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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948524

RESUMO

Competitive karate activity involves numerous factors affecting performance in sport. Physical structure and somatotype is considered to be one of them. This study aimed to determine whether there are differences between karate athletes in five male and five female official weight categories in different anthropometric measurements and to determine the somatotype profiles of athletes divided by weight categories. This study consisted of a total of 27 male karate athletes (21.88 ± 4.66 years) and 24 female karate athletes (20.29 ± 3.14 years). Measurements were taken in April 2020. Athletes are classified into official weight categories according to World Karate Federation rules. Somatotypes were calculated using anthropometry. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis to compare group differences regarding weight categories. Anthropometric parameters were highest in the heaviest categories compared to lighter categories. All male subjects were endomorphic mesomorph, except for category <84 kg, which was endomorphic ectomorphs. Somatotype analysis of male categories found a difference between the <75 kg and <84 kg in endomorphy. In mesomorphy, there is no difference between categories. Perceiving ectomorphy, there is a significant difference between the first category and the >84 kg. Profiling female athletes, three different types of somatotypes were obtained concerning the weight category. The lightest weight category was predominantly endomorphic ectomorphs, and two weight categories were ectomorphic endomorphs (<61 kg and <68 kg), and the other two weight categories were endomorphic mesomorphs (<55 kg and >68 kg). Somatotype differences in the female karate athletes were observed only in the ectomorphy components, between <50 kg and <61 kg. The present study points to how the somatotypes profiles of karate athletes differ between weight categories.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Somatotipos , Antropometria , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668976

RESUMO

Many predatory arthropods occur naturally in turfgrass, and they provide adequate control of lepidopteran pests, such as fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Recording predation is challenging under field conditions because predators rarely leave any evidence. Clay models were successfully employed for studying predation, and this technique is underutilized in turfgrass. Little is known about whether the characteristics of clay models, such as color, shape, and size, influence arthropod interactions in turfgrass. To improve the utility of clay models in turfgrass, the influence of the color, shape, and size of clay models on arthropod interactions was studied by exposing clay models during daytime and nighttime in a turfgrass field. The results showed that arthropods interacted with clay models, and various types of impressions were recorded, including paired marks, scratches, cuts, and pricks. Although the color of the clay model had no significant effects on arthropod interactions during the night, significantly greater numbers of impressions were noticed on the blue and green models than on the yellow models during the daytime. The caterpillar-shaped models captured significantly greater densities of impressions than the beetle-shaped models. Additionally, the number of impressions significantly increased with an increase in the size of the model regardless of shape.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Mariposas/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Argila , Cor , Modelos Anatômicos , Somatotipos
3.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e67, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as a complementary approach in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED), and to assess how the reduction of the cognitive load of words related to eating disorders (ED) could constitute an intermediate factor explaining its global efficacy. METHODS: Eighty-eight women and men participated in clinical assessments upon inscription, prior to and following 8-week group MBCT. Mindfulness skills were assessed using the five facet mindfulness questionnaire; eating behaviors were assessed using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ); comorbid pathologies were assessed using the beck depression index and the state-trait anxiety inventory. The cognitive load of words associated with ED was assessed through a modified version of the Stroop color naming task. RESULTS: Mindfulness skills improved significantly (p < .05) after group MBCT. The improvement of TFEQ scores was accompanied by reduced levels of depressive mood and trait anxiety. The positive impact of MBCT on TFEQ score was directly related to an improvement of the performance in the Stroop task. CONCLUSIONS: MBCT represents an interesting complementary therapy for patients with either BN or BED, at least when cognitive and behavioral domains are concerned. Such efficacy seems to be mediated by the reduction of the cognitive load associated with ED stimuli, which offers a possible explanation of how MBCT could reduce binge-eating behaviors. Other studies are needed, in independent centers, to focus more directly on core symptoms and long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Atenção Plena , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Cognição , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Somatotipos
4.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 421-436, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524544

