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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129824, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087529

RESUMO

The aerobic, lincomycin-degrading bacterial strain Conexibacter sp. LD01, belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria, was isolated from activated sludge. Both second- and third-generation sequencing technologies were applied to uncover the genomic characterization and high-quality genome with 99.2% completeness and 2.2% contamination was obtained. The biodegradation kinetics of lincomycin fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R2 > 0.97). Conexibacter sp. LD01 could subsist with lincomycin as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. When 500 mg/L of glucose was added as a co-substrate, the biodegradation rate improved significantly, whereas the addition of 500 mg/L sodium pyruvate had a slight inhibitory effect. Ammonia nitrogen was the best nitrogen source for Conexibacter sp. LD01 when growing and degrading lincomycin. In total, 17 metabolic products consisting of nine novel products were detected, and five biodegradation pathways, including N-demethylation, breakage of the amido bond, sulfoxidation, and oxidation of the pyrrolidine ring and propylamino chain, were proposed. This study significantly expands our understanding of the functional microorganisms and mechanism involved in lincomycin biodegradation at the phylum level.


Assuntos
Lincomicina , Esgotos , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Genômica , Glucose/metabolismo , Cinética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Piruvatos , Esgotos/química , Sódio
2.
Food Chem ; 400: 133957, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055138

RESUMO

Emulsion gels with the mixtures of low-molecular-weight emulsifier (LME) and polymer have attracted much attention in food; however, the LME-polymer interactions in emulsion system are complex and unclear. Here, the interactions between SSL and xanthan in emulsions and the mechanisms of stabilizing emulsions were investigated by using tensiometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and rheology. SSL was more efficiently adsorbed on the oil-water interface than xanthan. Interestingly, the honeycomb structure was formed in emulsion gels, which firmly immobilized oil droplets. Furthermore, electrostatic repulsion and hydrophobic interactions between xanthan and SSL facilitated the efficient bonding at interface and in bulk. Both linear and nonlinear rheology strongly supported the fact that the interactions between xanthan and SSL enhanced gel-like viscoelastic structure of emulsion gels. This structure endows excellent stability of emulsion gels under high temperature storage, sealed conditions and pH change.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Água , Emulsões/química , Géis/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Reologia , Sódio , Água/química
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 414-428, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182149

RESUMO

MXenes, a new family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides or nitrides, have attracted tremendous attention for various applications due to their unique properties such as good electrical conductivity, hydrophilicity, and ion intercalability. In this work, Ti3C2 MXene, or MX, is converted to MX-TiO2 composites using a simple and rapid microwave hydrothermal treatment in HCl/NaCl mixture solution that induces formation of fine TiO2 particles on the MX parent structure and imparts photocatalytic activity to the resulting MX-TiO2 composites. The composites were used for enrofloxacin (ENR), a frequently found contaminating antibiotic, removal from water. The relative amount of the MX and TiO2 can be controlled by controlling the hydrothermal temperature resulting in composites with tunable adsorption/photocatalytic properties. NaCl addition was found to play important role as composites synthesized without NaCl could not adsorb enrofloxacin well. Adding NaCl into the hydrothermal treatment causes sodium ions to be simultaneously intercalated into the composite structure, improving ENR adsorption greatly from 1 to 6 mg ENR/g composite. It also slows down the MX to TiO2 conversion leading to a smaller and more uniform distribution of TiO2 particles on the structure. MX-TiO2/NaCl composites, which have sodium intercalated in their structures, showed both higher ENR adsorption and photocatalytic activity than composites without NaCl despite the latter having higher TiO2 content. Adsorbed ENR on the composites can be efficiently degraded by free radicals generated from the photoexcited TiO2 particles, leading to high photocatalytic degradation efficiency. This demonstrates the synergetic effect between adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of the synthesized compounds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Água , Catálise , Enrofloxacina , Sódio , Titânio , Água/química
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130088, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206712

