive impact on student learning. Qualitative data illustrate the importance of instructors in setting expectations and guiding students and community partners through a remote-learning process.


Assuntos
Socorro em Desastres , Marketing Social , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Líbano , Estudantes , Ensino
9.
Lancet Haematol ; 9(9): e689-e697, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055333

RESUMO

Highly effective treatment of haemophilia A and B is primarily available to 15% of the world's population, in high-income countries. In low-income countries (LICs) and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), morbidity and mortality are high because of greatly reduced access to diagnosis, care, and treatment. We report the challenges and impact after the first 5 years (mid-2015-2020) of the expanded World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) Humanitarian Aid Program (HAP). WFH HAP donated coagulation products were used to treat more than 250 000 acute bleeding episodes, manage approximately 4000 surgeries, and establish bleeding preventive prophylaxis in about 2000 patients in 73 countries. Health-care providers worldwide learned optimal management of patients with complex needs through virtual and in-person training. In response to the programme, some governments increased investment in haemophilia care, including independent purchases of small amounts of treatment products. With unparalleled scope and complexity, and substantial benefits to people with haemophilia and society in general, the WFH HAP is an exemplar of partnership between for-profit and not-for-profit organisations advancing health-care equity in LICs and LMICs, which could be replicated by other organisations supporting people with different monogenic diseases.


Assuntos
Hemofilia A , Socorro em Desastres , Países em Desenvolvimento , Hemofilia A/epidemiologia , Hemorragia , Humanos , Renda
12.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 27(3): 213-214, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971770

RESUMO

This editorial presents the contentious debate among authors from different disciplines on the problems of psychiatric diagnoses with conduct disorder, and opposition-defiant disorder as case illustrations. Furthermore, it provides an overview of opinions of experts on mental health interventions for adolescent refugees.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Socorro em Desastres , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Humanos
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 870158, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865250

RESUMO

To provide services safely to refugees during the COVID-19 pandemic, humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have instituted public health safety protocols to mitigate the risk of spreading the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, it can be difficult for people to adhere to protocols under the best of circumstances, and in situations of nested crises, in which one crisis contributes to a cascade of additional crises, adherence can further deteriorate. Such a nested crises situation occurred in Beirut, Lebanon, when a massive explosion in the city injured or killed thousands and destroyed essential infrastructure. Using data from a study on COVID-19 safety protocol adherence during refugee humanitarian assistance in Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey, we conduct a cross-country comparison to determine whether the nested crises in Beirut led to a deterioration of protocol adherence-the "fragile rationalism" orientation-or whether adherence remained robust-the "collective resilience" orientation. We found greater evidence for collective resilience, and from those findings make public health recommendations for service provision occurring in disaster areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Socorro em Desastres , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Explosões , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 774-775, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643105
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...