RESUMO

The parallel evolution of similar ecotypes in response to comparable environmental conditions is believed to reveal the importance of divergent selection in phenotypic diversifying processes. Systems characterized by the presence of multiple replicate populations expressing resource polymorphism thus provide an ideal opportunity to address the occurrence and factors affecting the parallel evolution of ecotypes. Previous studies have shown that brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) exhibit resource polymorphism in some Canadian Shield lakes, where a littoral ecotype feeds mainly on zoobenthos and a pelagic ecotype feeds mostly on zooplankton. Using morphological traits and geometric morphometric analyses on 18 native brook charr populations, we explicitly tested (i) whether brook charr ecotypes show parallel evolution across populations (i.e. the same morphological traits discriminate ecotypes among lakes) and (ii) whether interspecific competition decreases the amplitude of morphological differentiation between ecotypes, if any, because brook charr experience some level of competitive exclusion from the littoral habitat in the presence of creek chub or white sucker. We observed a low level of parallel evolution, where the littoral ecotype was overall stouter with longer fins and smaller eyes than the pelagic ecotype. Interspecific competition had no clear impacts on the amplitude of morphological differentiation. We also observed that inter-lake morphological differences are greater than between ecotypes within lakes, suggesting an important effect of local environmental factors on population morphology. Early-stage of diversification as well as phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration could explain why resource polymorphism is still subtle in brook charr populations.


Assuntos
Somatotipos , Truta , Animais , Canadá , Ecologia , Fenótipo , Truta/genética
5.
Med Eng Phys ; 95: 1-8, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479685

RESUMO

While it is possible to determine the irradiance and spectral content for a given neonatal phototherapy device at various locations over a neonate's surface, this does not allow estimation of the total rate of energy delivery within a specific spectral range over the neonate's exposed body surface. A series of 192 blue wavelength enhanced silicon photodiodes was distributed over the surface of a commercially available newborn body shape and connected to a specially designed interface circuit. Placement of photosensors over the surface of the baby shape was determined with consideration of the surface area of twelve specific anatomical areas where each was allocated 16 individual photodiodes. Calibration of detection channels for specific wavelength intervals was undertaken using a Bentham dmc150 spectroradiometer system and also a separate hand held spectroradiometer. This made it possible to estimate the effective integrated dose rate in Watts for specific wavelength intervals such as 460 nm to 490 nm as identified by the American Academy of Pediatrics for phototherapy lamp devices. This allowed identification of dose rate contributions from specific anatomical areas. Initial observations are reported for a range of phototherapy lamp systems and the findings are discussed in terms of their predicted relative clinical effectiveness. Options are also discussed in relation to the future development of the reported measurement system.


Assuntos
Fototerapia , Somatotipos , Calibragem , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16964, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417489

RESUMO

The phenotype of juvenile fish is closely associated with the adult phenotype, thus consisting an important quality trait for reared fish stocks. In this study, we estimated the correlation between the juvenile and adult body-shape in Gilthead seabream, and examined the genetic basis of the ontogenetic trajectories. The body shape of 959 pit-tagged fish was periodically examined during the juvenile-to-adult period. Individual shape ontogenetic trajectories were studied in respect to the initial (juvenile) and final (adult) phenotypes, as well as to the rate that adult phenotype is attained (phenotypic integration rate). We found that the juvenile body-shape presented a rapid change up to 192.7 ± 1.9 mm standard length, followed by a phenotypically stable period (plateau). Depending on the shape component considered, body-shape correlations between juvenile and adult stages ranged from 0.22 to 0.76. Heritability estimates (h2) of the final phenotype ranged from 0.370 ± 0.077 to 0.511 ± 0.089, whereas h2 for the phenotypic integration rate was 0.173 ± 0.062. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the variance of the ontogenetic trajectories has a substantial additive genetic component. Results are discussed in respect to their potential use in selective breeding programs of Gilthead seabream.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Dourada/anatomia & histologia , Dourada/genética , Somatotipos/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360119