RESUMO

Understanding the photocatalytic reductive dehalogenation mechanism of halogenated aromatic pollutants is of great research value. However, the proton source in the photocatalytic dehalogenation process of representative halogenated aromatic pollutants by TiO2 is not clear. In this study, the TiO2 surface was modified by hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride to obtain TiO2 samples with different hydroxyl groups. It was found that the hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO2 affects the sequence of proton and electron transfer in dehalogenation. The abundance of hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO2 can accelerate the reductive dehalogenation process of representative halogenated aromatic pollutants. The kinetic solvent isotope effect was used to study the proton-coupled electron transfer process in the reaction. It shows that the enriching of protons on TiO2 bridging oxygen (bridging hydroxyl groups) is conducive to the rapid step of protonation of the reactant, and subsequent proton and electron transfer. On the contrary, the bridging hydroxyl groups can be removed by reacting with strongly basic sodium hydroxide and sodium ions can occupy the bridging oxygen. The substitution of bridging oxygen by fluorine ions can also lead to the destruction of bridge hydroxyl groups. Significantly, the absence of bridging hydroxyl groups on titanium dioxide will lead to the dehalogenation of representative halogenated aromatic pollutants initiated by electron transfer. This study is helpful to understand dehalogenation reaction paths catalyzed by TiO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Prótons , Flúor , Hidróxido de Sódio , Ácido Clorídrico , Fluoreto de Sódio , Titânio , Radical Hidroxila , Oxigênio , Solventes , Sódio
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130034, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206716

RESUMO

The toxicity of nanoplastics (NPs) at relatively low concentrations to soil fauna at different organismal levels is poorly understood. We investigated the responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to polystyrene NPs (90-110 nm) contaminated soil at a relatively low concentration (0.02 % w:w) based on multi-omics, morphological, and intestinal microorganism analyses. Results showed that NPs accumulated in earthworms' intestinal tissues. The NPs damaged earthworms' digestive and immune systems based on injuries of the intestinal epithelium and chloragogenous tissues (tissue level) and increased the number of changed genes in the digestive and immune systems (transcriptome level). The NPs reduced gut microorganisms' diversity (Shannon index) and species richness (Chao 1 index). Proteomic, transcriptome, and histopathological analyses showed that earthworms suffered from oxidative and inflammatory stresses. Moreover, NPs influenced the osmoregulatory metabolism of earthworms as NPs damaged intestinal epithelium (tissue level), increased aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption (transcriptome level), inositol phosphate metabolism (proteomic level) and 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-furan-3-sulfonic acid, and decreased betaine and myo-inositol concentrations (metabolic level). Transcriptional-metabolic and transcriptional-proteomic analyses revealed that NPs disrupted earthworm carbohydrate and arachidonic acid metabolisms. Our multi-level investigation indicates that NPs at a relatively low concentration induced toxicity to earthworms and suggests that NPs pollution has significant environmental toxicity risks for soil fauna.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Betaína/metabolismo , Aldosterona/análise , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Solo , Sódio , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Furanos , Carboidratos , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo
6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121888, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170774

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy combined with component analysis and molecular dynamics simulation were used to study chemical species and their transformation in aqueous sodium solutions. Study shows that the characteristic vibrational frequency of nitrate ions (ν1-NO3-) blue-shifted from 1043.9 to 1046.9 cm-1, and the full width at half maximum increased from 6.8 to 10.8 cm-1 as the concentration increasing. When water/salt molar ratio (WSR) > 30, the relative concentration (RC) of free hydrated ions and solvent shared ion pair accounts for the vast majority, and there is almost no contact ion pair in solution. When WSR less than 30, due to the continuous reduction of the number of water molecules, the hydrated water molecules around the sodium ions and nitrate ions begin to decrease, and solvent shared ion pair or contact ion pair gradually forms. Sodium ions and nitrate ions mainly exist in a monodentate coordination. When WSR > 160, both the relative concentration of contact ion pair and complex structure is close to 0. This work proves that a lower RC of complex structure in solution, a smaller supersaturation of the solution is achieved, meaning aqueous sodium nitrate solution is easier to nucleate crystals.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Água , Soluções/química , Água/química , Solventes , Sódio
7.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136820, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241113

