Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.883
Filtrar
1.
Virology ; 565: 38-51, 2022 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715607

RESUMO

The South Island robin (Petroica australis) is a small passerine bird endemic to New Zealand (Aotearoa). Although its population has declined recently and it is considered 'at risk,' little research has been done to identify viruses in this species. This study aimed to survey the diversity of single-stranded DNA viruses associated with South Island robins in a small, isolated population on Nukuwaiata Island. In total, 108 DNA viruses were identified from pooled fecal samples collected from 38 individual robins sampled. These viruses belong to the Circoviridae (n = 10), Genomoviridae (n = 12), and Microviridae (n = 73) families. A number of genomes that belong to the phylum Cressdnaviricota but are otherwise unclassified (n = 13) were also identified. These results greatly expand the known viral diversity associated with South Island robins, and we identify a novel group of viruses most closely related genomoviruses.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA/classificação , Fezes/virologia , Aves Canoras/virologia , Animais , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Cadeia Simples , DNA Viral , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Lit Med ; 39(2): 193-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897121
3.
Zootaxa ; 5016(1): 1-55, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810465

RESUMO

Investigation of the diversity and taxonomy of feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) on passerines (Passeriformes) and kingfishers (Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae) in Manitoba revealed 19 species in 5 genera. Of them, eight new species are described, seven of these from passerines and one from a kingfisher: Alaudicola eremophila sp. n. from Eremophila alpestris (Alaudidae), Amerodectes icteri sp. n. from Icterus galbula (Icteridae), A. pheucticus sp. n. from Pheucticus ludovicianus (Cardinalidae), A. tiffanyluiae sp. n. from Oporornis agilis (Parulidae), A. tretiakae sp. n. from Molothrus ater (Icteridae), Tyrannidectes sealyi sp. n. from Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus, 1758) (type host) and Tyrannus verticalis Say, and T. empidonicus sp. n. from Empidonax minimus (Tyrannidae), and Proterothrix megaceryle sp. n. from Megaceryle alcyon (Alcedinidae). Additionally, nine pterodectine species are reported for the first time in the fauna of Canada. Based on re-evaluation of diagnostic charcters, new diagnoses are proposed for the genera Amerodectes, Tyrannidectes, and Metapterodectes, and species contents of these genera are revised. Four species are transferred from the genus Amerodectes to Tyrannidectes with the new combinations proposed: T. caribaeus (Mironov and Gonzlez-Acua, 2011) comb. n., T. charitomenos (Hernandes, 2018) comb. n., T. pitangi (Mironov, 2008) comb. n., T. vireonis (Hernandes and Pedroso, 2016) comb. n. Six species are transferred from the genus Tyrannidectes to Metapterodectes with the new combinations: M. amaurochalinus (Hernandes and Valim, 2006) comb. n., M. cinclodes (Mironov and Gonzlez-Acua, 2011) comb. n., M. crassus (Trouessart, 1885) comb. n., M. falcklandicus (Mironov and Gonzlez-Acua, 2011) comb. n., M. fissuratus (Hernandes and Valim, 2005) comb. n., and M. pteroptochi (Mironov and Gonzlez-Acua, 2015) comb. n.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Canadá
5.
Zootaxa ; 4999(2): 169-180, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810495

RESUMO

Laristania beyarslani sp. nov., a new species of Phycitinae (Pyralidae) from Turkey, is described herein, and compared with other known species of the genus Laristania Amsel, 1951. The distribution area of all Laristania species and assessment on the morphology of some species are presented. Habitus, male and female genitalia of the new species are illustrated. The male genitalia of all species in the genus are compared. Besides, photos of adult, male and female genitalia of L. taftanella (Amsel, 1954), and adult and male genitalia of L. aspergella (Ragonot, 1887) are provided.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Aves Canoras , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Masculino , Turquia
6.
Zootaxa ; 5026(2): 271-285, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810929

RESUMO

This paper reports on four species of free-living mites of the family Laelapidae from Tristan da Cunha and Nightingale Islands: Cosmolaelaps claviger (Berlese), Gaeolaelaps aculeifer (Canestrini), G. furcatus sp. nov., and Nidilaelaps annectans (Womersley). The new species has the unique character states of the paradactyli on pretarsi IIIV being very elongated and the pulvillar lobe well developed in shape of a fork on ambulacra IIIV. The genus Nidilaelaps Shaw is here reported for the first time from Afrotropical realm.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ácaros , Aves Canoras , Animais , Ilhas
7.
Zootaxa ; 5060(1): 105-123, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811181

