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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 772, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in England, with people from lower-socioeconomic groups disproportionately affected. The North East and North Cumbria (NENC) region has high levels of deprivation and the highest rates of alcohol-related harm in England. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the implementation of evidence-based preventative approaches such as identifying people at risk of alcohol harm and providing them with appropriate support. Non-alcohol specialist secondary care clinicians could play a key role in delivering these interventions, but current implementation remains limited. In this study we aimed to explore current practices and challenges around identifying, supporting, and signposting patients with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) in secondary care hospitals in the NENC through the accounts of staff in the post COVID-19 context. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 non-alcohol specialist staff (10 doctors, 20 nurses) in eight secondary care hospitals across the NENC between June and October 2021. Data were analysed inductively and deductively to identify key codes and themes, with Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) then used to structure the findings. RESULTS: Findings were grouped using the NPT domains 'implementation contexts' and 'implementation mechanisms'. The following implementation contexts were identified as key factors limiting the implementation of alcohol prevention work: poverty which has been exacerbated by COVID-19 and the prioritisation of acute presentations (negotiating capacity); structural stigma (strategic intentions); and relational stigma (reframing organisational logics). Implementation mechanisms identified as barriers were: workforce knowledge and skills (cognitive participation); the perception that other departments and roles were better placed to deliver this preventative work than their own (collective action); and the perceived futility and negative feedback cycle (reflexive monitoring). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19, has generated additional challenges to identifying, supporting, and signposting patients with AUD in secondary care hospitals in the NENC. Our interpretation suggests that implementation contexts, in particular structural stigma and growing economic disparity, are the greatest barriers to implementation of evidence-based care in this area. Thus, while some implementation mechanisms can be addressed at a local policy and practice level via improved training and support, system-wide action is needed to enable sustained delivery of preventative alcohol work in these settings.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , COVID-19 , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Feminino , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Entrevistas como Assunto
4.
Prim Dent J ; 13(2): 36-52, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888078

RESUMO

AIM: This paper aims to assess the complexity, quality and outcome of endodontic treatment provided in Managed Clinical Networks (MCNs) in England to understand if we are "getting it right first time" (GIRFT). METHODS: In a convenient sample of endodontic treatments provided between May 2011 and April 2017, the complexity of teeth treated, the quality of treatment procedure, the radiographic appearance of root fillings, as well as clinical and radiographic healing were retrospectively assessed using records taken as part of treatment. Trained, calibrated examiners independently scored radiographs using previously published scoring systems. RESULTS: 646 teeth were followed up for 24.7 months (standard deviation [SD] 17.08). The average age of those patients treated was 46.7 years (SD 15.38) with 48.3% being male. Of teeth treated, 70.4% were of complexity level 3. 88.2% of teeth were asymptomatic, and 80% demonstrated complete radiographic healing. Procedural errors inhibited achieving correct working length and taper, with more voids within root canal fillings. When patency filing was reported as being carried out, complete radiographic healing was more likely. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to collate outcome data in the NHS system, especially if there is provision for ongoing follow up and time allocated for collection of data. Endodontic treatment provided within primary and secondary care settings are of high quality, with outcomes being better with single operators carrying out high volumes of endodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Humanos , Inglaterra , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Endodontia , Adulto
5.
Br Dent J ; 236(12): 949-954, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38942856

