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1.
Cornea ; 41(10): 1302-1304, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the first case of keratitis caused by Cladorrhinum samala and review of the literature. METHODS: This was a case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 35-year-old immunocompetent man presented with pain, redness, and watering in the right eye 7 days after trauma with some foreign body. He was diagnosed with infectious keratitis, and a thorough microbiological workup was performed. Corneal scrapings were subjected to a potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination, Gram staining, bacterial (blood agar and Robertson cooked meat broth), and fungal culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar and brain-heart infusion agar). The KOH mount revealed septate fungal hyphae with irregular margins. Yellow-white nonsporulating mycelial growth was noted on the Sabouraud dextrose agar, which was identified as C. samala by sequencing. The patient responded to 5% natamycin and 1% voriconazole eye drops, and there was a formation of a corneal opacity in a period of 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of keratitis by C. samala, highlighting the emergence of a rare dematiaceous fungi causing keratitis and the role of molecular modalities in the diagnosis of nonsporulating fungi in suspected cases.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Ceratite , Adulto , Ágar , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Glucose , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Masculino , Natamicina , Soluções Oftálmicas , Sordariales , Voriconazol
2.
Curr Genet ; 68(3-4): 407-427, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776170

RESUMO

The multiprotein Fab1p/PIKfyve-complex regulating the abundance of the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In yeast/mammals, it is composed of the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase Fab1p/PIKfyve, the PtdIns(3,5)P2 phosphatase Fig4p/Sac3 and the scaffolding subunit Vac14p/ArPIKfyve. The complex is located to vacuolar membranes in yeast and to endosomal membranes in mammals, where it controls the synthesis and turnover of PtdIns(3,5)P2. In this study, we analyzed the role and function of the Fab1p/PIKfyve-complex scaffold protein SmVAC14 in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora (Sm). We generated the Smvac14 deletion strain ∆vac14 and performed phenotypic analysis of the mutant. Furthermore, we conducted fluorescence microscopic localization studies of fluorescently labeled SmVAC14 with vacuolar and late endosomal marker proteins. Our results revealed that SmVAC14 is important for maintaining vacuolar size and appearance as well as proper sexual development in S. macrospora. In addition, SmVAC14 plays an important role in starvation stress response. Accordingly, our results propose that the turnover of PtdIns(3,5)P2 is of great significance for developmental processes in filamentous fungi.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Animais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Mamíferos , Proteínas de Membrana , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Sordariales
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 210: 114337, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537312

RESUMO

Direct electron transfer (DET) of enzymes on electrode surfaces is highly desirable both for fundamental mechanistic studies and to achieve membrane- and mediator-less bioenergy harvesting. In this report, we describe the preparation and comprehensive structural and electrochemical characterization of a three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based carbon electrode, onto which the two-domain redox enzyme Myriococcum thermophilum cellobiose dehydrogenase (MtCDH) is immobilized. The electrode is prepared by an entirely novel method, which combines in a single step electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and simultaneous electrodeposition of positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI), resulting in a well dispersed MtCDH surface. The resulting MtCDH bio-interface was characterized structurally in detail, optimized, and found to exhibit a DET maximum current density of 7.7 ± 0.9 µA cm-2 and a half-lifetime of 48 h for glucose oxidation, attributed to favorable MtCDH surface orientation. A dual, entirely DET-based enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) was constructed with a MtCDH bioanode and a Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOD) biocathode. The EBFC delivers a maximum power density (Pmax) of 7.6 ± 1.3 µW cm-2, an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.60 V, and an operational lifetime over seven days, which exceeds most reported CDH based DET-type EBFCs. A biosupercapacitor/EBFC hybrid was also constructed and found to register maximum power densities 62 and 43 times higher than single glucose/air and lactose/air EBFCs, respectively. This hybrid also shows excellent operational stability with self-charging/discharging over at least 500 cycles.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Desidrogenases de Carboidrato , DEET , Eletrodos , Elétrons , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Sordariales
4.
Food Chem ; 389: 132967, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561512

RESUMO

Interest in the use of natural non-toxic pigments by the food industry has grown. Some filamentous fungi are producers of natural pigments that are more stable at temperature and pH than other pigments also classified as natural, such as those produced by plants. Production potential of natural pigments by endophytic fungi from grapevines was evaluated. Arcopilus aureus was selected as a potential source for a yellow pigment, which was characterized and tested for stability to variations in temperature and pH. Components, cochlioquinol II and riboflavin, were detected, which has not previously been reported in A. aureus. The pigment was stable and showed increased absorption at lower / acidic pH. These results provide information on the potential of this fungus and a yellow pigment for the first time, which can be used for further development and industrial application.