RESUMO

The anthropometric profile has a fundamental role in rowing performance and young talent detection. The objective of this study was to analyze the anthropometric profile, body composition, and somatotype in traditional rowers, and to analyze which variables can be used as predictors of rowing performance. Twenty-four rowers competing at national level participated in this study, thirteen men and eleven women. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed in the height of male rowers (large effect size, d = 1.8) and in body mass (very large effect size, d = 2.4). Also, muscle mass reached a higher percentage in male rowers (d = 3.7), whereas the sum of seven skinfolds (d = 2.0) and body fat percentage (d = 2.0) reached higher values in female rowers, all their difference being significant (p < 0.001) with very large effect size. The somatotype of male rowers was ecto-mesomorph (1.8-4.5-3.0), and the somatotype of female rowers was in the balanced mesomorph (2.8-3.8-2.6). A very strong correlation between height (r = 0.75; p = 0.002) and rowing performance was found in male rowers. Body mass (r = 0.70; p = 0.009) and muscle mass (r = 0.83; p = 0.001) showed also very strong correlation in female rowers. Finally, height was the best predictor of performance for male rowers (R2 = 0.56, p < 0.003) and muscle mass for female rowers (R2 = 0.68, p < 0.002). The anthropometric profile of male and female traditional rowers showed differences to be considered in training programs and talent selection.


Assuntos
Esportes , Esportes Aquáticos , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Somatotipos
8.
Am Nat ; 198(3): 406-420, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403311

RESUMO

AbstractMorphological diversity is often attributed as adaptations to distinct ecologies. Although biologists have long hypothesized that distinct ecologies drive the evolution of body shape, these relationships are rarely tested across macroevolutionary scales in mammals. Here, I tested hypotheses that locomotor, hunting, and dietary ecologies influenced body shape evolution in carnivorans, a morphologically and ecologically diverse clade of mammals. I found that adaptive models with ecological trait regimes were poor predictors of carnivoran body shape and the underlying morphological components that contribute to body shape variation. Instead, the best-supported model exhibited clade-based evolutionary shifts, indicating that the complexity and variation of body shape landscape cannot be effectively captured by a priori ecological regimes. However, ecological adaptations of body shapes cannot be ruled out, as aquatic and terrestrial carnivorans exhibited opposite allometric patterns of body shape that may be driven by different gravitational constraints associated with these different environments. Similar to body size, body shape is a prominent feature of vertebrate morphology that may transcend one-to-one mapping relationships between morphology and ecological traits, enabling species with distinct body shapes to exploit similar resources and exhibit similar ecologies. Together, these results demonstrate that the multidimensionality of both body shape morphology and ecology makes it difficult to disentangle the complex relationship among morphological evolution, ecological diversity, and phylogeny across macroevolutionary scales.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Somatotipos , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Mamíferos , Filogenia
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203123

RESUMO

This exploratory clinical case report presents an 87-year-old man who began bodybuilding at the age of 76 years and was officially recognised as the world's oldest competitive bodybuilder, competing until age 83. He has a background of complex health conditions including polio, strokes, cardiac arrest, atrial fibrillation, prostate disease, osteoarthritis, depression, bowel obstruction, reflux, and bladder cancer. Assessments of body composition, bone density, muscle performance, and diet-related practices were performed. The bodybuilder had superior fat-free mass, lower fat mass, and generally greater muscle performance compared to untrained healthy males of a similar age. Commencement of bodybuilding in older age appears to be possible, even with ongoing complex health conditions, and the potential benefits of this practice require systematic investigation in the future.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Somatotipos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253921, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Altitude is one of the most demanding environmental pressures for human populations. Highlanders from Asia, America and Africa have been shown to exhibit different biological adaptations, but Oceanian populations remain understudied [Woolcock et al., 1972; Cotes et al., 1974; Senn et al., 2010]. We tested the hypothesis that highlanders phenotypically differ from lowlanders in Papua New Guinea, as a result of inhabiting the highest mountains in Oceania for at least 20,000 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data for 13 different phenotypes related to altitude for 162 Papua New Guineans living at high altitude (Mont Wilhelm, 2,300-2,700 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and low altitude (Daru, <100m a.s.l.). Multilinear regressions were performed to detect differences between highlanders and lowlanders for phenotypic measurements related to body proportions, pulmonary function, and the circulatory system. RESULTS: Six phenotypes were significantly different between Papua New Guinean highlanders and lowlanders. Highlanders show shorter height (p-value = 0.001), smaller waist circumference (p-value = 0.002), larger Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (p-value = 0.008), larger maximal (p-value = 3.20e -4) and minimal chest depth (p-value = 2.37e -5) and higher haemoglobin concentration (p-value = 3.36e -4). DISCUSSION: Our study reports specific phenotypes in Papua New Guinean highlanders potentially related to altitude adaptation. Similar to other human groups adapted to high altitude, the evolutionary history of Papua New Guineans appears to have also followed an adaptive biological strategy for altitude.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Altitude , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Somatotipos/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Estatura , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Hemodinâmica , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papua Nova Guiné , Fenótipo , Tórax/anatomia & histologia , Capacidade Vital , Circunferência da Cintura
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329322