RESUMO

As temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) become ever more prevalent in both primary and secondary care settings, successful management is increasingly challenging in both sectors. The authors aim to explore the dilemma of TMD management as the patient journeys through from primary to secondary care and offer educational tools to support practitioners in managing this complex patient cohort, as well as outlining alternative solutions for the delivery of TMD management strategies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Humanos , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde
7.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(5): e13284, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report 2023/2024 season interim influenza vaccine effectiveness for three studies, namely, primary care in Great Britain, hospital settings in Scotland and hospital settings in England. METHODS: A test negative design was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: Estimated vaccine effectiveness against all influenzas ranged from 63% (95% confidence interval 46 to 75%) to 65% (41 to 79%) among children aged 2-17, from 36% (20 to 49%) to 55% (43 to 65%) among adults 18-64 and from 40% (29 to 50%) to 55% (32 to 70%) among adults aged 65 and over. CONCLUSIONS: During a period of co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) in the United Kingdom, evidence for effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in both children and adults was found.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Reino Unido , Idoso , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Eficácia de Vacinas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 31(1)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the rapid advancement in information technology, changes to communication modalities are increasingly implemented in healthcare. One such modality is Computerised Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems which replace paper, verbal or telephone orders with electronic booking of requests. We aimed to understand the uptake, and user acceptability, of CPOE in a large National Health Service hospital system. METHODS: This retrospective single-centre study investigates the longitudinal uptake of communications through the Prescribing, Information and Communication System (PICS). The development and configuration of PICS are led by the doctors, nurses and allied health professionals that use it and requests for CPOE driven by clinical need have been described.Records of every request (imaging, specialty review, procedure, laboratory) made through PICS were collected between October 2008 and July 2019 and resulting counts were presented. An estimate of the proportion of completed requests made through the system has been provided for three example requests. User surveys were completed. RESULTS: In the first 6 months of implementation, a total of 832 new request types (imaging types and specialty referrals) were added to the system. Subsequently, an average of 6.6 new request types were added monthly. In total, 8 035 132 orders were requested through PICS. In three example request types (imaging, endoscopy and full blood count), increases in the proportion of requests being made via PICS were seen. User feedback at 6 months reported improved communications using the electronic system. CONCLUSION: CPOE was popular, rapidly adopted and diversified across specialties encompassing wide-ranging requests.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Registro de Ordens Médicas , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303401, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743737

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the barriers to the uptake of referral services from secondary care centers (SC) to a higher-level tertiary care center (TC) in Southern India. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mahabubnagar district of Telangana, India, between February 1, 2018 to January 31, 2019 and all those referred from SC to TC between January 1, 2013 to December 30, 2016 were identified for interview. Based on inclusion criteria, of the 960 participants identified, 681 (70.9%) participated in the study. A validated study questionnaire was administered to all participants. Information collected were the demographic details, details related to their referral and barriers to referral. The participants that presented at TC were considered compliant and who did not, were non-compliant. Reasons for non-compliance was also collected. RESULTS: The mean age those interviewed was 46.1 years (SD: 17.3 years) and 429 (63%) were males and 252 (37%) were females. Overall, 516 (75.8%) were compliant, and 165 (24.2%) were non-compliant. The major factors for non-compliance were economic (16.4%) and attitudinal (44.2%) barriers. Within the attitudinal barrier category, the most prevalent individual attitudinal barriers were 'too busy to go to the eye center for treatment (16.4%)'and 'able to manage routine daily activities with current vision (12.1%)'. The multivariable analysis showed that the non-compliant participants had only visited the SC once prior to the referral (odds ratio: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.43-5.57) (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with only one SC visit, were less likely to comply with referrals and the major barriers to compliance were economical and attitudinal. It is important to address these specific barriers to provide proper counseling to participants during referrals.


Assuntos
Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Índia , Estudos Transversais , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Idoso , Atenção Terciária à Saúde
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma remains a common cause of hospital admissions across the life course. We estimated the contribution of key risk factors to asthma-related hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: This was a UK-based cohort study using linked primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum) and secondary care (Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care) data. Patients were eligible if they were aged 5 years and older and had been diagnosed with asthma. This included 90 989 children aged 5-11 years, 114 927 adolescents aged 12-17 years and 1 179 410 adults aged 18 years or older. The primary outcome was asthma-related hospital admissions from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019. The secondary outcome was asthma-related ICU admissions. Incidence rate ratios adjusted for demographic and clinical risk factors were estimated using negative binomial models. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated for modifiable risk factors. RESULTS: Younger age groups, females and those from ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic backgrounds had an increased risk of asthma-related hospital admissions. Increasing medication burden, including excessive use of short-acting bronchodilators, was also strongly associated with the primary outcome. Similar risk factors were observed for asthma-related ICU admissions. The key potentially modifiable or treatable risk factors were smoking in adolescents and adults (PAF 6.8%, 95% CI 0.9% to 12.3% and 4.3%, 95% CI 3.0% to 5.7%, respectively), and obesity (PAF 23.3%, 95% CI 20.5% to 26.1%), depression (11.1%, 95% CI 9.1% to 13.1%), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (2.3%, 95% CI 1.2% to 3.4%), anxiety (2.0%, 95% CI 0.5% to 3.6%) and chronic rhinosinusitis (0.8%, 95% CI 0.3% to 1.3%) in adults. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant sociodemographic inequalities in the rates of asthma-related hospital and ICU admissions. Treating age-specific modifiable risk factors should be considered an integral part of asthma management, which could potentially reduce the rate of avoidable hospital admissions.