Assuntos
Pigmentos Biológicos , Sordariales , Indústria Alimentícia , Fungos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563667

RESUMO

Xyloglucan is closely associated with cellulose and still retained with some modification in pretreated lignocellulose; however, its influence on lignocellulose biodegradation is less understood. TtGH74 from Thielavia terrestris displayed much higher catalytic activity than previously characterized fungal GH74 xyloglucanases. The carbohydrate-binding module 1 (CBM1) deleted variant (TtGH74ΔCBM) had the same optimum temperature and pH but an elevated thermostability. TtGH74 displayed a high binding affinity on xyloglucan and cellulose, while TtGH74ΔCBM completely lost the adsorption capability on cellulose. Their hydrolysis action alone or in combination with other glycoside hydrolases on the free xyloglucan, xyloglucan-coated phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose or pretreated corn bran and apple pomace was compared. CBM1 might not be essential for the hydrolysis of free xyloglucan but still effective for the associated xyloglucan to an extent. TtGH74 alone or synergistically acting with the CBH1/EG1 mixture was more effective in the hydrolysis of xyloglucan in corn bran, while TtGH74ΔCBM showed relatively higher catalytic activity on apple pomace, indicating that the role and significance of CBM1 are substrate-specific. The degrees of synergy for TtGH74 or TtGH74ΔCBM with the CBH1/EG1 mixture reached 1.22-2.02. The addition of GH10 xylanase in TtGH74 or the TtGH74ΔCBM/CBH1/EG1 mixture further improved the overall hydrolysis efficiency, and the degrees of synergy were up to 1.50-2.16.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Xilanos , Biomassa , Celulose , Fibras na Dieta , Glucanos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Sordariales , Especificidade por Substrato , Xilanos/química
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255692, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584457

RESUMO

The current research was designed to reach extracellular protease production potential in different strains of Sordaria fimicola which were previously obtained from Dr. Lamb (Imperial College, London) from North Facing Slope and South Facing Slope of Evolution Canyon. After initial and secondary screening, two hyper-producers strains S2 and N6 were selected for submerged fermentation and cultural conditions including temperature, pH, incubation period, inoculum size, substrate concentration, and different carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized for enzyme production. S2 strain showed maximum protease production of 3.291 U/mL after 14 days of incubation at 30 °C with 7 pH, 1% substrate concentration and 1 mL inoculum, While N6 strain showed maximum protease production of 1.929 U/mL under fermentation optimized conditions. Another aim of the present research was to underpin the biodiversity of genetics and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of protease DPAP (peptidyl-aminopeptidase) in Sordaria fimicola. Five polymorphic sites were observed in amino acid sequence of S. fimicola strains with reference to Neurospora crassa. PTMs prediction from bioinformatics tools predicted 38 phosphorylation sites on serine residues for protease peptidyl-aminopeptidase in S1 strain of S. fimicola while 45 phosphorylation sites on serine in N7 strain and 47 serine phosphorylation modifications were predicted in N. crassa. Current research gave an insight that change in genetic makeup effected PTMs which ultimately affected the production of protease enzyme in different strains of same organism (S. fimicola). The production and molecular data of the research revealed that environmental stress has strong effects on the specific genes through mutations which may cause genetic diversity. S. fimicola is non- pathogenic fungus and has a short life cycle. This fungus can be chosen to produce protease enzyme on a commercial scale.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Sordariales , Aminopeptidases/genética , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Serina , Sordariales/enzimologia , Sordariales/genética
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0232121, 2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608343