RESUMO

The taxonomy of the T. nudigenis complex has historically been challenging due to the uniformity in plumage among taxa, poorly known vocal variation, and allopatric distributions. Recent phylogenetic analyses have contributed to understanding relationships within the genus; however, much remains to be learned about the extent of phenotypic and genetic differentiation within taxa and its implications in species limits. Here, we analyze the taxonomic status of an enigmatic member of the T. nudigenis complex restricted to the Cauca River valley of Colombia. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that the Cauca valley population is genetically distinctive from other members of the complex, although its sister relationships with respect to T. grayi and T. nudigenis could not be fully resolved due to paraphyly in the group. Based on similarity of plumage, calls, and biogeographic proximity we tentatively treat this taxon as a new subspecies of T. grayi. Populations from the northern Caribbean T. grayi casius/incomptus and the new taxon inhabit similar environmental conditions, being apparently isolated by the humid Nech lowlands. A formal analysis of vocalizations coupled with a more robust genomic dataset are needed to resolve the systematic affinities and taxonomic status of several members of the T. nudigenis complex.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Animais , Colômbia , DNA Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Rios , Aves Canoras/genética
8.
Elife ; 102021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723794

RESUMO

Acoustic signals serve communication within and across species throughout the animal kingdom. Studying the genetics, evolution, and neurobiology of acoustic communication requires annotating acoustic signals: segmenting and identifying individual acoustic elements like syllables or sound pulses. To be useful, annotations need to be accurate, robust to noise, and fast.We here introduce DeepAudioSegmenter (DAS), a method that annotates acoustic signals across species based on a deep-learning derived hierarchical presentation of sound. We demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and speed of DAS using acoustic signals with diverse characteristics from insects, birds, and mammals. DAS comes with a graphical user interface for annotating song, training the network, and for generating and proofreading annotations. The method can be trained to annotate signals from new species with little manual annotation and can be combined with unsupervised methods to discover novel signal types. DAS annotates song with high throughput and low latency for experimental interventions in realtime. Overall, DAS is a universal, versatile, and accessible tool for annotating acoustic communication signals.


Assuntos
Acústica , Comunicação Animal , Callithrix/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Etologia/métodos , Camundongos/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação
9.
J Exp Biol ; 224(20)2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605904

RESUMO

Adaptations resulting from co-evolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts have been extensively studied, yet the physiological mechanisms underlying antiparasitic host defences remain little known. Prolactin, one of the main hormones involved in the regulation of avian parental behaviour, might play a key role in the orchestration of the host responses to avian brood parasitism. Given the positive association between prolactin and parental behaviour during incubation, decreasing prolactin levels are expected to facilitate egg-rejection decisions. We tested this prediction by implanting Eurasian blackbird (Turdus merula) females with an inhibitor of prolactin secretion, bromocriptine mesylate, to experimentally decrease their plasma prolactin levels. Bromocriptine mesylate-implanted individuals ejected mimetic model eggs at higher rates, and showed shorter latency to egg ejection, than placebo-treated birds. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that behavioural host defences against avian brood parasitism are mediated by prolactin.


Assuntos
Prolactina , Aves Canoras , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Comportamento de Nidação , Óvulo
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640818

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to solve the case study singular model involving the Neumann-Robin, Dirichlet, and Neumann boundary conditions using a novel computing framework that is based on the artificial neural network (ANN), global search genetic algorithm (GA), and local search sequential quadratic programming method (SQPM), i.e., ANN-GA-SQPM. The inspiration to present this numerical framework comes through the objective of introducing a reliable structure that associates the operative ANNs features using the optimization procedures of soft computing to deal with such stimulating systems. Four different problems that are based on the singular equations involving Neumann-Robin, Dirichlet, and Neumann boundary conditions have been occupied to scrutinize the robustness, stability, and proficiency of the designed ANN-GA-SQPM. The proposed results through ANN-GA-SQPM have been compared with the exact results to check the efficiency of the scheme through the statistical performances for taking fifty independent trials. Moreover, the study of the neuron analysis based on three and 15 neurons is also performed to check the authenticity of the proposed ANN-GA-SQPM.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aves Canoras , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação
11.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 3038, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717515

RESUMO

In songbirds, song has traditionally been considered a vocalization mainly produced by males. However, recent research suggests that both sexes produce song. While the function and structure of male black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) fee-bee song have been well-studied, research on female song is comparatively limited. Past discrimination and playback studies have shown that male black-capped chickadees can discriminate between individual males via their fee-bee songs. Recently, we have shown that male and female black-capped chickadees can identify individual females via their fee-bee song even when presented with only the bee position of the song. Our results using discriminant function analyses (DFA) support that female songs are individually distinctive. We found that songs could be correctly classified to the individual (81%) and season (97%) based on several acoustic features including but not limited to bee-note duration and fee-note peak frequency. In addition, an artificial neural network was trained to identify individuals based on the selected DFA acoustic features and was able to achieve 90% accuracy by individual and 93% by season. While this study provides a quantitative description of the acoustic structure of female song, the perception and function of female song in this species requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Abelhas , Feminino , Individualidade , Masculino , Estações do Ano
12.
J Avian Med Surg ; 35(3): 313-324, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677030