Assuntos
Asma , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
11.
Br J Gen Pract ; 74(743): e371-e378, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) can cause renal scarring, and possibly hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Previous studies have focused on selected populations, with severe illness or underlying risk factors. The risk for most children with UTI is unclear. AIM: To examine the association between childhood UTI and outcomes in an unselected population of children. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective population-based cohort study using linked GP, hospital, and microbiology records in Wales, UK. METHOD: Participants were all children born in 2005-2009, with follow-up until 31 December 2017. The exposure was microbiologically confirmed UTI before the age of 5 years. The key outcome measures were renal scarring, hypertension, CKD, and ESRF. RESULTS: In total, 159 201 children were included; 77 524 (48.7%) were female and 7% (n = 11 099) had UTI before the age of 5 years. A total of 0.16% (n = 245) were diagnosed with renal scarring by the age of 7 years. Odds of renal scarring were higher in children by age 7 years with UTI (1.24%; adjusted odds ratio 4.60 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.33 to 6.35]). Mean follow-up was 9.53 years. Adjusted hazard ratios were: 1.44 (95% CI = 0.84 to 2.46) for hypertension; 1.67 (95% CI = 0.85 to 3.31) for CKD; and 1.16 (95% CI = 0.56 to 2.37) for ESRF. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of renal scarring in an unselected population of children with UTI is low. Without underlying risk factors, UTI is not associated with CKD, hypertension, or ESRF by the age of 10 years. Further research with systematic scanning of children's kidneys, including those with less severe UTI and without UTI, is needed to increase the certainty of these results, as most children are not scanned. Longer follow-up is needed to establish if UTI, without additional risk factors, is associated with hypertension, CKD, or ESRF later in life.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Lactente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Cicatriz/etiologia
12.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 33(6): 354-362, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of temporary doctors, known as locums, has been common practice for managing staffing shortages and maintaining service delivery internationally. However, there has been little empirical research on the implications of locum working for quality and safety. This study aimed to investigate the implications of locum working for quality and safety. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 130 participants, including locums, patients, permanently employed doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals with governance and recruitment responsibilities for locums across primary and secondary healthcare organisations in the English NHS. Data were collected between March 2021 and April 2022. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis and abductive analysis. RESULTS: Participants described the implications of locum working for quality and safety across five themes: (1) 'familiarity' with an organisation and its patients and staff was essential to delivering safe care; (2) 'balance and stability' of services reliant on locums were seen as at risk of destabilisation and lacking leadership for quality improvement; (3) 'discrimination and exclusion' experienced by locums had negative implications for morale, retention and patient outcomes; (4) 'defensive practice' by locums as a result of perceptions of increased vulnerability and decreased support; (5) clinical governance arrangements, which often did not adequately cover locum doctors. CONCLUSION: Locum working and how locums were integrated into organisations posed some significant challenges and opportunities for patient safety and quality of care. Organisations should take stock of how they work with the locum workforce to improve not only quality and safety but also locum experience and retention.


