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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131381, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808774

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the mineral composition of twelve samples of red jambo (Syzygium malaccensis) collected in 10 cities in the state of Bahia. The samples were digested in a digester block with a reflux system and cold finger, and the analytes were determined by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analyzing NIST 1570a certified reference material (spinach leaves) at a 95% confidence level. The results were evaluated through Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, which allowed the identification of outliers in the results of the city of Jaguaquara. The analyte concentrations in the samples (mg 100 g -1) comprised a range of: Ca (3.0-28.9), Fe (0.035-0.125), K (134.8-197.5), Mg (2.7-19.8), Mn (0.012-0.131), Na (0.5-10.8), P (0.24-13.5), Sr (0.010-0.314), and Zn (0.026-0.129). This demonstrates that the fruit can be indicated as a potential nutritional supplement in human nutrition.


Assuntos
Syzygium , Humanos , Íons , Minerais , Sódio , Análise Espectral
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 648-656, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352445

RESUMO

Pancake-like TiO2 (M-TiO2) derived from the metal-organic framework was inlaid into three-dimensional flower-like BiOI through a facile solvothermal method. M-TiO2 supplies large surface area and mesoporous structure for attachment and transfer of the substrates and products, while BiOI acts as a photosensitizer to absorb visible light and generates electrons and holes. The distinct structure of M-TiO2/BiOI gives a favorable contact between the two monomers, and promotes the transfer of charge carriers. In conjunction with the proper band positions of M-TiO2 and BiOI, the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs is attained. Benefiting from the above cooperative effects of M-TiO2 and BiOI, the performance for the vanillin generation from sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) over M-TiO2/BiOI composites has a prominent improvement under visible light. Specifically, the yield over optimal M-TiO2/BiOI sample is about 5.8 mg/gSLS, obviously superior to that over pristine M-TiO2 (~1 mg/gSLS) and BiOI (~1.1 mg/gSLS). It is found that h+ and O2- play the key role for vanillin generation from sodium lignosulfonate, and the low vanillin generation under UV-vis light sheds light on that OH is an adverse factor. We hoped that this work could inspire the studies on the photocatalytic valorization of biomass using noble metal-free catalysts.


Assuntos
Bismuto , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Benzaldeídos , Luz , Lignina/análogos & derivados , Sódio , Titânio
3.
Food Chem ; 370: 131017, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507213

RESUMO

The decrease in the use of K fertilizers may be relevant for developing countries that depend on imports, as well as for specific groups such as patients with chronic kidney disease, who have restricted K in their diets. However, the decrease in the use of K affects plant yield, requiring the study of alternatives to mitigate nutritional stress. Sodium is a beneficial element that can mitigate K deficiency, but studies on kale plants are lacking. We investigated the role of Na in kale grown with and without K in nutrient feed solution. Four treatments were used: abundant K, abundant K plus Na, deficient K, and deficient K plus Na. Low Na (2 mmol L-1) attenuated the symptoms of K deficiency in kale by minimizing leaf water loss and increasing pigment content, leaf area, and plant dry mass. The synergism between K and Na negatively affected the growth of kale plants.


Assuntos
Brassica , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Folhas de Planta , Sódio , Água
4.
Pharmeur Bio Sci Notes ; 2021: 157-167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802510

RESUMO

An international collaborative study was organised under the aegis of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the Council of Europe and the European Union to calibrate a replacement batch for the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Heparin sodium Biological Reference Preparation (BRP). Seventeen laboratories contributed data to value assign a candidate batch (cBRP4) in International Units (IU) against the WHO 6th International Standard for Unfractionated Heparin using chromogenic and sheep plasma clotting assays according to Ph. Eur. texts 2.7.5. on unfractionated heparin and 0878 on human antithrombin III. The continuity of consecutive batches of BRP was evaluated by including BRP3 in the set of test samples. The central analysis of the study data showed good precision and reproducibility of both chromo-genic and clotting assays among laboratories. Based on the study data, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted cBRP4 as Ph. Eur. Heparin sodium BRP4 with assigned activities of 985 IU/mL for anti-IIa assays, 995 IU/mL for anti-Xa assays and 1035 IU/mL for sheep clotting assays.