RESUMO

Birds are among the most visually proficient group of animals on the planet; however, their inability to visualize and discriminate translucent glass structures results in an extreme number of deaths worldwide from high-speed collisions. Despite reports of avian glass collisions in North America, only a few studies have been developed to understand this problem in South America, and none evaluated radiographic and postmortem findings. One hundred cadavers were examined radiographically and postmortem, and data from 186 collision reports were analyzed for seasonality (website and manual reports and cadavers). A total of 34 different species of birds within 22 families were evaluated for this study, with the rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris; n = 12), eared dove (Zenaida auriculata; n = 12), and ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti; n = 10) being the most common species. Only 6 (27.7%) migratory species were reported: Sick's swift (Chaetura meridionalis), small-billed elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris), Black Jacobin (Florisuga fusca), Great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus), Double-collared seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens), and Creamy-bellied thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus). Males (51) were more frequently reported than females (5), and 50.1% of the males had active gonads. Sex was unable to be determined in 44 birds. The most common radiographic lesion, noted in 16 of 82 (19.5%) animals, was loss of coelomic definition, suggestive of hemorrhage. Prevalent postmortem findings included skull hemorrhages (58/75, 77.3%) and encephalic contusions (47/73, 64.4%), followed by coelomic hemorrhages (33/81, 40.7%). Most of the window collisions (61/186, 32.8%) occurred during spring, the most common breeding season of avian species in Brazil. Cranioencephalic trauma was identified as the primary cause of mortality associated with birds flying into glass windows. Migration does not appear to be the main predisposing factor for window collisions by birds in Brazil. Increased activity and aggression related to breeding season, especially in males, may be a more important predisposing factor for window collision accidents.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Brasil , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Vidro , Masculino
13.
Elife ; 102021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677128

RESUMO

Eurasian jays fail to take into account the point of view and desire of other jays when hiding food they can eat later.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos
14.
Malar J ; 20(1): 417, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often observed in non-adapted zoo or aviary birds, whereas in wild birds, particularly passerines, haemosporidian infections frequently seem to be asymptomatic. However, a recent study from Austria showed pathogenic haemosporidian infections in common blackbirds due to high parasite burdens of Plasmodium matutinum LINN1, a common parasite in this bird species, suggesting that virulent infections also occur in natural hosts. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to explore whether and to what extent other native bird species are possibly affected by pathogenic haemosporidian lineages, contributing to avian morbidity. METHODS: Carcasses of passerine birds and woodpeckers were collected during a citizen science-based survey for avian mortality in Austria, from June to October 2020. Tissue samples were taken and examined for haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon by nested PCR and sequencing the mitochondrial cytb barcode region, histology, and chromogenic in situ hybridization applying genus-specific probes. RESULTS: From over 160 dead bird reportings, 83 carcasses of 25 avian species were submitted for investigation. Overall haemosporidian infection rate was 31%, with finches and tits prevailing species counts and infections. Sequence analyses revealed 17 different haplotypes (4 Plasmodium, 4 Haemoproteus, 9 Leucocytozoon), including 4 novel Leucocytozoon lineages. Most infected birds presented low parasite burdens in the peripheral blood and tissues, ruling out a significant contribution of haemosporidian infections to morbidity or death of the examined birds. However, two great tits showed signs of avian malaria, suggesting pathogenic effects of the detected species Plasmodium relictum SGS1 and Plasmodium elongatum GRW06. Further, exo-erythrocytic tissue stages of several haemosporidian lineages are reported. CONCLUSIONS: While suggesting generally little contribution of haemosporidian infections to mortality of the investigated bird species, the findings indicate a possible role of certain haemosporidian lineages in overall clinical manifestation, either as main causes or as concurrent disease agents. Further, the study presents new data on exo-erythrocytic stages of previously reported lineages and shows how citizen science can be used in the field of haemosporidian research.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Ciência do Cidadão , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Aves Canoras , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Áustria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
15.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 365-371, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494171

RESUMO

Many birds and mammals show substantial circadian variation in body temperature, which has been attributed to fluctuations in ambient temperature and energy reserves. However, to fully understand the variation in body temperature over the course of the day, we also need to consider effects of variation in work rate. We made use of a dataset on body temperature during the resting and active periods in female marsh tits (Poecile palustris) that bred in a temperate area and were subjected to experimental changes in reproductive investment through brood size manipulations. Furthermore, the amplitude increased with daytime, but were unaffected by nighttime, ambient temperature. Amplitudes in females with manipulated broods were 44% above predictions based on inter-specific allometric relationships. In extreme cases, amplitudes were > 100% above predicted values. However, no individual female realised the maximum potential amplitude (8.5 °C, i.e. the difference between the highest and lowest body temperature within the population) but seemed to prioritise either a reduction in body temperature at night or an increase in body temperature in the day. This suggests that body temperature amplitude might be constrained by costs that preclude extensive use of both low nighttime and high daytime body temperatures within the same individual. Amplitudes in the range found here (0.5-6.7 °C) have previously mostly been reported from sub-tropical and/or arid habitats. We show that comparable values can also be found amongst birds in relatively cool, temperate regions, partly due to a pronounced increase in body temperature during periods with high work rate.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Aves Canoras , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Feminino
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e112, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588058