RESUMO

The degradation kinetics of Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) surfactant in the UV/chlorine process was comprehensively investigated, and the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products (Cl-DBPs) were determined. Results showed that the degradation of SDBS by UV, chlorine and UV/chlorine all followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constant by UV/chlorine in ultrapure water was approximately 3 times higher than the sum of those by UV and chlorine, and decreased from 0.297 to 0.063 min-1 with pH increasing from 5.0 to 9.0. Water matrices such as NO3-, HCO3- and natural organic matter (NOM) inhibited the degradation efficiency to a certain extent. The second-order rate constant of SDBS with HO• was determined as 2.84 × 109 M-1 s-1. Through using different probes, the main contributors to SDBS degradation were found to be UV, HO• and reactive chlorine species (RCS). Meanwhile, 64.0 µg L-1 trichloromethane (TCM) and 8.7 µg L-1 chloral hydrate (CH) were simultaneously formed within 30 min of UV/chlorine treatment. The concentration of total organic chlorine (TOCl) (424.0 µg L-1) was obviously higher than those of TCM and CH. In addition, 414 unknown by-products formed during UV/chlorine treatment were detected by mass spectrometry at a high confidence level, including 64 monochloro-DBPs and 2 dichloro-DBPs. Although UV/chlorine process accelerated SDBS degradation, the associated DBP formation deserves enough attention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro/química , Desinfecção , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cinética , Tensoativos/análise , Halogenação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Água , Sódio
8.
Food Chem ; 401: 134059, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095999

RESUMO

Delivering bioactive peptides orally is hampered by poor absorption across the gastrointestinal barrier. Using the walnut-derived peptide PW5, PPKNW, we explored whether coformulation of peptides with absorption enhancer sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)aminocaprylate] (SNAC) could improve the intestinal absorption of orally-administered bioactive peptides. Herein, the application of SNAC enhanced the absorption efficiency of PW5 in a non-everted gut sac model. Particle size distribution (1 027.8 ± 6.74 nm) and zeta potential (-2.89 ± 0.07 mV) of the PW5-SNAC complex were significantly greater than that of individual PW5 and SNAC. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that SNAC application could aggravate the surface roughness and reduce the compact structure of PW5. It further showed that PW5 and SNAC binds through an endothermic process underpinned by hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces and that SNAC could bound primarily to the internal calyx of PW5. These findings are helpful for the effective delivery of bioactive peptides.


Assuntos
Caprilatos , Sódio , Sódio/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal , Peptídeos/farmacologia
9.
Protein Expr Purif ; 201: 106172, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115641

RESUMO

Heterologous expression systems have been used as a powerful experimental strategy to study the function of many proteins, particularly ion transporters. For this experiment, it is fundamental to prepare an expression vector encoding a protein of interest. However, we encountered problems in vector preparation of the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of murine sperm-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (sNHE) due to its severe toxicity to bacteria. We overcame the problems by insertion of an amber stop codon or a synthetic intron into the coding sequence of the VSD in the expression vectors. Both methods allowed us to express the protein of interest in HEK293 cells (combined with a stop codon suppression system for amber codon). The VSD of mouse sNHE generates voltage-dependent outward ionic currents, which is a probable cause of toxicity to bacteria. We propose these two strategies as practical solutions to study the function of any protein toxic to bacteria.


Assuntos
Prótons , Sêmen , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Códon de Terminação/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Sêmen/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 11-21, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049325

RESUMO

Piezoelectricity as a physical property has received great attention due to its excellently functional applications, especially in piezoelectric catalysis and mechanical energy harvesting. To take full advantage of the functions of piezoelectric materials, (K0.5Na0.5)0.94Li0.06NbO3 (KNN6L) piezoelectric powders were compounded with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in this work. The developed KNN6L-PDMS porous piezoelectric composites with flexible and recyclable characteristics could achieve âˆ¼ 91% degradation rate of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye wastewater under mechanical vibration, and the outstanding piezocatalytic activity was still maintained after repeated decomposition multiple times. Besides, the relationship between piezoelectric potential and piezocatalysis was validated by COMSOL simulations. The content of piezoelectric powders played a positive effect on the magnitude of piezoelectric potential generated by the KNN6L-PDMS porous composites. Moreover, the catalytic mechanism was found to be originated by generation of various reactive oxygen species (mainly •O2- and •OH) in water environment as a result of strong piezoelectric effect by the porous composites. The porous piezoelectric composites with flexible and recyclable characteristics exhibited excellent performance in piezoelectric catalysis which has promising applications in the field of environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Sódio , Águas Residuárias , Porosidade , Pós , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Íons , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Água
11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 276-286, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081207