Assuntos
Heparina , Sódio , Animais , Calibragem , Europa (Continente) , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10887-10895, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) often complicates atrial fibrillation (AF) and conversely, AF frequently complicates HF. Furthermore, the coexistence of both conditions significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been demonstrated to decrease hospitalizations for HF and reduce cardiovascular death. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on AF in patients with HF. METHODS: A total of 903 patients with HF were enrolled in this study. Basic patient data including demographic characteristics, medical history, cardiovascular medications, and results of biochemical tests were collated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between SGLT-2 inhibitors and the risk of AF. The effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on AF were further analyzed according to subgroups. RESULTS: Patients treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors experienced a lower prevalence of AF (8.4% vs. 12.1%, P<0.001) compared to patients without SGLT-2 treatment. Controlling for potential confounders revealed that SGLT-2 inhibitors decreased the risk of AF by 24% [odds ratio (OR): 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.85; P<0.001]. The effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on AF was consistent in patients aged < 65 years and patients aged ≥65 years (OR =0.82 and 95% CI: 0.71-0.88 vs. OR =0.84 and 95% CI: 0.77-0.92, respectively; P interaction =0.501). Similarly, neither gender, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), nor the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification affected the protective effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced the risk of AF in patients with HF, and the effect was consistent irrespective of age, gender, BMI, eGFR, and NYHA classification.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sódio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1299-1304, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749472

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the level of sodium and potassium intake and their association with blood pressure among people aged 18 to 75 years old in six provinces. Methods: From October to December 2018, participants aged 18 to 75 years were selected from Hebei, Hunan, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Qinghai and Heilongjiang provinces by using cluster random sampling method. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle information were collected by using questionnaire survey. Physical measurement and 24-hour urine collection were also conducted. Results: A total of 2 636 subjects were finally included in the analysis. The average urine sodium, potassium and sodium-to-potassium molar ratio were(4 438.4±1 822.8)mg/d, (1 566.2±646.3)mg/d, and 5.2±2.2, respectively. According to World Health Organization standards, 94.5% and 98.7% of the respondents had excessive sodium intake and insufficient potassium intake. After adjusting for related factors, each 1 000 mg increase in sodium excretion was associated with increased systolic blood pressure (1.65 mmHg, 95%CI: 1.07, 2.22) and diastolic blood pressure (0.53 mmHg, 95%CI: 0.21, 0.84), and each 1 000 mg increase in potassium excretion was associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (3.02 mmHg, 95%CI:-4.25, -1.80) and diastolic blood pressure (1.27 mmHg, 95%CI:-2.05, -0.48). Conclusion: The sodium intake in Chinese population remains excessive and potassium intake is insufficient. Sodium and potassium could be associated with blood pressure and the intervention of reducing sodium and supplementing potassium should be conducted in the corresponding population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , China , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio , Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(20): 56-57, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767225
8.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2143-2145, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793381

Assuntos
Sódio
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769840

RESUMO

A case study involving a healthy trained male athlete who completed a 786 km multi-stage ultra-trail race. Several markers were analyzed in blood and urine samples: creatinine (SCR) for kidney damage, sodium ([Na+]) for hyponatremia, creatine kinase (CK) for exertional rhabdomyolysis, as well as other hematological values. Samples were taken before and after the race and during the recovery period (days 2 and 9 after the race). Results showed: SCR = 1.13 mg/dl, [Na+] =139 mmol/l and CK = 1.099 UI/l. Criteria for the determination of acute kidney damage were not met, and [Na+] concentration was above 135 mEq/L, indicating the absence of hyponatremia. Exertional rhabdomyolysis was suffered by the athlete (baseline CK increased fivefold), though this situation was reverted after 9 days of recovery. Ultra-trail races cause biochemical changes in athletes, which should be known about by healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Hiponatremia , Corrida , Creatina Quinase , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Masculino , Resistência Física , Sódio
10.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Nov. 2021. 106 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1344727

RESUMO

En la presente publicación se proporciona información útil sobre las iniciativas de disminución del consumo de sal y sodio en la Región de las Américas. Se cartografían las políticas y las iniciativas vigentes en los países de la Región de las Américas orientadas a disminuir el consumo de sal y sodio en los alimentos. También se reconocen las brechas que hay en las políticas en el marco de las "mejores inversiones" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, es decir, las recomendaciones más costo, eficaces para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles relacionadas con la alimentación. Además, se pone a disposición del público un repositorio de políticas, leyes y regulaciones orientadas a reducir la ingesta de sal y sodio en la Región de las Américas. Por último, se utiliza la información recopilada sobre las brechas en las políticas con el fin de analizar los aspectos que deben ser prioritarios para la labor que se llevará a cabo en la Región


