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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130667, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339981

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different fertilizers on the physicochemical properties, multi-element and volatile composition of cucumbers. All samples were divided into five groups according to different combinations and amounts of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer. The co-application of chicken manure (120,000 kg/ha) and NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer (750 kg/ha) achieved the best texture properties, whereas the addition of the microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha significantly improved the color quality of cucumbers. Similarly, the co-application of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha enhanced the number and abundance of volatile components detected in the cucumbers. Cucumbers from the control group contained the highest levels of most of the determined elements. Overall, a combination of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and 6000 kg/ha microbial fertilizer is recommended as a relatively efficient fertilizer utilization for cucumbers.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Solo
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130734, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359003

RESUMO

Isocycloseram is a new isoxazoline insecticide that can efficiently control the diamondback moth in cruciferous crops. The aim of this study was to establish a method for the determination of isocycloseram residues in/on cabbage and in the soil using HPLC-UV at 264 nm. A field test was conducted in December 2019 and 2020 to monitor isocycloseram dissipation in Jiangxi, China. Acetonitrile was used to extract isocycloseram from cabbage and soil. C18 and GCB were used to purify cabbage extracts, whereas soil extracts did not require purification. At the addition level of 0.01-1.0 mg/kg, the average recoveries in cabbage and soil were 91.81-109.95% and 89.89-104.08% respectively. After having applied 10% isocycloseram DC, isocycloseram dissipated faster in the cabbage matrix. Isocycloseram residues on cabbage leaves could be removed through simple cleaning methods, especially by soaking in 2% citric acid.


Assuntos
Brassica , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meia-Vida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596509

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, designated TCH3-2T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plant grown at Dong-A University Agricultural Experiment Station, Republic of Korea. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, obligate aerobic, orange yellow-coloured, motile by gliding and short rod-shaped. Strain TCH3-2 T only grew on 1/2 tryptic soy agar and Luria-Bertani agar among the media tested, with optimum growth at 28 °C and pH 7. Salt of 1 % NaCl was necessary to support the growth of TCH3-2T. Strain TCH3-2T produced flexirubin-type pigments. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (55.6 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (17.9 %), summed feature 9 (comprising C16 : 0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17 : 1 ω9c; 10.5 %), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (4.8 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (2.3 %). The major menaquinone was menaquinone-6 and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, five unknown aminolipids and three unknown lipids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences indicated that TCH3-2T was closely related to Flavobacterium ummariense DS-12T (95.16 %), Flavobacterium marinum SW105T (95.14 %) and Flavobacterium viscosus YIM 102796T (94.54 %). The draft genome of TCH3-2T comprised ca. 2.8 Mb with a G+C content of 34.61 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between TCH3-2T and closely related Flavobacterium species showed that it belongs to a distinct species. Furthermore, the results of morphological, physiological and biochemical tests allowed further phenotypic differentiation of TCH3-2T from its closest relatives. Thus, chemotaxonomic characteristics together with phylogenetic affiliation illustrate that TCH3-2T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium dauae sp. nov. (type strain TCH3-2T=KACC 19054T=JCM 34025T) is proposed.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 287-294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598400

RESUMO

Public parks are an important source of contamination by parasites due to the high flow of people and animals. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in the soil of public parks from Belém, northern Brazil, as well as compare the degrees of parasitism in squares analyzed, the frequency of parasites found according to parasitological methods and verify the conditions of squares on collection day. This was a cross-sectional analytical study carried out during October 2020. The forty samples from four squares were analyzed by Hoffman, Faust and Baermman modified methods. The results showed that 72.5% of samples were parasitized and 100% of squares were contaminated with intestinal parasites. Moreover, polyparasitism was predominant in contaminated samples and Baermann-Moraes method was the most sensitive in the detection of helminths. Blastocystis hominis (47.2%) and hookworms (52.5%) were the most found species. Thus, this study showed parasitic contamination in all of the squares analyzed, which may be associated with poor sanitary from the city of Belém and reinforce the adoption of preventive measures to reduce the parasitic contamination on squares.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Solo
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 688, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601655