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Inglaterra , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Grupos Focais , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Entrevistas como Assunto , Médicos/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673336

RESUMO

Understanding the dynamics of teamwork and communication among healthcare professionals is crucial in the face of evolving healthcare challenges. This study assessed relational coordination among healthcare professionals in the South Tyrolean healthcare system in Italy, focusing on communication and teamwork dynamics in a cross-sectional survey. Using the validated Relational Coordination Survey (RCS) instrument and 525 completed online responses, the questionnaire aimed to understand the implications of different levels of relational coordination ratings by general practitioners, hospital physicians, nurses, and administrative personnel (response rate 26%). The demographics of the participants revealed a predominance of female professionals (64%), with an average age of 50 and 18 years of service. The resulting RCS scores varied significantly across professional groups, with nurses reporting the highest within-group scores, indicating moderate coordination, and administrators reporting the lowest scores, reflecting areas of weak coordination. Between-group relational coordination was generally perceived as weak across professional groups, with the least weakness observed between general practitioners and nurses. German or Italian language and health district affiliation emerged as significant factors influencing relational coordination ratings, highlighting the need for differentiated understanding and strategies in multilingual and diverse regional settings. Assessments of interdisciplinary feedback and referral practices highlight the variation in teamwork and communication weaknesses and underscore the need for targeted interventions to improve relational coordination. This study provides insights into the complexity of relational dynamics in health care settings. This suggests that improving relational coordination through tailored strategies could significantly improve team effectiveness, quality of patient care, and overall system efficiency.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Itália , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Idoso
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 544-553, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557539

RESUMO

Covid-19 was first detected on 8th March of 2020 in Bangladesh after the global pandemic being started. As a new virus and disease there are scarcity of data of SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 respectively in our country. Aim of this study is to assess the demographic characteristics, clinical profiles, underlying co-morbid conditions, treatment pattern and outcome of the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in Jashore, Bangladesh. This retrospective study recruited 208 RT-PCR positive Covid-19 patients from 1st April 2020 to 15th May 2020 who appeared at Flu corner centre, 250 Bedded General Hospital, Jashore, Bangladesh. Data was collected online through telephone, mobile and email due to the high contagious property of Covid-19. Out of total 208 Covid-19 patients, the mean age of the participants was 37.0±15.0 years with a male and female ratio of 2.06:1. Underlying comorbidities were documented in 36.5% of total Covid-19 patents of which hypertension in 16.3%, diabetes in 14.4%, respiratory diseases in 8.7% and pre-existing coronary arterial diseases in 6.3% patients. Though 17.8% Covid-19 patients were asymptomatic, the most common symptoms were fever (68.8%), cough (30.8%), myalgia (30.8%), sore throat (22.1%), vertigo (21.6%), respiratory distress (20.7%), anorexia (17.8%), nasal congestion (16.3%), nausea or vomiting (13.9%) and diarrhoea (13.0%). Whereas, the symptomatic patients were classified as flu-like illness (77.9%), mild to moderate pneumonia (2.4%) and severe pneumonia (1.9%). Many patients (19.2%) recovered spontaneously and 22.1% patients cured by the only simple symptomatic treatment. The most commonly received antibiotics were Azithromycin and Doxycycline. Home stay management was demonstrated in 73.1% patients, whereas, 26.0% patients required general ward admission and only 0.9% patients required referral for the HDU or ICU management with an average duration of hospital stay of 16±6 days. A high satisfactory outcome was found as evident by complete recovery in 98.08% of Covid-19 patients, complications (0.48%) and fatality (1.44%) even in this secondary care center. Therefore, we can conclude that the disease was well managed with highly satisfactory outcomes even in the low resource health care setting in the early stage of Covid-19 pandemic era. Hence, the early case detection, identification of the high-risk groups and proper management may mitigate to develop complications and fatalities of Covid-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pandemias , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Hospitais
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e083726, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical pharmacy services often involve multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions. However, current pharmacy practice models vary across different countries. Despite the documented benefits of clinical pharmacy services, the characteristics of pharmacist-led interventions in different countries have not yet been adequately explored and described. Therefore, this protocol outlines the methodology for a proposed scoping review aiming to investigate various types of multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions and the outcomes used to evaluate their effectiveness within secondary care settings. Additionally, the scoping review will map the current evidence surrounding the characteristics of interventions and outcomes reported across various countries of socioeconomic status. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will be conducted according to the JBI Methodology for Scoping Reviews and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Extension for Scoping Reviews. We will systematically search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Embase (embase.com), Scopus (scopus.com), Cochrane Library (cochranelibrary.com) and APA PsycInfo (Ovid). Additionally, the reference lists of identified reviews and included full texts will be searched for relevant papers. Grey literature sources, such as International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) website, will be searched. We will include primary studies published in the English language from January 2013 to December 2023, involving secondary care multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions. Two independent reviewers will screen studies against eligibility criteria and use a piloted data extraction form to extract relevant information. We will extract relevant data, complete a tabular summary from each included publication and analyse it. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required as we will be using data from publicly available literature sources. Findings will be disseminated in publications and presentations with relevant stakeholders. We aim to map available evidence across the breadth of studies that have reported multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions and their outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Farmácia , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e080055, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how healthcare practitioners (HCPs) made decisions about the implementation of digital health technologies (DHTs) in their clinical practice before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A multimethods study, comprising semistructured interviews conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, supplemented with an online survey that was conducted during the pandemic with a different sample, to ensure the qualitative findings remained relevant within the rapidly changing healthcare context. Participants were recruited through HCP networks, snowballing and social media. Data were analysed thematically. SETTING: Phone interviews and online survey. PARTICIPANTS: HCPs represented a range of professions from primary and secondary care across England, with varied socioeconomic deprivation. RESULTS: 24 HCPs were interviewed, and 16 HCPs responded to the survey. In the interviews, HCPs described three levels where decisions were made, which determined who would have access to what DHTs: health organisation, HCP and patient levels. These decisions resulted in the unequal implementation of DHTs across health services, created barriers for HCPs using DHTs in their practice and influenced HCPs' decisions on which patients to supply DHTs with. In the survey, HCPs described being provided support to overcome some of the barriers at the organisation and HCP level during the pandemic. However, they cited similar concerns to pre-pandemic about barriers patients faced using DHTs (eg, digital literacy). In the absence of centralised guidance on how to manage these barriers, health services made their own decisions about how to adapt their services for those who struggled with DHTs. CONCLUSIONS: Decision-making at the health organisation, HCP and patient levels influences inequalities in access to DHTs for HCPs and patients. The mobilisation of centralised information and resources during the pandemic can be viewed as good practice for reducing barriers to use of DHTs for HCPs. However, attention must also be paid to reducing barriers to accessing DHTs for patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Digital , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde
17.
PeerJ ; 12: e17077, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500523