Assuntos
Sais , Sódio , Medição de Consumo , Fatores de Risco , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Investimentos em Saúde
11.
Harefuah ; 160(10): 671-678, 2021 10.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Published in 2015, the EMPA-REG cardiovascular outcome trial (CVOT) investigated empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This agent promotes glycosuria by inhibiting Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), that is expressed in the first segment of the renal proximal tubule. The study aimed to provide evidence for the drug's cardiovascular (CV) safety, as required by regulatory authorities for newly developed glucose lowering agents (GLA)s. Surprisingly, besides being safe, empagliflozin was effective in reducing CV morbidity and mortality as well as improving renal outcomes, compared with placebo. EMPA-REG was followed by subsequent CVOTs that demonstrated the value of additional SGLT2 inhibitors to improve CV and renal outcomes in different populations: patients with mostly normal kidney function (DECLARE-TIMI 58), with early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) (EMPA-REG and CANVAS) and patients with advanced proteinuric CKD (CREDENCE). Intriguingly, recent reports demonstrated that SGLT2 inhibitors improve CV and renal outcomes in high-risk populations with and without T2D: patients with CKD (DAPA-CKD) or with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced). This review focuses on the renal aspect of the large trials investigating SGLT2 inhibitors. We will discuss the populations investigated, the defined renal outcomes and their hierarchy within the trials - all used as a framework to interpret the renal findings and their conclusions. Lastly, we will outline some of the suggested mechanisms underlying the renal protective effects of the inhibitors of SGLT2.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Humanos , Rim , Sódio , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio , Volume Sistólico
12.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(10)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632751

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The urinary sodium (UNa) concentration is associated with outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (HF). Its impact in individuals with chronic HF is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the combined effect of diuretic dosage and UNa concentration in chronic HF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The research sample for this retrospective cohort study consisted of ambulatory patients receiving optimized therapy and followed in an HF clinic. The patients were recruited between 2009 and 2012. The exclusion criteria were therapeutic adjustments or hospital admissions in the previous 2 months and renalreplacement therapy. The patients were followed for 5 years; the endpoint was all­cause mortality. The association between the ratio of furosemide dosage to UNa concentration and 5­year mortality was studied using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The  patients were cross­classified according to daily furosemide dosage (with the cutoff set at 80 mg) and UNa concentration (80 mEq/l). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic impact of the ratio. RESULTS: We analyzed 283 patients with chronic HF (70.3% male; mean age, 69 years). During follow­up, 134 patients died. The median furosemide dosage was 80 mg/day and the mean UNa concentration was 85 mEq/l. Based on the ROC curve, the best cutoff for the ratio of daily furosemide dosage to UNa concentration was 0.8. Patients with a ratio of 0.8 or higher had an adjusted hazard ratio for 5­year mortality of 2.85 (95% CI, 1.78-4.58). Patients with a UNa excretion rate of less than 80 mEq/l who wereadministered 80 mg or more of furosemide per day were found to have a worse prognosis (HR, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.31-7.45) when compared with those with a UNa excretion rate of 80 mEq/l or more and less than 80 mg furosemide per day. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the diuretic dosage and measurement of UNa excretion can be used to refine risk stratification in chronic HF. The furosemide­to­UNa ratio can be a surrogate marker for diuretic resistance and has a prognostic impact in chronic HF.