RESUMO

The association between physical appearance and income has been of central interest in social science. However, most previous studies often measured physical appearance using classical proxies from subjective opinions based on surveys. In this study, we use novel data, called CAESAR, which contains three-dimensional (3D) whole-body scans to mitigate possible reporting and measurement errors. We demonstrate the existence of significant nonclassical reporting errors in the reported heights and weights by comparing them with measured counterparts, and show that these discrete measurements are too sparse to provide a complete description of the body shape. Instead, we use a graphical autoencoder to obtain intrinsic features, consisting of human body shapes directly from 3D scans and estimate the relationship between body shapes and family income. We also take into account a possible issue of endogenous body shapes using proxy variables and control functions. The estimation results reveal a statistically significant relationship between physical appearance and family income and that these associations differ across genders. This supports the hypothesis on the physical attractiveness premium in labor market outcomes and its heterogeneity across genders.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Aparência Física , Somatotipos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300038

RESUMO

The human body is characterized by the variability of the characteristics of body build, which is expressed in the instability of spinal curvatures, which change during ontogeny. This phenomenon leads to a phylogenetic evolution of the human body build and posture. The aim of the study was to assess the dynamics of the variability of traits and indices of body build and posture and their mutual relations. It was assumed that over the 10-year observation period, a significant variability and relationships will be observed between the characteristics of body build and posture in young adults. Between 2006 and 2016, 2154 women and men aged 19.6 ± 0.8 were examined (first-year students at the University of Economics in Katowice, Poland). Measurements of basic anthropometric measurements and angular values of lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis were performed. The collected data were analysed statistically, and the intergroup and intragroup differences were evaluated (ANOVA with repeated measures). The dynamics of variability (by building time series) and absolute and single-base increments were determined. The body build of young men and women in the period of ontogenetic stabilization in the study group has changed statistically significantly over the decade. A prediction of the increases in body weight and hip circumference was recorded over a period of 10 years, especially in men. The characteristics of body posture have also undergone a significant progressive change. In women, thoracic kyphosis increased by 96.15%, whereas in men, lumbar lordosis decreased by 52.65%. Significant sexual differentiation was shown for such characteristics as body height, waist circumference and the angle of lumbar lordosis. The relationships between the characteristics of body build and posture were verified. There was a moderate relationship between the hip circumference and lumbar lordosis in women and a weak relationship between body height and the angle of thoracic kyphosis in men.