RESUMO

Myceliophthora thermophila is a thermophilic fungus with great potential in biorefineries and biotechnology. The base editor is an upgraded version of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-dependent genome-editing tool that introduces precise point mutations without causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and has been used in various organisms but rarely in filamentous fungi, especially thermophilic filamentous fungi. Here, for the first time, we constructed three cytosine base editors (CBEs) in M. thermophila, namely, evolved apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic subunit 1 (APOBEC1) cytosine base editor 4 max (Mtevo-BE4max), bacteriophage Mu Gam protein cytosine base editor 4 max (MtGAM-BE4max), and evolved CDA1 deaminase cytosine base editor (Mtevo-CDA1), and efficiently inactivated genes by precisely converting three codons (CAA, CAG, and CGA) into stop codons without DSB formation. The Mtevo-CDA1 editor with up to 92.6% editing efficiency is a more suitable tool for cytosine base editing in thermophilic fungi. To investigate the function of each motif of the cellulase transcription factor M. thermophila CLR-2 (MtCLR-2), we used the Mtevo-CDA1 editor. The fungal-specific motif of MtCLR-2 was found to be strongly involved in cellulase secretion, conidium formation, hyphal branching, and colony formation. Mutation of the fungus-specific motif caused significant defects in these characteristics. Thus, we developed an efficient thermophilic fungus-compatible base-editing system that could also be used for genetic engineering in other relevant filamentous fungi. IMPORTANCE A CRISPR/Cas-based base-editing approach has been developed to introduce point mutations without inducing double-strand breaks (DSBs) and attracted substantial academic and industrial interest. Our study developed the deaminase-cytosine base-editing system to efficiently edit three target genes, amdS, cre-1, and the essential cellulase regulator gene Mtclr-2, in Myceliophthora thermophila. A variety of point mutations in the target loci of the DNA-binding domain and fungus-specific motif of M. thermophila CLR-2 (MtCLR-2) were successfully generated via our base editor Mtevo-CDA1 to elucidate its function. Here, we show that the DNA-binding domain of MtCLR-2 is important for the fungal response to cellulose conditions, while its fungus-specific motif is involved in fungal growth. These findings indicate that our base editor can be an effective tool for elucidating the functions of motifs of target genes in filamentous fungi and for metabolic engineering in the field of synthetic biology.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Celulase , Celulase/genética , Citosina , DNA , Sordariales , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 288: 119373, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450635

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) play a key role in enzymatic conversion of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Continuous discovery and functional characterization of LPMOs highly contribute to the tailor-made design and improvement of hydrolytic-activity based enzyme cocktails. In this context, a new MtLPMO9F was characterized for its substrate (xyloglucan) specificity, and MtLPMO9H was further delineated. Aided by sodium borodeuteride reduction and hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric analysis, we found that both MtLPMOs released predominately C4-oxidized, and C4/C6-double oxidized xylogluco-oligosaccharides. Further characterization showed that MtLPMO9F, having a short active site segment 1 and a long active site segment 2 (-Seg1+Seg2), followed a "substitution-intolerant" xyloglucan cleavage profile, while for MtLPMO9H (+Seg1-Seg2) a "substitution-tolerant" profile was found. The here characterized xyloglucan specificity and substitution (in)tolerance of MtLPMO9F and MtLPMO9H were as predicted according to our previously published phylogenetic grouping of AA9 LPMOs based on structural active site segment configurations.


Assuntos
Celulose , Xilanos , Celulose/química , Glucanos , Filogenia , Polissacarídeos/química , Sordariales , Especificidade por Substrato , Xilanos/química
9.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 119(7): 1926-1937, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257374

RESUMO

Myceliophthora thermophila, a thermophilic fungus that can degrade and utilize all major polysaccharides in plant biomass, has great potential in biotechnological industries. Here, the first manually curated genome-scale metabolic model iDL1450 for M. thermophila was reconstructed using an autogenerating pipeline with thorough manual curation. The model contains 1450 genes, 2592 reactions, and 1784 unique metabolites. High accuracy was shown in predictions related to carbon and nitrogen source utilization based on data obtained from Biolog experiments. Besides, metabolism profiles were analyzed using iDL1450 integrated with transcriptomics data of M. thermophila at various growth temperatures. The refined model provides new insights into thermophilic fungi metabolism and sheds light on model-driven strain design to improve biotechnological applications of this thermophilic lignocellulosic fungus.