Assuntos
Furosemida , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Diuréticos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio
13.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(10)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: End­stage heart failure (HF) is a clinical condition with complex pathophysiology and poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify factors associated with mortality during a 1.5­year follow­up in patients with end­stage HF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 72 patients hospitalized with end­stage HF. During right heart catheterization, 10 ml of coronary sinus (CS) blood was collected. The endpoint was all­cause mortality during a 1.5­yearfollow­up. We used a multivariable logistic regression model to find  factors associated with all­cause mortality. We created 2 separate models for CS fetuin and peripheral blood (PB) fetuin. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) age of the patients was 58 (50-61.50) years. During the follow­up, 43.1% of the patients died. Lower levels of fetuin­A in the CS (OR, 1.103; 95% CI, 1.045-1.164; P <0.001, per 10-unit decrease in fetuin concentration) and PB samples (OR, 1.098; 95% CI, 1.046-1.153; P <0.001, per 10-unit decrease in fetuin concentration), along with lower plasma sodium levels (OR, 1.563; 95% CI, 1.134-2.156; P = 0.006 in the first model and OR, 1.639; 95% CI, 1.209-2.227; P = 0.002 in the second model; per 1-unit decrease in sodium concentration) were independently associated with death during the follow­up period. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) indicated a good prognostic power of CS and PB fetuin­A levels (AUC, 0.917 and AUC, 0.850, respectively) and an acceptable prognostic power of sodium concentration (AUC, 0.788). CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of CS and PB fetuin­A, as well as lower sodium levels, are associated with an increased risk of death in patients with end­stage HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sódio , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS
14.
Arch Oral Biol ; 132: 105291, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare alveolar healing after tooth extraction in two experimental rat models using continuous or discontinuous dosing of sodium alendronate (ALN). DESIGN: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6/group) and administered ALN (2.5, 5.0, or 7.5 mg/kg) by gavage, weekly, either intermittently or following a continuous regimen (2.5, 5.0, or 7.5 mg/kg) before tooth extraction. The positive control rats were administered zoledronic acid (ZA; 0.2 mg/kg, intravenous), whereas negative control rats received sterile saline (0.9% NaCl, gavage). RESULTS: Only the ZA-treated animals showed a larger radiolucent extraction site area compared to the saline group (p = 0.007). Small areas of bone tissue filling the alveoli were visualized in the 7.5 mg/kg continuous ALN group and compared with the saline group (p < 0.001). Increased amounts of empty osteocyte lacunae (p < 0.001) and osteoclasts with signs of apoptosis (p = 0.004) were observed in the continuous ALN groups (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg) compared with the saline group. Increased immunolabeling for TNF-α was observed in the 7.5 mg/kg discontinuous ALN group and all continuous ALN groups compared with the saline group (p < 0.001). The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts was higher in the two continuous ALN groups (5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) than in the saline group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous administration of ALN impaired post-extraction alveolar bone healing in rats; however, discontinuation of ALN administration before tooth extraction allowed for adequate post-dental extraction alveolar healing.


Assuntos
Alendronato , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Alendronato/farmacologia , Animais , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sódio , Extração Dentária , Cicatrização
15.
Indian Heart J ; 73(5): 605-611, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2i along with ARNI in refractory HFrEF irrespective of their diabetic status. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 104 symptomatic patients of HFrEF despite of optimal medical management with ARNI between January-June 2020. Despite the optimal GDMT, dapagliflozin, SGLT2i was added inpatients withrefractory heart failure. At 6-months follow-up, the primary outcome was change in left ventricular ejection fraction, and secondary outcomes included changes in NYHA functional class, vital parameters, renal function, potassium levels, and NT-pro BNP levels. RESULTS: The primary outcomeat 6-months follow-up was a mean change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) +9.00 ± 0.62 (p < 0.001). The secondary outcome was a significant improvement (69%) in median NYHA functional class by 2.3 (95% Confidence interval 2.245-2.355) with 92.6% of patients were in NYHA class I and 7.4% were in NYHA class II.Diabetic subgroup reached the HbA1C goal of <7%. None of them had either symptomatic hypotension, hypoglycaemia, dyselectrolaemia, and decline in renal function. The drug was well received by most of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin, an SGLT2i, should be used in symptomatic, refractory HFrEF patients despite the use of ARNI. The combination of ARNI and SGLT2i is well tolerated, but large, randomized trials are needed to prove this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Glucosídeos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neprilisina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6035, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654800

RESUMO

Between 6-20% of the cellular proteome is under circadian control and tunes mammalian cell function with daily environmental cycles. For cell viability, and to maintain volume within narrow limits, the daily variation in osmotic potential exerted by changes in the soluble proteome must be counterbalanced. The mechanisms and consequences of this osmotic compensation have not been investigated before. In cultured cells and in tissue we find that compensation involves electroneutral active transport of Na+, K+, and Cl- through differential activity of SLC12A family cotransporters. In cardiomyocytes ex vivo and in vivo, compensatory ion fluxes confer daily variation in electrical activity. Perturbation of soluble protein abundance has commensurate effects on ion composition and cellular function across the circadian cycle. Thus, circadian regulation of the proteome impacts ion homeostasis with substantial consequences for the physiology of electrically active cells such as cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Osmose , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Cloretos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Homeostase , Pulmão , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Potássio/metabolismo , Proteoma , Sódio/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109076, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599973