RESUMO

Background: Metastatic disease resulting from mammary gland tumors (MGTs) is a known cause of death among dogs and cats. Keys to successful prevention and management strategies involve the accurate recording of diagnostic data. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the epidemiology and classification of canine mammary gland tumors (CMTs) and feline mammary gland tumors (FMTs), as well as the factors including sex, age, and breed related to the occurrence of these tumors. Accordingly, 1,736 tumor biopsy cases were reported from 2012 to 2019 at Chiang Mai University Small Animal Hospital, Thailand, with 1,639 canine tumor biopsy cases and 97 feline tumor biopsy cases. Results: The proportion of CMTs was reported at 24.5% (401/1,639) for all canine tumor biopsy cases. Benign and malignant tumors were reported at 14.5% (58/401) and 85.5% (343/401) for all CMT cases, respectively. The mean age of dogs affected by benign CMTs was 9.0 ± 3.0 years, which was significantly lower than for malignant CMTs at 9.9 ± 2.8 years (P = 0.0239). According to histopathological classification, benign mixed tumors and simple carcinoma types were highest among benign and malignant CMT cases, respectively. Moreover, female dogs were at significantly higher risk of developing mammary gland tumors (OR = 45.8, 95% CI [3.9-86.0], P < 0.0001) than male dogs, as well as older dogs (>8 years) (OR = 1.7, 95% CI [1.2-2.2], P = 0.0001) compared to young ones (≤8 years). The proportion of FMTs was 37.1% (36/97) for all feline tumor biopsy cases. Benign and malignant tumors for all FMTs were reported at 16.7% (6/36) and 83.3% (30/36), respectively. According to histopathological classifications, adenoma and simple carcinoma were present in the highest proportion among benign and malignant FMTs, respectively. Female cats were at a significantly higher risk of developing mammary gland tumors than male cats (OR = 25.7, 95% CI [3.9-272.8], P < 0.0001). Conclusions and clinical importance: There was a high proportion of MGT cases compared with other tumor cases reported in a secondary care hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 2012 to 2019, and malignant tumor biopsies have been more frequently observed than benign tumor biopsies in both CMT and FMT cases. The resulting data originating from this study can be an aid for veterinary oncologists in better educating clients and planning treatment and prevention strategies and it can be used as a basis for further experimental studies in the oncology section.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais , Neoplasias das Glândulas Sudoríparas , Humanos , Gatos , Cães , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/patologia , Biópsia/veterinária , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/epidemiologia , Hospitais
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298686, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mini-Cog is a rapid screening tool that can be administered to older adults to detect cognitive impairment (CI); however, the accuracy of the Mini-Cog to detect CI for older patients in various healthcare settings is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Cog to screen for cognitive impairment in older patients across different healthcare settings. METHODS/DESIGN: We searched nine electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase) from inception to January 2023. We included studies with patients ≥60 years old undergoing screening for cognitive impairment using the Mini-Cog across all healthcare settings. A cut-off of ≤ 2/5 was used to classify dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive impairment (defined as either MCI or dementia) across various settings. The diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Cog was assessed against gold standard references such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). A bivariate random-effects model was used to estimate accuracy and diagnostic ability. The risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2 criteria. RESULTS: The systematic search resulted in 4,265 articles and 14 studies were included for analysis. To detect dementia (six studies, n = 4772), the Mini-Cog showed 76% sensitivity and 83% specificity. To detect MCI (two studies, n = 270), it showed 84% sensitivity and 79% specificity. To detect CI (eight studies, n = 2152), it had 67% sensitivity and 83% specificity. In the primary care setting, to detect either MCI, dementia, or CI (eight studies, n = 5620), the Mini-Cog demonstrated 73% sensitivity and 84% specificity. Within the secondary care setting (seven studies, n = 1499), the Mini-Cog to detect MCI, dementia or CI demonstrated 73% sensitivity and 76% specificity. A high or unclear risk of bias persisted in the patient selection and timing domain. CONCLUSIONS: The Mini-Cog is a quick and freely available screening tool and has high sensitivity and specificity to screen for CI in older adults across various healthcare settings. It is a practical screening tool for use in time-sensitive and resource-limited healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013880, 2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older people is increasing worldwide and public expenditure on residential aged care facilities (ACFs) is expected to at least double, and possibly triple, by 2050. Co-ordinated and timely care in residential ACFs that reduces unnecessary hospital transfers may improve residents' health outcomes and increase satisfaction with care among ACF residents, their families and staff. These benefits may outweigh the resources needed to sustain the changes in care delivery and potentially lead to cost savings. Our systematic review comprehensively and systematically presents the available evidence of the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of alternative models of providing health care to ACF residents. OBJECTIVES: Main objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternative models of delivering primary or secondary health care (or both) to older adults living in ACFs. Secondary objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of the alternative models. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and two trials registers (WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov) on 26 October 2022, together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included individual and cluster-randomised trials, and cost/cost-effectiveness data collected alongside eligible effectiveness studies. Eligible study participants included older people who reside in an ACF as their place of permanent abode and healthcare professionals delivering or co-ordinating the delivery of healthcare at ACFs. Eligible interventions focused on either ways of delivering primary or secondary health care (or both) or ways of co-ordinating the delivery of this care. Eligible comparators included usual care or another model of care. Primary outcomes were emergency department visits, unplanned hospital admissions and adverse effects (defined as infections, falls and pressure ulcers). Secondary outcomes included adherence to clinical guideline-recommended care, health-related quality of life of residents, mortality, resource use, access to primary or specialist healthcare services, any hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, satisfaction with the health care by residents and their families, work-related satisfaction and work-related stress of ACF staff. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and certainty of evidence using GRADE. The primary comparison was any alternative model of care versus usual care. MAIN RESULTS: We included 40 randomised trials (21,787 participants; three studies only reported number of beds) in this review. Included trials evaluated alternative models of care aimed at either all residents of the ACF (i.e. no specific health condition; 11 studies), ACF residents with mental health conditions or behavioural problems (12 studies), ACF residents with a specific condition (e.g. residents with pressure ulcers, 13 studies) or residents requiring a specific type of care (e.g. residents after hospital discharge, four studies). Most alternative models of care focused on 'co-ordination of care' (n = 31). Three alternative models of care focused on 'who provides care' and two focused on 'where care is provided' (i.e. care provided within ACF versus outside of ACF). Four models focused on the use of information and communication technology. Usual care, the comparator in all studies, was highly heterogeneous across studies and, in most cases, was poorly reported. Most of the included trials were susceptible to some form of bias; in particular, performance (89%), reporting (66%) and detection (42%) bias. Compared to usual care, alternative models of care may make little or no difference to the proportion of residents with at least one emergency department visit (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.20; 7 trials, 1276 participants; low-certainty evidence), but may reduce the proportion of residents with at least one unplanned hospital admission (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.99, I2 = 53%; 8 trials, 1263 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of alternative models of care on adverse events (proportion of residents with a fall: RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.60, I² = 74%; 3 trials, 1061 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and adherence to guideline-recommended care (proportion of residents receiving adequate antidepressant medication: RR 5.29, 95% CI 1.08 to 26.00; 1 study, 65 participants) as the certainty of the evidence is very low. Compared to usual care, alternative models of care may have little or no effect on the health-related quality of life of ACF residents (MD -0.016, 95% CI -0.036 to 0.004; I² = 23%; 12 studies, 4016 participants; low-certainty evidence) and probably make little or no difference to the number of deaths in residents of ACFs (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.16, 24 trials, 3881 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). We did not pool the cost-effectiveness or cost data as the specific costs associated with the various alternative models of care were incomparable, both across models of care as well as across settings. Based on the findings of five economic evaluations (all interventions focused on co-ordination of care), we are uncertain of the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of care compared to usual care as the certainty of the evidence is very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Compared to usual care, alternative models of care may make little or no difference to the number of emergency department visits but may reduce unplanned hospital admissions. We are uncertain of the effect of alternative care models on adverse events (i.e. falls, pressure ulcers, infections) and adherence to guidelines compared to usual care, as the certainty of the evidence is very low. Alternative models of care may have little or no effect on health-related quality of life and probably have no effect on mortality of ACF residents compared to usual care. Importantly, we are uncertain of the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of care due to the limited, disparate data available.