Assuntos
Somatotipos , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Filogenia , Polônia , Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14596, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272443

RESUMO

This study examined the association of anthropometric measurements [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat (PBF), body roundness index (BRI) and A Body Shape Index (ABSI)] with pulmonary function using a United States national cohort. This cross-sectional study included 7346 participants. The association between anthropometric measurements and pulmonary function was assessed by multivariable linear regression. Where there was evidence of non-linearity, we applied a restricted cubic spline to explore the non-linear association. All analyses were weighted to represent the U.S. population and to account for the intricate survey design. After adjusting for age, race, education, smoking, and physical activity, both underweight and obesity were associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Furthermore, the associations between BMI and FEV1, as well as FVC, were reversed U-shape in both males and females. Similar non-linear association shape occurred in WC, PBF, BRI and ABSI. Conclusion: BMI, WC, PBF, BRI, ABSI are non-linearly associated with pulmonary function. Reduced pulmonary function is a risk factor for future all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events; thus, this nonlinearity may explain the U-shape or J-shape association of BMI with overall mortality and cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Saúde Pública , Curva ROC , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Somatotipos , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201258

RESUMO

Anthropometrics are a set of direct quantitative measurements of the human body's external dimensions, which can be used as indirect measures of body composition. Due to a number of limitations of conventional manual techniques for the collection of body measurements, advanced systems using three-dimensional (3D) scanners are currently being employed, despite being a relatively new technique. A systematic review was carried out using Pubmed, Medline and the Cochrane Library to assess whether 3D scanners offer reproducible, reliable and accurate data with respect to anthropometrics. Although significant differences were found, 3D measurements correlated strongly with measurements made by conventional anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP), among others. In most studies (61.1%), 3D scanners were more accurate than these other techniques; in fact, these scanners presented excellent accuracy or reliability. 3D scanners allow automated, quick and easy measurements of different body tissues. Moreover, they seem to provide reproducible, reliable and accurate data that correlate well with the other techniques used.


Assuntos
Pletismografia , Somatotipos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065622

RESUMO

In the present study, we aimed to identify the impact of chosen anthropometric measurements on the special physical fitness of elite junior table tennis players at different stages of sport training. A total of 87 table tennis players aged 13.4 ± 1.74 years (43.7% girls and 56.3% boys) from two Polish teams were analyzed. The anthropometry measurements included height, sitting height, body weight, arm span, humerus and femur breadths, five skinfold thicknesses, and five girths were assessed. Participants' somatotypes were also calculated using the Heath-Carter method as well as body mass index (BMI), which was constructed using the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method. Body composition via a bioelectric impedance analysis was also analyzed. The level of special fitness of athletes was determined using tests from the Table Tennis Specific Battery Test, assessing reaction and displacement speeds. Mesomorphic (4.1) and ectomorphic (3.8) profiles were registered for boys and girls, respectively. Boys achieved higher scores than girls for almost all variables, with the exception of ectomorphic somatotype (p = 0.274), skinfold triceps (p = 0.444), and calf skinfold medial (p = 0.609). The relationship between the body height, thickness of the skinfolds of the triceps and suprailiac, biceps, and waist circumference and arm span in all three motor tests was observed, simultaneously significantly higher results were obtained by competitors at the specialist stage of training. Knowledge of the somatic and motor characteristics of young athletes can help coaches in creating a specific training program for improved health and performance, taking into consideration the athletes' biological development, potential, and pre-disposition.


Assuntos
Tênis , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Somatotipos
16.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(9): 1575-1600, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present meta-analysis summarizes existing evidence on the relationship between the internalization of body shape ideals (IBSI) and body dissatisfaction. METHOD: Pooled effect sizes (r) were computed using a random-effects model. The robustness of the results was examined using influence analyses. Potential predictors of effect heterogeneity were examined using subgroup analysis and univariable/multivariable meta-regressions. Publication bias was examined using the three-parameter selection model (3PSM). RESULTS: A total of 141 effect-sizes from 78 studies (N = 39,491) were retrieved. Results revealed medium (r = .25; muscular/athletic-ideal internalization) to very large (r = .43, general attractiveness-ideal internalization; and r = .45, thin-ideal internalization) relationships, all these being largely similar in male and female individuals. DISCUSSION: IBSI and body dissatisfaction were strongly linked: (a) in younger individuals (general attractiveness-ideal internalization); (b) when IBSI was operationalized in terms of endorsement rather than mere awareness of appearance ideals; (c) in studies of lower methodological quality (muscular/athletic-ideal internalization); and (d) when IBSI was assessed using instruments involving social comparisons. Given the largely cross-sectional nature of data included in this meta-analysis, further testing in prospective and experimental studies is needed to confirm hypotheses about causality of observed associations. Such findings would have impact for prevention and intervention studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Somatotipos , Imagem Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252780, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115773