Assuntos
Sordariales , Biomassa , Biotecnologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Sordariales/genética
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(4): 1493-1509, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129654

RESUMO

In this study, we compared the properties and structures of three fungal GH12 enzymes: the strict endoglucanase Bgh12A and the xyloglucanase Xgh12B from Aspergillus cervinus, and the endoglucanase Egh12 from Thielavia terrestris combining activity on linear ß-glucan and branched xyloglucan. Egh12 from T. terrestris was produced in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized as a thermostable enzyme with maximal activity at 70 ºC and a half-life time of 138 min at 65 °C. We for the first time demonstrated that the GH12 endoglucanases Egh12 and Bgh12A, but not the strict xyloglucanase Xgh12B, hydrolyzed (1,3)-ß-linkages in (1,3;1,4)-ß-D-glucooligosaccharides and had transglycosylase activity on (1,3)-ß-D-glucooligosaccharides. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Egh12 from T. terrestris and Bgh12A from A. cervinus are more related than Bgh12A and Xgh12B isolated from one strain. The X-ray structure of Bgh12A was determined with 2.17 Å resolution and compared with 3D-homology models of Egh12 and Xgh12B. The enzymes have a ß-jelly roll structure with a catalytic cleft running across the protein. Comparative analysis and a docking study demonstrated the importance of endoglucanase-specific loop 1 partly covering the catalytic cleft for correct placement of the linear substrates. Variability in substrate specificity between the GH12 endoglucanases is determined by non-conservative residues in structural loops framing the catalytic cleft. A residue responsible for the thermostability of Egh12 was predicted. The key structural elements and residues described in this study may serve as potential targets for modification aimed at the improvement of enzymatic properties. KEY POINTS: • Thermostable endoglucanase Egh12 from T. terrestris was produced in P. pastoris, purified, and characterized • The X-ray structure of GH12 endoglucanase Bgh12A from A. cervinus was resolved • GH12 endoglucanases, but not GH12 xyloglucanases, hydrolyze (1,3)-ß-linkages in (1,3;1,4)-ß-D-glucooligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Celulase , Sordariales , Aspergillus , Celulase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Sordariales/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(6): e0009622, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080911

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are mono-copper enzymes that oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides. Genes encoding LPMOs in the AA9 family are abundant in filamentous fungi while their multiplicity remains elusive. We describe a detailed functional characterization of six AA9 LPMOs from the ascomycetous fungus Thermothielavioides terrestris LPH172 (syn. Thielavia terrestris). These six LPMOs were shown to be upregulated during growth on different lignocellulosic substrates in our previous study. Here, we produced them heterologously in Pichia pastoris and tested their activity on various model and native plant cell wall substrates. All six T. terrestris AA9 (TtAA9) LPMOs produced hydrogen peroxide in the absence of polysaccharide substrate and displayed peroxidase-like activity on a model substrate, yet only five of them were active on selected cellulosic substrates. TtLPMO9A and TtLPMO9E were also active on birch acetylated glucuronoxylan, but only when the xylan was combined with phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC). Another of the six AA9s, TtLPMO9G, was active on spruce arabinoglucuronoxylan mixed with PASC. TtLPMO9A, TtLPMO9E, TtLPMO9G, and TtLPMO9T could degrade tamarind xyloglucan and, with the exception of TtLPMO9T, beechwood xylan when combined with PASC. Interestingly, none of the tested enzymes were active on wheat arabinoxylan, konjac glucomannan, acetylated spruce galactoglucomannan, or cellopentaose. Overall, these functional analyses support the hypothesis that the multiplicity of the fungal LPMO genes assessed in this study relates to the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic biomass. Our study also highlights the importance of using native substrates in functional characterization of LPMOs, as we were able to demonstrate distinct, previously unreported xylan-degrading activities of AA9 LPMOs using such substrates. IMPORTANCE The discovery of LPMOs in 2010 has revolutionized the industrial biotechnology field, mainly by increasing the efficiency of cellulolytic enzyme cocktails. Nonetheless, the biological purpose of the multiplicity of LPMO-encoding genes in filamentous fungi has remained an open question. Here, we address this point by showing that six AA9 LPMOs from a single fungal strain have various substrate preferences and activities on tested cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates, including several native xylan substrates. Importantly, several of these activities could only be detected when using copolymeric substrates that likely resemble plant cell walls more than single fractionated polysaccharides do. Our results suggest that LPMOs have evolved to contribute to the degradation of different complex structures in plant cell walls where different biomass polymers are closely associated. This knowledge together with the elucidated novel xylanolytic activities could aid in further optimization of enzymatic cocktails for efficient degradation of lignocellulosic substrates and more.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Oxigenases de Função Mista , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sordariales
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 225, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017571