RESUMO

Here, we compare birdsong and human musicality using insights from songbird neuroethology and evolution. For example, neural recordings during songbird duetting and other coordinated vocal behaviors could inform mechanistic hypotheses regarding human brain function during music-making. Furthermore, considering songbird evolution as a model system suggests that selection favoring certain culturally transmitted behaviors can indirectly select for associated underlying neural functions.


Assuntos
Música , Aves Canoras , Animais , Humanos
17.
Am Nat ; 198(4): 551-560, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559605

RESUMO

AbstractPredicting the impact of climate change on biodiversity requires understanding the adaptation potential of wild organisms. Evolutionary responses depend on the additive genetic variation associated with the phenotypic traits targeted by selection. We combine 5 years of cross-fostering experiments, measurements of resting metabolic rate (RMR) on nearly 200 wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) nestlings, and animal models using a 17-year pedigree to evaluate the potential for an evolutionary response to changing environmental conditions. Contrary to other avian studies, we find no significant heritability of whole-organism, mass-independent, or mass-specific RMR, but we report a strong effect of nest environment instead. We therefore conclude that variation in nestling RMR is explained by variation in the early-life environment provided by the parents. We discuss possible underlying specific parental effects and the importance of taking different mechanisms into account to understand how animals phenotypically adapt (or fail to adapt) to climate change.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Evolução Biológica , Passeriformes/genética , Fenótipo , Aves Canoras/genética
18.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210377, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520683

RESUMO

Yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia) use referential 'seet' calls to warn mates of brood parasitic brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). In response to seet calls during the day, female warblers swiftly move to sit tightly on their nests, which may prevent parasitism by physically blocking female cowbirds from inspecting and laying in the nest. However, cowbirds lay their eggs just prior to sunrise, not during daytime. We experimentally tested whether female warblers, warned by seet calls on one day, extend their anti-parasitic responses into the future by engaging in vigilance at sunrise on the next day, when parasitism may occur. As predicted, daytime seet call playbacks caused female warblers to leave their nests less often on the following morning, relative to playbacks of both their generic anti-predator calls and silent controls. Thus, referential calls do not only convey the identity or the type of threat at present but also elicit vigilance in the future to provide protection from threats during periods of heightened vulnerability.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Feminino , Comportamento de Nidação
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1836): 20200257, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482719

RESUMO

Songbirds as a whole are considered to be vocal production learners, meaning that they modify the structure of their vocalizations as a result of experience with the vocalizations of others. The more than 4000 species of songbirds, however, vary greatly in crucial features of song development. Variable features include: (i) the normality of the songs of early-deafened birds, reflecting the importance of innate motor programmes in song development; (ii) the normality of the songs of isolation-reared birds, reflecting the combined importance of innate auditory templates and motor programmes; (iii) the degree of selectivity in choice of external models; (iv) the accuracy of copying from external models; and (v) whether or not learning from external models continues into adulthood. We suggest that because of this variability, some songbird species, specifically those that are able to develop songs in the normal range without exposure to external models, can be classified as limited vocal learners. Those species that require exposure to external models to develop songs in the normal range can be considered complex vocal learners. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Aves Canoras , Vocalização Animal , Animais
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1836): 20200246, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482720

RESUMO

Socially guided vocal learning, the ability to use contingent reactions from social partners to guide immature vocalizations to more mature forms, is thought to be a rare ability known to be used only by humans, marmosets and two unrelated songbird species (brown-headed cowbirds and zebra finches). However, this learning strategy has never been investigated in the vast majority of species that are known to modify their vocalizations over development. We propose a novel, preliminary evolutionary modelling approach that uses ecological, reproductive and developmental traits to predict which species may incorporate social influences as part of their vocal learning system. We demonstrate our model using data from 28 passerines. We found three highly predictive traits: temporal overlap between sensory (memorization) and sensorimotor (practice) phases of song learning, song used for mate attraction, and social gregariousness outside the breeding season. Species with these traits were distributed throughout the clade, suggesting that a trait-based approach may yield new insights into the evolution of learning strategies that cannot be gleaned from phylogenetic relatedness alone. Our model suggests several previously uninvestigated and unexpected species as likely socially guided vocal learners and offers new insight into the evolution and development of vocal learning. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Passeriformes , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Masculino , Aves Canoras
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...