RESUMO

Body and head shape among fishes both vary between environments influenced by water velocity and across ontogeny. Although the shape changes associated with variation in average water velocity and ontogeny are well documented, few studies have tested for the interaction between these two variables (i.e., does ontogenetic shape variation differ between velocity environments). We use geometric morphometrics to characterize shape differences in Trichomycterus areolatus, a freshwater catfish found in high and low-velocity environments in Chile. We identify a significant interaction between velocity environment and body size (i.e., ontogeny). Ontogenetic patterns of shape change are consistent with other studies, but velocity environment differentially affects the ontogenetic trajectory of shape development in T. areolatus. Shape change over ontogeny appears more constrained in high-velocity environments compared to low-velocity environments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Somatotipos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Hidrodinâmica
19.
Public Health ; 195: 126-131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate how mothers perceived the appetite and body shape of their children using gender- and age-specific development sketches. STUDY DESIGN: The study design used in the study is a single-centred descriptive study. METHODS: We included 153 children aged 2-14 years and their mothers who attended family medicine polyclinic outpatient services, for any reason, at the University of Health Sciences, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Teaching and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between February 2019 and April 2019. Weight and height measurements of both the children and their mothers were taken. In addition, the mothers completed the sociodemographic data form and were asked to select an image from the gender- and age-specific development sketches that best represented their child's body shape. Participants were divided into four groups by their body mass index (BMI) in accordance with criteria from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Results were compared using appropriate statistical procedures. RESULTS: A significant weak positive correlation was observed between maternal BMI and child BMI (r = 0.166, P = 0.041). When the maternally perceived BMI (determined by the age-specific development sketches) was compared with the actual BMI values of children, mothers perceived their underweight children to be in higher BMI groups, whereas the overweight and obese children were perceived to be in lower BMI groups. The results were similar when the same comparison was made for the mother's expectation (i.e. the body shape the mother desired for their child). CONCLUSIONS: When mothers were asked to visually evaluate the body shape of their children, their responses were inaccurate compared with both the actual data and the researcher's evaluation. Obtaining verbal assessments from mothers about their children (e.g. an assessment of the child's bodily appearance) is important for physicians to make correct referrals and also for public health policies. It is valuable for mothers to correctly interpret the weight status of their children, thus enabling early diagnosis and treatment, and preventing future health consequences.


Assuntos
Mães , Obesidade Pediátrica , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Percepção , Somatotipos
20.
Ann Hum Biol ; 48(2): 160-165, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body composition and types are often considered essential health indicators for lifestyle-related disease. Assessment of body type based on tridosha is regarded as a prerequisite in Ayurveda. AIM: To correlate body compositions and somatotypes with Prakriti body types. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 463 adult individuals was done. Anthropometric and body composition parameters were measured. Heath-Carter somatotypes and Prakriti body types were also determined. Tests of association were calculated. Correlation and concordance analysis was also done to infer the correlation between body composition parameters and Prakriti body types. RESULTS: Kapha Prakriti have significantly higher body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage and body fat mass. Vata have the lowest mean values in all body composition parameters with Pitta in the intermediate position compared to the other Prakriti types. There is a strong and positive statistical association between Prakriti body types and body composition parameters, except height. Cohen's Kappa analysis reveals there is a fair concordance between Prakriti body types and somatotype. CONCLUSIONS: Prakriti assessment can explain an individual's fatness as it correlates with body composition parameters and could be used to predict risk susceptibility to various complex disorders.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Somatotipos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Medicina Ayurvédica , Adulto Jovem
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