RESUMO

S-scheme heterojunction structure can endow the photocatalysts with high-performance photo-degradation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) since it can remain the photogenerated electrons/holes with stronger redox ability. Herein, an integrative S-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst building from Cd0.5Zn0.5S nanoparticles and BiOCl microflowers with oxygen vacancies (OVs) was developed. Moreover, the in-situ grown process ensures the firm contact and intense electron coupling between BiOCl and Cd0.5Zn0.5S. As a result, Cd0.5Zn0.5S/BiOCl exhibited a significant reinforcement of photo-activity and stability for the abatement of antibiotic norfloxacin, manifesting a 2.8-fold or 9.6-fold enhancement compared to pristine Cd0.5Zn0.5S or BiOCl. Cd0.5Zn0.5S/BiOCl also shows good resistance to alkaline, sodium salts and humic acid. The performance of Cd0.5Zn0.5S/BiOCl to photocatalytically degrade other PPCPs with different molecular structures was further confirmed. At last, the ability of Cd0.5Zn0.5S/BiOCl for PPCPs de-toxicity was verified by evaluating the toxicity of norfloxacin and its degradation intermediate. This study demonstrates a new S-scheme heterojunction photocatalyt for efficient removal of PPCPs as well as provides some insights into developing high-performance metal sulfide solid-solution-based S-scheme heterojunctions for water decontamination.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Norfloxacino , Fotólise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Catálise , Oxigênio , Substâncias Húmicas , Sais , Luz , Zinco , Sulfetos , Água , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Sódio
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 310-321, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081210

RESUMO

Uniform sodium-dysprosium double molybdate (NaDy(MoO4)2) nanoparticles having different morphologies (spheres and ellipsoids) and tunable size have been synthesized for the first time in literature. The procedure is based on a homogeneous precipitation process at moderated temperatures (≤220 °C) from solutions containing appropriated precursors dissolved in ethylene glycol-water mixtures, in the absence (spheres) or the presence (ellipsoids) of tartrate anions. The effects of the morphological characteristics (size and shape) of the nanoparticles on the magnetic relaxivity at high field (9.4 T) have been evaluated finding that the latter magnitude was higher for the spheres than for the ellipsoids, indicating their better suitability as contrast agents for high-field magnetic resonance imaging. Such nanoparticles have been successfully coated with polymers bearing carboxylate functional groups through a layer-by-layer process, which improves the colloidal stability of the nanoparticles in physiological media. It has been also found that the coating layer had no significant effects on the nanoparticles relaxivity and that such coated nanoparticles exhibited a high biocompatibility and a high chemical stability. In summary, we have developed NaDy(MoO4)2 based bioprobes which meet the required criteria for their use as contrast agents for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Nanopartículas , Tartaratos , Disprósio , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Polímeros , Campos Magnéticos , Ânions , Água , Etilenoglicóis , Sódio
13.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 541-553, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088699

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Combined usage of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) - responsive charge reversal strategies can improve the cellular internalisation of the colloidal drug delivery systems by also decreasing their cytotoxic effects. EXPERIMENTS: Anionic core NLCs were formed by combining the melt emulsification method and ultrasonication. The resulting core NLCs were coated sequentially first with protamine (Prot NLCs) and then with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) or sodium polyphosphate (Graham's salt, PP) generating TPP or PP NLCs, respectively. The developed NLCs were characterised regarding their size and zeta potential. Enzyme-induced charge reversal of the TPP and PP NLCs was evaluated by zeta potential measurements upon their incubation with alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In parallel, time-dependent phosphate release was monitored in the presence of isolated as well as cell-associated ALP. Morphological evaluations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Moreover, cell viability and cellular uptake studies were carried out in vitro on Caco-2 cells. FINDINGS: The core NLCs were obtained with a mean size of 272.27 ± 5.23 nm and a zeta potential of -25.70 ± 0.26 mV. Upon coating with protamine, the zeta potential raised to positive values with a total change up to Δ29.3 mV also displaying an increase in particle size. The second layer coating with TPP and PP provided a negative surface charge. Subsequent to ALP treatment, the zeta potential of the TPP and PP NLCs reversed from negative to positive values with total changes of Δ8.56 and Δ7.47 mV, respectively. Conformably, significant amounts of phosphate were released from both formulations. Compared with core NLCs, improved cellular viability as well as increased cellular uptake were observed in case of Prot, TPP and PP NLCs.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Nanoestruturas , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Lipídeos , Fosfatase Alcalina , Tamanho da Partícula , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Protaminas/farmacologia , Sódio
14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 832-845, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108553