RESUMO

At various locations around the world, environments are now becoming greatly polluted by heavy metals, while damage is being done to soil and aquatic life with serious implications for humanity as well. Once heavy metals enter the ecosystem, they persist for a long time, and they are very difficult to eliminate. Discharging of industrial wastes enriched with heavy metals substantially pollutes the soil, water, and air. This study investigated the levels of heavy metals around the industrial area of Brahmanbaria, which is located in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. Samples of soil, wastewater, vegetable, and grass were collected from the industrial area. The heavy metals were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The heavy metals found in soil were chromium (Cr) 8.2-18.8, lead (Pb) 3.5-18.3, copper (Cu) 4.6-10.8, zinc (Zn) 48.5-273.4, nickel (Ni) 10.06-26.9, and cadmium (Cd) 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. The metal contents in the wastewater were Cr 0.03-0.5, Pb 0.01-0.05, Cu 0.01-0.02, Zn 0.6-11.2, Ni 0.03-0.14, and Cd 0.003 mg/L, respectively. The metal contents in vegetable and grass were Cr 81.5-247.8, Pb 10.3-34.1, Cu 5.5-6.3, Zn 419.8-435.3, and Ni 8.7-15.5 mg/kg, respectively. The amount of metal in the soil, wastewater, and vegetables and grass followed the sequences: Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cd, Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cd, and Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu, respectively. Compared to the WHO guidelines, the soil in the study area was not polluted with Pb, Cu, and Cd but was moderately polluted with Cr, Zn, and Ni. Continual accumulation of metals in the soil, vegetables and grass could pose a serious risk to the environment as well as many life forms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Solo , Bangladesh , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Águas Residuárias
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605389

RESUMO

A novel isolated yellow-pigmented bacterial designated strain UDD2T was isolated from a maize field soil sample collected in Ilsan, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain UDD2T were Gram-stain-negative, non-sporulating, long rod-shaped and exhibited flagellar motility. Cells could grow at 15-42 °C and pH 5.5-11.0. Strain UDD2T was sensitive to NaCl and barely tolerated up to 1 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain UDD2T formed a separate clade with the members of genus Sphingosinicella within the family Sphingomonadaceae. Strain UDD2T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Sphingosinicella vermicomposti KCTC 224446T (98.5 %) and Sphingosinicella humi KCTC 62519T (96.7 %), followed by members of the genus Sphingomonas (96.4-94.5 %) and Sphingobium (96.1-94.9 %), but they were located in other phylogenetic clusters. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain UDD2T and S. vermicomposti KCTC 224446T and S. humi KCTC 62519T were 80.2/24.2 and 75.6/20.4 %, respectively. The total size of the genome was 2 421 697 bp and composed of one circular chromosome, with a G+C content of 63.7 mol%. Strain UDD2T produced indole acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of l-tryptophan. Bacterial IAA is a crucial phytohormone in plant growth and development. Gene clusters for indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase and tryptophan synthase were found in the genome of strain UDD2T. To the best of our knowledge, no member of the genus Sphingosinicella has been reported to produce IAA to date. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were found to be C16 : 0, C14 : 0 2OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C16  : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15  :  0 2-OH). Strain UDD2T had ubiquinone Q-10 as the major respiratory quinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, three unidentified phosphoglycolipids, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified aminoglycophospholipid, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified polar lipid. Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain UDD2T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingosinicella, for which the name Sphingosinicella flava is proposed. The type strain is UDD2T (=KCTC 82357T=NBRC 114507T).


Assuntos
Sphingomonadaceae , Zea mays , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Sphingomonadaceae/genética
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 706, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623532

RESUMO

This study aimed to research the effects of forest (Pinus elliottii, slash pine) and shrub (Vitex trifolia) plantation on the soil microbial community in sandification land by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS rRNA genes and combined with the soil properties analysis to explore the driving factors. Finally, the results showed that the dominant bacterial phyla were Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Acidobacteria; the shrub and forest plantation significantly increasing the proportion of Acidobacteria, while decreasing the proportion of Proteobacteria. For the fungal community, forest plantation was significantly changing the community structure at the phylum level that shifted from Ascomycota to Basidiomycota, and the ectomycorrhizal fungi take the most abundant with genus Rhizopogon predominant. The soil bacterial Chao1 and Shannon indices were significantly increased after revegetation, while the soil fungal Shannon diversity in the forest land that significantly correlated with soil total organic carbon and C/N was lower than that in the sandy and shrub land (p < 0.05). Besides, the bacterial and fungal communities were significantly affected by soil water content among all analyzed soil properties. Our results suggest that the revegetation significantly increasing the soil bacterial diversity that correlated with soil water content, total organic carbon, and available phosphorus, but there was no significant change in community structure. In contrast, slash pine plantation changes the fungal community structure and diversity dramatically. This change and possible succession of fungal community with stand age increasing may lead to the fragility of the plantation, which deserves continuous attention.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(5): 41-45, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644033