RESUMO

Cytochalasans (CYTs), as well as their polycyclic (pcCYTs) and polymerized (meCYTs) derivatives, constitute one of the largest families of fungal polyketide-nonribosomal peptide (PK-NRP) hybrid natural products. However, the mechanism of chemical conversion from mono-CYTs (moCYTs) to both pcCYTs and meCYTs remains unknown. Here, we show the first successful example of the reconstitution of the CYT core backbone as well as the whole pathway in a heterologous host. Importantly, we also describe the berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like oxidase AspoA, which uses Glu538 as a general acid biocatalyst to catalyse an unusual protonation-driven double bond isomerization reaction and acts as a switch to alter the native (for moCYTs) and nonenzymatic (for pcCYTs and meCYTs) pathways to synthesize aspochalasin family compounds. Our results present an unprecedented function of BBE-like enzymes and highly suggest that the isolated pcCYTs and meCYTs are most likely artificially derived products.


Assuntos
Citocalasinas/biossíntese , Citocalasinas/química , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/química , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/metabolismo , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos , Catálise , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/genética , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Sordariales
13.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 74(3): 446-457, 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate endophytic fungi isolated from Tocoyena bullata and Humiria balsamifera plant species for their antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, focusing on severe pulmonary tuberculosis cases which are often associated with exacerbated inflammation. METHODS: Mycobacterium suspensions were incubated with the samples for 5 days. RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS were also incubated with them for 24 h to assess the inhibition of inflammatory mediator production and cytotoxicity. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Mtb M299 and treated for 15 days with lasiodiplodin (Lasio). KEY FINDINGS: Endophytic fungus Sordaria tamaensis, obtained from T. bullata, was the most promising. Its ethanolic extract impaired mycobacterial growth with MIC50 (µg/ml): 1.5 ± 0.6 (BCG), 66.8 ± 0.1 (H37Rv) and 80.0 ± 0.1 (M299). (R)-(+)-Lasio showed MIC50 92.2 ± 1.8 µg/ml (M299). In addition, Lasio was able to inhibit NO, IL-1ß and TNF-α production and was not cytotoxic for macrophages. M. tuberculosis-infected C57BL/6 animals treated by Lasio reduced the number of acid-fast bacilli, lung pathology, leucocyte influx and proinflammatory cytokine production in the lungs. The class IIa fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was the predicted hypothetical target of Lasio. CONCLUSIONS: (R)-(+)-Lasio stood out as a promising anti-TB compound, exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antimycobacterial effects, as well as low cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Sordariales/química , Zearalenona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Rubiaceae/microbiologia , Sordariales/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação , Zearalenona/farmacologia
14.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 52(4): 404-412, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374634

RESUMO

Resveratrol is an important stilbene, initially identified from red wine possessing immense therapeutic, cosmeceutical and nutraceutical applications. In the present study, endophytic fungus Arcopilus aureus(#12VVLMP) which produces resveratrol extracellularly was selected as a candidate for epigenetic modulation using natural supplements, precursor feeding, chemical elicitors and co-culturing to enhance resveratrol production. The present study highlighted the role of natural supplements i.e. grape seed extract and grape skin extract which constitute grape pomace to enhance resveratrol production by 27.7 and 13.65% respectively. Co-culturing also impacted the resveratrol production by A. aureus, enhancing it by 9.4%. Chemical elicitors and precursor feeding did not induce significant enhancement in resveratrol production. Enhancement of anti-oxidant effect was also observed in the case of use of natural supplements assayed by DPPH and ABTS• radical scavenging assays. Similarly anti-staphylococcal and anti-candida activities were potentially higher when natural supplements were used followed by co-culturing. These findings indicate that the use of natural supplement which is a by-product of wine industry may be used as a modulator of resveratrol production by A. aureus. This shall lead to a cost-effective fermentation process of resveratrol production, the global demand of which is continuously increasing.


Assuntos
Sordariales , Vitis , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resveratrol/farmacologia
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(15): 3999-4002, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663291

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi are biodiverse and alternative source of bioactive compounds, due their different abilities of genetic expression and alteration of biosynthetic pathway when submitted to different culture conditions. The metabolic profile of three different crude extracts (A, B and C), obtained from the endophytic fungus Asordaria conoidea, were evaluated by HPLC and 1H NMR. Antioxidant and allelochemical activity were also evaluated. OSMAC diversified the metabolic production, mainly in the solid culture, where the tyrosol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-phenylacetamide and vanillic acid were isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated mainly by NMR. Extracts had antioxidant potential, however, only Extract C showed allelochemical activity, as inhibition of 65.5% in growth. This study confirms the efficiency of the OSMAC platform in producing extracts of different properties and compounds. Herein the A. conoidea was isolated for the first time as an endophytic microorganism.