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the risk of incident major adverse limb events (MALEs) between patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who initiated glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 Inhibitors (SGLT2Is). METHODS: T2DM patients with prescriptions of GLP-1 RAs or SGLT2Is between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2018 were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to balance covariates, and compared MALEs between GLP-1 RAs and SGLT2Is initiators using Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard model. RESULTS: There were 3,087 patients in the GLP-1 RAs group and 19,101 patients in the SGLT2Is group. After IPTW adjustment, the mean ages were 59.0 and 58.8 years, mean durations of diabetes were 6.4 years and 6.1 years, and 25.4% and 28.4% of the patients had cardiovascular disease, respectively. Lower extremity arterial disease was uncommon in both groups (2%). Those who initiated GLP-1 RAs treatment were associated with reduced rate of MALEs (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [HR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.83). CONCLUSIONS: T2DM patients who received GLP-1 RAs treatment were associated with lower risk of MALEs compared to those who received SGLT2Is treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684498

RESUMO

We aimed to verify the effect of new low-sodium high-potassium seasonings and processed foods containing poly-γ-glutamic acid on blood pressure in free-living settings. To this end, we conducted a randomized, double-blind controlled trial on 187 Japanese men, aged 35-67 years, who did not use antihypertensives. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 93) or a control group (n = 94). They were given a boxed lunch and miso soup (average Na and K content for the intervention group: 1175 and 1476 mg; for the control group: 2243 and 703 mg, respectively). Blood pressure was measured three times every morning for 1 week immediately before and during the final week of the trial. On the day before and the final day of the intervention period, 24 h urine samples were collected. After intervention, the intervention group showed a significantly stronger decrease in the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio than the control group (p < 0.001). The mean difference in systolic blood pressure change after adjustment for baseline values between the two groups was -2.1 (95% CI: -3.6, -0.6) mmHg. Compliance between the groups was similar, suggesting successful blinding. In conclusion, the use of new seasonings and processed foods aimed at lowering blood pressure in free-living settings may be feasible and effective.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Alimentos de Soja
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673954

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of combined supplementation of sodium humate (HNa) and glutamine (Gln) on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, serum parameters, intestinal microbiome, and metabolites of weaned calves. In Exp. 1, 40 calves were randomly assigned to four treatments: 1) NC (negative control, basal diet), 2) 1% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 1 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily), 3) 3% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 3 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily), and 4) 5% H+1% G (basal diet extra orally gavaged with 5 g of HNa and 1 g of Gln daily). The HNa and Gln were together mixed with 100 mL of milk replacer (51 to 58 d of age) or water (59 to 72 d of age) and orally administrated to each calf from a bottle before morning feeding. In a 21-d trial, calves on the 5% HNa+1% Gln group had higher (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea incidence than those in the control group. In Exp. 2, 20 calves were randomly assigned to two treatments fed with a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 100 mL of 5% HNa+1% Gln. In a 21-d trial, calves supplemented with HNa and Gln had higher (P < 0.05) ADG, IgG concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities in the serum, but lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea incidence, as well as serum diamine oxidase (DAO), D-isomer of lactic acid (D-lac), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations compared with control group. Results of intestinal microbiota indicated that supplementation with HNa and Gln significantly increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of intestinal beneficial microbiota. Moreover, supplementation with HNa and Gln altered 18 metabolites and enriched 6 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways in weaned calves. In conclusion, combined supplementation with HNa and Gln could decrease diarrhea incidence of weaned calves via altering intestinal microbial ecology and metabolism profile.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glutamina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Incidência , Sódio , Desmame
20.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684383

RESUMO

Rapid postprandial blood glucose elevation can cause lifestyle-related diseases, such as type II diabetes. The absorption of food-derived glucose is primarily mediated by sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). Moderate SGLT1 inhibition can help attenuate postprandial blood glucose elevation and prevent lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we established a CHO cell line stably expressing human SGLT1 and examined the effects of phytochemicals on SGLT1 activity. Among the 50 phytochemicals assessed, tangeretin and cardamonin inhibited SGLT1 activity. Tangeretin and cardamonin did not affect the uptake of L-leucine, L-glutamate, and glycyl-sarcosine. Tangeretin, but not cardamonin, inhibited fructose uptake, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of tangeretin was specific to the monosaccharide transporter, whereas that of cardamonin was specific to SGLT1. Kinetic analysis suggested that the suppression of SGLT1 activity by tangeretin was associated with a reduction in Vmax and an increase in Km, whereas suppression by cardamonin was associated with a reduction in Vmax and no change in Km. Oral glucose tolerance tests in mice showed that tangeretin and cardamonin significantly suppressed the rapid increase in blood glucose levels. In conclusion, tangeretin and cardamonin were shown to inhibit SGLT1 activity in vitro and lower blood glucose level in vivo.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Chalconas/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Células CACO-2 , Chalconas/química , Cricetulus , Flavonas/química , Frutose/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Sarcosina/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo
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