RESUMO

Objective - to study the diversity of physiological groups of microorganisms that control the transformation of bone remains in nature. Traditional microbiological methods were used to study the cytological, physiological, biochemical and environmental properties of microorganisms isolated from the bone remains of Oryctolagus sp. 8 of 14 physiological groups of microorganisms - participants of diagenesis are established: ammonifiers, nitrifying bacteria, bacteria decomposing cellulose, causative agents of lactic acid and acetic acid fermentation, nitrogen fixators and denitrifying bacteria. Most of the identified physiological groups are in constant dynamics that is probably due to the uneven distribution in the soil of organic substances formed at different times in the process of microbial transformation of bone fragments. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these microorganisms' groups makes it possible not only to assess the intensity of the processes taking place over time but also to define the dependence on environmental factors such as soil acidity and ambient temperature. The results obtained can be used to obtain reliable data in forensic medical examination to solve issue about the prescription of death or the term of burial of bone remains.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Solo , Animais , Sepultamento , Humanos , Coelhos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113797, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649315

RESUMO

Although the mining area has been restored, the environmental problems caused by years of large-scale oil shale mining are still continuing, coupled with the intensive distribution of the surrounding petrochemical industry, posing a serious threat to the local ecological environment. In this study, we investigated eight heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, Cr, Mn and Zn) contamination and distribution around mining area, evaluated the potential risks of environment, identified the main sources of metal pollution and performed source apportionment. The results showed that the original north and south dumps were seriously polluted, and the CF values were significantly higher than other sampling sites. Ni, Zn and Mn have high coefficients of variation, which may be greatly affected by human factors and especially the waste slag piled up. The concentration of heavy metals in the water was lower than in the soil; soil particles, pH, Eh and acid mine drainage influence the variation of heavy metal concentrations. As and Cd have very high RAC values, and accordingly they were mainly present in the exchangeable and reduced fractions. Mn was exposed to higher ecological risks, followed by Pb, although there were high loads on carbonate bound and oxidizable fractions. APCS-MLL receptor model was used to identify and apportionment three main sources of contamination. The mean contribution rates of industrial activity, atmospheric deposition and mixed sources accounted for 39.77%, 22.24% and 37.99%, respectively. Cluster analysis further classified the metal pollution sources according to the spatial distance of sampling points.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113823, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649318

RESUMO

Forested wetland soils within the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces of Northern Virginia (NOVA) were investigated to determine the utility of a handheld colorimeter, the Nix Pro Color Sensor ("Nix"), for predicting carbon contents (TC) and stocks (TC stocks) from on-site color measurements. Both the color variables recorded with each Nix scan ("Nix color variables"; n = 15) and carbon contents significantly differed between sites, with redder soils (higher a and h) at Piedmont sites, and higher TC at sites with darker soils (lower values of L, or lightness; p < 0.05). Nix-carbon correlation analysis revealed strong relationships between L (lightness), X (a virtual spectral variable), R (additive red), and KK (black) and log-transformed TC (Ln[TC]; |r| = 0.70; p < 0.01 for all). Simple linear regressions were conducted to identify how well these four final Nix variables could predict soil carbon. Using all color measurements, about 50% of Ln(TC) variability could be explained by L, X, R, or KK (p < 0.01), yet with higher predictive power obtained for Coastal Plain soils (0.55 < R2 < 0.65; p < 0.01). Regression model strength was maximized between Ln(TC) and the four final Nix variables using simple linear regressions when color measurements observed at a specific depth were first averaged (0.66 < R2 < 0.70; p < 0.01). While further study is warranted to investigate Nix applicability within various soil settings, these results demonstrate potential for the Nix and its soil color measurements to assist with rapid field-based assessments of soil carbon in forested wetlands.


Assuntos
Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Virginia
11.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113556, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649323