Assuntos
Feromônios , Sordariales , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fungos , Compostos Orgânicos
16.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(11): 5211-5228, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413029

RESUMO

Cellulases are the enzymes with diverse range of industrial applications. Cellulases degrade cellulose into monomeric glucose units by hydrolysing ß-1,4-glycosidic bonds. There are three components of cellulases: a) endoglucanase, b) exoglucanase and c) ß-glucosidase which act synergistically in cellulose bioconversion. The cellulases are the third largest industrial enzymes with a great potential in bioethanol production. In this investigation, a ß-glucosidase of a thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila (MtBgl3c) was analysed for its structural characterization using in silico approaches. The protein structure of MtBgl3c is unknown, therefore an attempt has been made to model 3D structure using Modeller 9.23 software. The MtBgl3c protein model generated was validated from Verify 3D and ERRAT scores of 89.37% and 71.25%, respectively derived from SAVES. Using RAMPAGE the Ramachandran plot was generated, which predicted the accuracy of the 3D model with 91.5% amino acid residues in the favored region. The ion binding and N-glycosylation sites were also predicted. The generated model was docked with cellobiose to predict the most favorable binding sites of MtBgl3c. The key amino acid residues involved in cellobiose bonding are Val88, Asp106, Asp287, Tyr255, Arg170, Glu514. The catalytic conserved amino residues of MtBgl3c were identified. The dock score of cellobiose with MtBgl3c is much lower (-6.46 kcal/mol) than that of glucose (-5.61 kcal/mol), suggesting its high affinity for cellobiose. The docking data of MtBgl3c with glucose illustrate its tolerance to glucose. The present study provides insight into structural characteristics of the MtBgl3c which can be further validated by experimental data. Highlights3D structure of ß-glucosidase (MtBgl3c) of Myceliophthora thermophila is being proposed based on computational analysesThe amino acid residues Asp106, Asp287, Tyr255, Arg170 and Glu514 have been identified to play catalytically important role in substrate bindingDocking and interaction of MtBgl3c with cellobiose and glucose has been confirmedDocking analysis of MtBgl3c with glucose suggested its glucose toleranceThe data would be useful in engineering enzymes for attaining higher catalytic efficiencyCommunicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Celobiose , beta-Glucosidase , Aminoácidos , Celobiose/química , Celobiose/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sordariales , Especificidade por Substrato , beta-Glucosidase/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131479, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315081

RESUMO

The present work investigates for the first time the presence and isolation of the thermophilic fungi from hydrothermal spring situated at the locality of Guelma, in the Northeast of Algeria. The production of the thermostable proteases and the optimization of culture conditions under agro-wastes solid-state fermentation to achieve optimal production capacity were explored. A statistical experimental approach consisting of two designs was used to determine the optimum culture conditions and to attain the greatest enzyme production. Besides, different agricultural wastes were initially evaluated as a substrate, whereby wheat bran was selected for enzyme production by the isolate under solid-state conditions. The isolate thermophilic fungi were identified as Mycothermus thermophilus by sequencing the ITS region of the rDNA (NCBI Accession No: MK770356.1). Among the various screened variables: the temperature, the inoculum size, and the moisture were proved to have the most significant effects on protease activity. Employing two-level fractional Plackett-Burman and a Box-Behnken designs statistical approach helped in identifying optimum values of screened factors and their interactions. The analysis showed up 6.17-fold improvement in the production of proteases (~1187.03 U/mL) was achieved under the optimal conditions of moisture content 47%, inoculum 5 × 105 spores/g, and temperature at 42 °C. These significant findings highlight the importance of the statistical design in isolation of Mycothermus thermophilus species from a specific location as well as identifying the optimal culture conditions for maximum yield.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases , Argélia , Fermentação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Sordariales , Temperatura
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131945, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426272