RESUMO

Due to abundant resources and low prices, biomass-derived carbons as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been widely reported. However, it is still a challenge to design a biomass-derived carbon material that has immunity to environmental influences, stable chemical composition and controllable morphology. In this paper, tannic acid (TA) as a precursor is first reported to synthesize rod structures with abundant mesopores and defects (PTA-700). These features can provide more active sites and space for lithium and sodium ions storage, which is conducive to lithium and sodium ions transfer. Excellent electrochemical performance is observed in LIBs (535 mAh/g after 100 cycles at 0.1 A/g) and SIBs (114.0 mAh/g after 3000 cycles at 1 A/g). Kinetics analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to further analyze the superior lithium and sodium ions storage performance of PTA-700. More importantly, PTA-700 solves many problems faced by traditional biomass-derived carbons in commercialization. Our work suggests an effective way to develop high-performance biomass-derived carbon anode materials for LIBs and SIBs.


Assuntos
Carbono , Lítio , Lítio/química , Sódio , Taninos , Eletrodos , Íons/química
15.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 48(1): 101419, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181785

RESUMO

Serum sodium and chloride have clinical significance in the prognosis of heart failure. Little is known regarding the prognostic value of sodium-to-chloride (Na/Cl) ratio in patients with heart failure. This study sought to investigate the association between Na/Cl ratio on admission and mortality risk of elderly patients with acute heart failure in a retrospective cohort. We included 1819 patients (aged over 60) from the Zigong Heart Failure Study. Patients were grouped according to Na/Cl ratio and followed up for all-cause mortality at 3 months. Restricted cubic spline, cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to examine the correlation between serum Na/Cl ratio on admission and mortality risk. Restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a U-shaped association between Na/Cl ratio on admission and 3 months mortality risk (P nonlinearity <0.001), with the nadir of risk at 1.34. After adjustment for multivariate, patients with Na/Cl ratio <1.3 or ≥ 1.4 had hazard ratios for mortality of 3.58 (95% CI, 1.63-7.84) and 2.66 (95% CI, 1.23-5.72) compared with those with Na/Cl ratio of 1.3-1.4. The cumulative hazard of mortality estimates significantly differed across Na/Cl ratio groups (log-rank P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed there were no interactions with absent or present of hyponatremia and hypochloremia (P for interaction all >0.05). Both low and high Na/Cl ratios were associated with an increased mortality risk in elderly patients with acute heart failure. Further studies need to verify these 2 biochemical phenotypes and develop corresponding treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cloreto de Sódio , Sódio , Prognóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159112, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181800

RESUMO

Fluoride groundwater pollution is a major challenge to ensuring a safe groundwater supply for the global community. This study emphasized mid-layer groundwater (MG) as the main water supply source in the Huaibei mining area, North China. A total of 74 groundwater samples were taken to determine the hydrochemistry, source provenance, driving forces of high-fluoride groundwater, and associated probabilistic health risk using Monte Carlo simulation. The fluoride concentration in 55.56 % of the MG samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water permissible limit of 1 mg/L. In addition, MG is characterized by the hydrochemical faces of HCO3- type and Na+ type, lower Ca2+ and higher TDS concentration. Fluoride enrichment was predominantly controlled by the geogenic sources of fluorite dissolution, silicate weathering and lateral supply from the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation limestone aquifer (CLA). In addition, the driving forces of high-fluoride groundwater were an alkaline environment, low Ca2+ concentration, high Na+ and HCO3- concentration, cation exchange between Ca2+ and Na+ on the surface of clay minerals, and competitive adsorption of HCO3-. The health risk assessment of F- for noncarcinogenic risk showed that the HQ values of 28.16 % of groundwater samples exceeded the safety limit of 1 for infants, followed by 2.1 % for children and 0 % for both adult females and males. Infants and children are more prone to the impact of excessive F-. The findings of this study will provide new insights into the geochemical behavior of F- and the safety of drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Fluoretos/análise , Método de Monte Carlo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Medição de Risco , Sódio , China
17.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136880, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257401