RESUMO

The development of criteria and indicators to quantify the transition to sustainability of the urban socio-ecological systems quality is determinant for planning policies and the 21st century urban agenda. This study models the spatial variation in the concentration and distribution of some macronutrients, micronutrients, and trace nutrients in the soil of a high-altitude city in the Andes. Meanwhile, machine learning methods were employed to study some interactions between the different dimensions that constitute an urban socio-ecosystem that caused these variations. We proposed a methodology that considered two phases: a) field work to collect data on 300 soil samples; laboratory analysis to measure the concentrations of 24 macronutrients, micronutrients, and trace nutrients; and the design of geophysical, spectral, and urban co-variables; b) statistical and geo-informatics analysis, where multivariate analysis grouped the elements into factors; and, machine learning integrated with co-variables was applied to derive the intensity of each factor across the city. Multivariate statistics described the variation in soil co-concentrations with a moderate percentage (42%). Four factors were determined that grouped some of the analyzed elements, as follows: F1 (Zn, S, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cr), F2 (Ba, Ag, K, In, and Mg), F3 (B, V, Li, and Sr), and F4 (Si and Mn). The percentage R2 out-of-bag of the spatial model were: F1 = 20%, F2 = 8%, F3 = 14%, and F4 = 10%. Our outputs show that the enrichment and contamination by anthropogenic factors, such as the increase in population density, land use, road network, and traffic generated by fossil fuel vehicles, should be prioritized in urban planning decisions.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113747, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649328

RESUMO

As a new strategy for treating excess nutrients in roadway runoff, a self-filtering roadway could be accomplished by including engineered infiltration media within a vegetated filter strip (VFS) located in the roadway shoulder. However, nutrient removal performance will depend on the design to effectively infiltrate roadway runoff and the capacity of subsurface media to sequester or remove nutrients from infiltrated runoff. The objective of this study is to test hydraulic and nutrient removal performance of a roadside VFS over varied rainfall-runoff event sizes and filter widths. Two identical 1:1 scale physical models of roadway shoulders and embankments, one containing engineered media (Treatment model) and the other without (Control model), were tested with simulated rainfall and runoff from 1- and 2-lane roadways. Overall, 32 paired hydraulic experiments and 28 paired nutrient removal experiments were completed to assess performance across frequent and extreme rainfall-runoff events. The results indicate that scalability of performance with filter width varied by parameter. Runoff generation scaled predictably with filter width, as runoff generated close to the pavement and total infiltration increased with filter length. A 6 m-wide VFS containing the engineered media infiltrated all rainfall-runoff except during the most extreme storm events (1-h storms of 76.2 mm and 50.8 mm), where respectively 35% and 22% of rainfall-runoff did not infiltrate and left the system as surface runoff. A majority of phosphorus was retained within a 1.5 m filter while nitrate removal was not observed until 6 m. The Treatment model strongly outperformed the Control model with respect to nitrate (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation of 94 ± 6% reduction vs. 23 ± 64% increase, p < .001) and total nitrogen removal (80 ± 5% vs. 38 ± 23% reduction, p < .001) due to higher rates of microbially-mediated denitrification in the Treatment model. The two models performed comparably with regard to phosphorus reduction (84 ± 9% vs. 82 ± 12% reduction). A minimum 6 m filter width is recommended to ensure sufficient infiltration of runoff and nitrogen removal. Results of this study address uncertainty regarding nutrient removal performance of VFS in urban runoff applications and highlight a potential strategy for standardizing VFS performance across varied soil properties by including engineered media within the filter.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Solo , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Chuva , Movimentos da Água
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 713, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637004

RESUMO

Knowledge of environmental factors controlling soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks can help predict spatial distribution SOC stocks. So, this study was carried out to select the best environmental factors to model and estimate the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in northwestern Iran. Soil sampling was performed at 210 points by multiple conditioned Latin Hypercube method (cLHm) and SOC stocks were measured. Also, environmental factors, including terrain attributes, moisture index, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were calculated. SOC stocks were modeled using random forest (RF) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Modeling SOC stocks by RF model showed that the efficient factors for estimating the SOC stocks were slope height (slph), terrain surface texture (texture), standardized height (standh), elevation, relative slope position (rsp), and normalized height (normalh). Also, the PLSR model selected standardized height (standh), relative slope position (rsp), slope, and channel network base level (chnl base) to model SOC stocks. In both RF and PLSR methods, the standh and rsp factors were suitable parameters for estimating the SOC stocks. Predicting the spatial distribution of SOC stocks using environmental factors showed that the R2 values for RF and PLSR models were 0.81 and 0.40, respectively. The result of this study showed that in areas with complex land features, terrain attributes can be good predictors for estimating SOC stocks. These predictors allow more accurate estimates of SOC stocks and contribute considerably to the effective application of land management strategies in arid and semiarid area.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise de Regressão
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 718, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642861