RESUMO

Vermicomposting of food waste amended with biochar and cow dung was studied during a 90-day composting period. The improvement of the vermicomposting process by adding three mangrove fungal species as additional amendments were studied. The use of mangrove fungi Acrophialophora jodhpurensis as a bio-catalytic actor during vermicomposting proved to be beneficial in terms of final compost quality (available N, P and K) and the shortening of the composting period. All three fungal species, however, reached the neutral pH at the end of the composting period and appeared to be beneficial. Heavy metal (Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) concentrations decreased throughout the composting process. Food waste can be treated using vermicomposting with biochar, cow dung and the mangrove fungi A. jodhpurensis. The final vermicomposting product is suitable for agricultural use.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Fungos , Sordariales
19.
Genetics ; 219(2)2021 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849873

RESUMO

The formation of fruiting bodies is one of the most complex developmental processes in filamentous ascomycetes. It requires the development of sexual structures that give rise to meiosporangia (asci) and meiotic spores (ascospores) as well as surrounding structures for protection and dispersal of the spores. Previous studies have shown that these developmental processes are accompanied by significant changes of the transcriptome, and comparative transcriptomics of different fungi as well as the analysis of transcriptome changes in developmental mutants have aided in the identification of differentially regulated genes that are themselves involved in regulating fruiting body development. In previous analyses, we used transcriptomics to identify the genes asm2 and spt3, which result in developmental phenotypes when deleted in Sordaria macrospora. In this study, we identified another gene, asm3, required for fruiting body formation, and performed transcriptomics analyses of Δasm2, Δasm3, and Δspt3. Deletion of spt3, which encodes a subunit of the SAGA complex, results in a block at an early stage of development and drastic changes in the transcriptome. Deletion mutants of asm2 and asm3 are able to form fruiting bodies, but have defects in ascospore maturation. Transcriptomics analysis of fruiting bodies revealed a large overlap in differentially regulated genes in Δasm2 and Δasm3 compared to the wild type. Analysis of nuclear distribution during ascus development showed that both mutants undergo meiosis and postmeiotic divisions, suggesting that the transcriptomic and morphological changes might be related to defects in the morphogenesis of structural features of the developing asci and ascospores.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Sordariales/genética , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Sordariales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sordariales/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(23): 8739-8759, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748039

RESUMO

Cellulolytic fungi usually have multiple genes for C1-oxidizing auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) in their genomes, but their potential functional differences are less understood. In this study, two C1-oxidizing AA9 LPMOs, SbLPMO9A and SbLPMO9B, were identified from Sordaria brevicollis, and their differences, particularly in terms of thermostability, reducing agent specificity, and synergy with cellulase, were explored. The two enzymes exhibited weak binding to cellulose and intolerance to hydrogen peroxide. Their oxidative activity was influenced by cellulose crystallinity and surface morphology, and both enzymes tended to oxidize celluloses of lower crystallinity and high surface area. Comparably, SbLPMO9A had much better thermostability than SbLPMO9B, which may be attributed to the presence of a carbohydrate binding module 1 (CBM1)-like sequence at its C-terminus. In addition, the two enzymes exhibited different specificities and responsivities toward electron donors. SbLPMO9A and SbLPMO9B were able to boost the catalytic efficiency of endoglucanase I (EGI) on physically and chemically pretreated substrates but with different degrees of synergy. Substrate- and enzyme-specific synergism was observed by comparing the synergistic action of SbLPMO9A or SbLPMO9B with commercial Celluclast 1.5L on three kinds of cellulosic substrates. On regenerated amorphous cellulose and PFI (Papirindustriens Forskningsinstitut)-fibrillated bleached eucalyptus pulp, SbLPMO9B showed a higher synergistic effect than SbLPMO9A, while on delignified wheat straw, the synergistic effect of SbLPMO9A was higher than that of SbLPMO9B. On account of its excellent thermostability and boosting effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of delignified wheat straw, SbLPMO9A may have high application potential in biorefineries for lignocellulosic biomass. KEY POINTS: • C1-oxidizing SbLPMO9A displayed higher thermostability than SbLPMO9B, probably due to the presence of a CBM1-like module. • The oxidative activity of the two SbLPMO9s on celluloses increased with decreasing cellulose crystallinity or increasing beating degree. • The two SbLPMO9s boosted the catalytic efficiency of cellulase, but the synergistic effect was substrate- and enzyme-specific.


Assuntos
Celulase , Celulases , Celulase/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos , Sordariales
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