RESUMO

Groundwater which is an essential source of freshwater for various domestic, agricultural, industrial applications is facing a severe deterioration in quality due to demographic pressure and intense industrial activities. Present study appraises the influence of human induced activities on groundwater quality of Agra-Firozabad industrial belts of Western Uttar Pradesh, Yamuna basin, India. The maximum concentrations of metals and anions found during pre and post monsoon are as follows: Lead 0.302; 0.086, calcium 672; 1260, magnesium 215; 16.8, cadmium 0.0; 0.066, chromium 0.016; 0.005, manganese 0.340; 0.076, nickel 0.044; 0.028, sulfate 514; 286, nitrate 66.7; 3.56 and fluoride 1.17; 2.02 mg/L respectively. Based on results of Water Quality Index, groundwater samples were classified under 'Poor water' category in 34.2% and 52.63% during pre and post-monsoon period, respectively. Accordingly, higher concentrations of bicarbonate and sulfate might have attributed to excess hardness, instrumental in making it unsuitable for industrial usage. However, values of Percent Sodium, Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Magnesium Hazard and Permeability Index signified that groundwater from majority of locations was fit for agricultural use. Health risk assessment studies revealed that children consuming polluted water were affected more as compared to adults. Timely action and strict compliance of regulation is recommended towards groundwater management for defined usage to avert severe health effects and to meet sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Rios , Magnésio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Sulfatos/análise , Medição de Risco , Sódio , Índia
18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 1021-1031, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152615

RESUMO

Hydrogels are widely used as sensors in the field of wearable devices. However, the hydrogels were rarely designed to endure the harsh outdoor environment in winter, including extremely low temperature, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and variable humidity. In addition, physical damage is also a challenge for hydrogels. In this study, a self-healing hydrogel with adhesion was prepared as a sensor for winter sports using a one-pot method. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as the hydrogel matrix, providing the hydrogel preferable self-healing properties and adhesion to various surfaces such as porcine skin, metal, glass, and plastic. Lithium chloride was used for the chain entanglement of polyvinyl alcohol, forming a hydrogel with excellent ionic conductivity (24.29 S m-1 at room temperature, 13.45 S m-1 under -18 ℃) to detect human motion and temperature changes. Together with ethylene glycol, lithium chloride also provided successful water retention ability and frost resistance. The hydrogel remained stable after 30 d of storage at room temperature and -18 ℃. Sodium lignosulfonate was introduced to improve the mechanical properties and ultraviolet (UV) resistance of hydrogel, created nearly 100% UV shielding with a thickness of 0.5 mm. These advantages provide great potential to the hydrogel for application in flexible wearable devices for winter sports.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Álcool de Polivinil , Humanos , Cloreto de Lítio , Condutividade Elétrica , Íons , Água , Sódio , Etilenoglicóis
19.
Talanta ; 252: 123881, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055076

RESUMO

This work aims to develop the novel TVB-N sensitive film for monitoring food freshness. The film was fabricated based on carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS)/agar (AG) complex and natural pigment, red radish anthocyanins (RRA). However, RRA is highly unstable under high humid conditions for their hydrophily. To immobilize RRA in AG film, we brought up CMS (negative charge) to immobilize RRA (positive charge) via electrostatic attractions and combined CMS and AG via hydrogen bond self-assembly. Zeta potential, Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray diffraction analysis proved the electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond self-assembly effect, indicating RRA immobilized effectively. Migration evaluation displayed that RRA remained stable in a high humidity environment (from RH 35%-95%). And its color difference is less than 5% in the low-temperature environment (4 °C). The prepared sensing film was found to be applied to detect the freshness of packaged grass carp and shrimp products. Its colors changed from initial orange-red to light red (3rd day) and then purple (4th day) with the increase of volatile amines inside the packaging. These findings suggested the film can be used as a sensing device for intelligent packaging of protein-rich food.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Antocianinas/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Eletricidade Estática , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Sódio , Ágar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
20.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109012, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274372

RESUMO

This study evaluated the combination of high-power ultrasound (HPU), micronized salt (MS), and low KCl levels as a strategy to produce reduced sodium Bologna-type sausages. Samples with 50% NaCl reduction were produced with regular salt (RS) or MS and 0.5% KCl. The sausages were sonicated for 0 or 27 min in an ultrasonic bath (25 kHz, 60% amplitude, normal mode, 20 °C) immediately after filling. The sodium reformulation strategy was effective in compensating for the defects in the emulsion stability and texture profile caused by the NaCl reduction. Besides, the combination of HPU, MS, and KCl did not cause major impacts on the evolution of pH, Eh, and TBARS values of the sausages during storage (21 days at 4 °C). The use of MS and KCl also allowed a reduction by 50% of the NaCl content (< 42% Na; Na/K ratio: 1.2 to 1.3) of the samples without affecting the salty taste, which was enhanced by the HPU treatment.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Produtos da Carne/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Sódio , Paladar
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