RESUMO

The surface resistivity method was used to appraise the protectivity of hydrogeological units and corrosivity of the top soil in Obot Akara County, southern Nigeria. A total of 28 vertical electrical sounding (VES) was undertaken in the area using the Schlumberger electrode configuration. The results of the VES data interpretation reveal 3 to 4 geoelectric layers in the study area. The resistivity of the first layer interpreted as the Motley top soil ranges from 34.7 to 929.7 Ωm with a mean value of 381.1 Ωm. The third layer, with a resistivity range of 99.4 to 2716.7 Ωm, constitutes the aquifer unit in most communities in the area, with an average thickness of 58.3 m, while the fourth layer penetrated in most communities has a resistivity range of 216.1 to 1475.7 Ωm with a mean value of 657.5 Ωm. The longitudinal conductance and resistivity reflection coefficient of the aquifer protective layers vary from 0.04 to 0.76 mhos and - 0.74 to 0.93, respectively. Analysis of these results shows that 89.3% of the hydrogeological units in the area is weakly/poorly protected, 10.7% has moderate to good protection, while 85.7% of the top soil at the sounding stations is noncorrosive and 14.3% is slightly to moderately corrosive. The implication of these results is that most of the hydrogeological units in the area are likely prone to contamination in particular by some ferrugenized materials from the overlying layers. Also, underground metal storage tanks and galvanized and steel pipes can be buried in the topmost layer in most communities in the area without any risk of failure. Although these findings are very promising especially in groundwater management and exploitation in the area, hydrogeochemical and microbiological analyses of groundwater samples from available boreholes are recommended to corroborate the results.


Assuntos
Cáusticos , Água Subterrânea , Monitoramento Ambiental , Substâncias Protetoras , Solo
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 171-180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607666

RESUMO

Polymyxin B (PMB) is considered as the last line of antibiotic defense available to humans. The environmental effects of the combined pollution with PMB and heavy metals and their interaction mechanisms are unclear. We explored the effects of the combined pollution with PMB and arsenic (As) on the microbial composition of the soil and in the earthworm gut, as well as the spread and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that, compared with As alone, the combined addition of PMB and As could significantly increase the bioaccumulation factor and toxicity of As in earthworm tissues by 12.1% and 16.0%, respectively. PMB treatment could significantly increase the abundance of Actinobacteria in the earthworm gut (from 35.6% to 45.2%), and As stress could significantly increase the abundance of Proteobacteria (from 19.8% to 56.9%). PMB and As stress both could significantly increase the abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which were positively correlated, indicating that ARGs might be horizontally transferred. The inactivation of antibiotics was the main resistance mechanism that microbes use to resist PMB and As stress. Network analysis showed that PMB and As might have antagonistic effects through competition with multi-drug resistant ARGs. The combined pollution by PMB and As significantly promoted the relative abundance of microbes carrying multi-drug resistant ARGs and MGEs, thereby increasing the risk of transmission of ARGs. This research advances the understanding of the interaction mechanism between antibiotics and heavy metals and provides new theoretical guidance for the environmental risk assessment and combined pollution management.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Arsênio/toxicidade , Genes Bacterianos , Polimixina B/toxicidade , Solo
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 702, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622340

RESUMO

Six plots (three as controls) were established in southern Brazil to assess the reduction in runoff by vertical mulching (vm). In the other three, ditches (0.08-m wide, 0.4-m deep) were cut perpendicular to the slope, 2-m and 12-m upslope from the bottom of the plot where a flume was installed to measure runoff. Three simulated rainfalls (80 mm h-1 for 120 min, 80 mm h-1 for 65 min, 97 mm h-1 for 65 min) were applied with a sprinkler system to generate runoff. Compared to the controls, vm delayed its beginning by 10 to 20 min and reduced its volume by 34 to 39%, because initially all and later some runoff was caught in the ditches from where it infiltrated into the surrounding soil. Based on the experimental results, we derived a method to compute the runoff reduction by vm as influenced by ditch spacing (ds), initial soil moisture content (θi), and rainfall rate and duration. Computations for a combination of four ds (5 to 20 m), five θi (16 to 32%-vol), and three rainfall regimes (124 mm h-1 for 20 min, 66 mm h-1 for 60 min, and 42 mm h-1 for 120 min) showed an increasing runoff reduction as ds or θi decreased. In some cases, runoff was even completely prevented. The reductions were larger in the 60-min than in the 20-min rainfall. For the 120-min rainfall, there was no runoff with any combination of ds and θi.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 699, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622348