Assuntos
Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 79(6): 1234-1247, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and assess the effectiveness of national antibiotic optimization interventions in primary and secondary care in England (2013-2022). METHODS: A systematic scoping review was conducted. Literature databases (Embase and Medline) were used to identify interventions and evaluations. Reports included the UK AMR Strategy (2013-2018), National Action Plan (2019-2024) and English Surveillance Programme for Antimicrobial Utilisation and Resistance (ESPAUR) reports (2014-2022). The design, focus and quality of evaluations and the interventions' effectiveness were extracted. FINDINGS: Four hundred and seventy-seven peer-reviewed studies and 13 reports were screened. One hundred and three studies were included for review, identifying 109 interventions in eight categories: policy and commissioning (n = 9); classifications (n = 1); guidance and toolkits (n = 22); monitoring and feedback (n = 17); professional engagement and training (n = 19); prescriber tools (n = 12); public awareness (n = 17); workforce and governance (n = 12).Most interventions lack high-quality effectiveness evidence. Evaluations mainly focused on clinical, microbiological or antibiotic use outcomes, or intervention implementation, often assessing how interventions were perceived to affect behaviour. Only 16 interventions had studies that quantified effects on prescribing, of which six reported reductions. The largest reduction was reported with structural-level interventions and attributed to a policy and commissioning intervention (primary care financial incentives). Behavioural interventions (guidance and toolkits) reported the greatest impact in hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Many interventions have targeted antibiotic use, each pulling different levers across the health system simultaneously. On the basis of these studies, structural-level interventions may have the greatest impact. Collectively, the combination of interventions may explain England's decline in prescribing but direct evidence of causality is unavailable.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Política de Saúde , Inglaterra , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
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