RESUMO

In response to the Minamata Convention on Mercury, international organizations, governments, nonprofit organizations, and other institutions as well as individuals have worked to promote the development and implementation of safe and environmentally healthy practices, processes, and products. It is expected that the accumulation of mercury in the natural environment will decrease in volume each year. However, even after Hg ceases to be used, the Hg already accumulated in forests will continue to pose an ecological risk. Forest fires are serious events, partly because they release accumulated Hg from the environment. In this study, the effects of forest fires on the accumulation and chemical species of Hg in soil, related to the mobilization of Hg, were investigated. The research was conducted in secondary forests located near artisanal small-scale gold mining sites, where Hg is used for the amalgamation of gold in Camarines Norte, Philippines. The results showed that the original Hg accumulation level in the burned forest was not as high as that in the control forest, and that burn severity might have affected only the surface soil (0-5 cm). However, the proportion of water-soluble Hg, which was derived from ash, was increased by fire. Therefore, it is suggested that forest fires not only increase the release of Hg into the atmosphere but also increase the outflow risk to the aquatic system through rainfall.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Incêndios Florestais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ouro , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Solo
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633921

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, named SJ-16T, was isolated from desert soil collected in Inner Mongolia, northern PR China. Strain SJ-16T grew at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum, pH 8.0-9.0), 4-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C) and in the presence of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-2 %). The strain was negative for catalase and positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SJ-16T clustered with Luteimonas chenhongjianii 100111T and Luteimonas terrae THG-MD21T, and had 98.8, 98.6, 98.3 and <97.9 % of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strains L. chenhongjianii 100111T, L. terrae THG-MD21T, L. aestuarii B9T and all other type strains of the genus Luteimonas, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c) and summed feature 9 (C16 : 0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17 : 1 ω9c). Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were the major polar lipids, and ubiquinone-8 was the only respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values of strain SJ-16T to L. chenhongjianii 100111T, L. terrae THG-MD21T, L. rhizosphaerae 4-12T and L. aestuarii B9T were 36.9, 37.5, 24.0 and 21.1 %, and 80.9, 80.6, 80.7 and 76.3 %, respectively. Based on phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic results, strain SJ-16T represents a novel species of the genus Luteimonas, for which the name Luteimonas deserti is proposed. The type strain is SJ-16T (=CGMCC 1.17694T=KCTC 82207T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Xanthomonadaceae
19.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661569

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are one of the microbial control agents for integrated pest management. To control local or invasive pests, it is important to isolate and select indigenous EPF. Therefore, the soil bait method combined with the insect bait (mealworm, Tenebrio molitor) system was used in this study with some modifications. The isolated EPF were then subjected to the virulence test against the agricultural pest Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the potential EPF strains were subjected to morphological and molecular identifications. In addition, the conidia production and thermotolerance assay were performed for the promising EPF strains and compared; these data were further substituted into the formula of effective conidia number (ECN) for laboratory ranking. The soil bait-mealworm system and the ECN formula can be improved by replacing insect species and integrating more stress factors for the evaluation of commercialization and field application. This protocol provides a quick and efficient approach for EPF selection and will improve the research on biological control agents.


Assuntos
Fungos , Insetos , Animais , Solo , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665118

RESUMO

Strain EAR8T is a root endophyte isolated from Arthrocnemum macrostachyum plants collected from the Odiel marshes, Huelva (Spain). It presented in vitro plant growth-promoting properties and improved the plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in polluted soils playing an important role in phytoremediation strategies. Phenotypically, strain EAR8T cells were Gram-positive, aerobic and non-motile rods with terminal oval endospores and non-swollen sporangia which form beige, opaque, butyrous, raised and irregular colonies with undulate margins. The strain was able to grow between 15-45 °C, at pH 6.0-9.0 and tolerated 0-25 % NaCl (w/v) showing optimal growth conditions on trypticase soy agar plates supplemented with 2.5 % NaCl (w/v) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C for 24 h. Chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the isolate has meso-diaminopimelic acid as the peptidoglycan in the cell wall and MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone. The predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 and the polar lipid profile was composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole proteomes of closest sequenced relatives confirmed that strain EAR8T is affiliated to the genus Rossellomorea and forms a clade with Rossellomorea vietnamensis 15-1T with maximum support. Genome analyses showed that EAR8T has indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore biosynthesis and transporters genes and genes related to resistance against heavy metals. Phenotypic and phylogenomic comparative studies suggested that strain EAR8T is a new representative of the genus Rossellomorea and the name Rossellomorea arthrocnemi sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain is EAR8T (=CECT 9072T=DSM 103900T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Metais Pesados , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Biodegradação Ambiental , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo
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