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1.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(2): 18-22, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813513

RESUMO

SUMMARY: How can healthcare organizations best attain sound financial results and, in turn, sustain market growth? Leaders at St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, part of Dignity Health Arizona, realized that they could not cut their way to success. They needed a plan for strategic growth that fit their corporate mission and expanded their market. They moved forward with a proven productivity process that would engage stakeholders at all levels of the organization. Supported by commitments to the necessary financial investment and the patience to see the plans through, their efforts have paid off with substantial improvements in margin. Similar financial growth success stories are playing out in other markets, including Froedtert Health in Wisconsin and Avera Health in South Dakota.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Arizona , South Dakota
4.
S D Med ; 74(6): 264-271, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Summer Program for Undergraduate Research in Addiction (SPURA) at the University of South Dakota provides research opportunities to better understand substance use and related mental health disorders. The program was initiated in 2014 from funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse with a mission to provide high-quality mentorship and research experiences for undergraduate students, including those underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and math. METHODS: Students from the University of South Dakota were recruited to participate in this program. Survey responses and demographic information were collected from the students. RESULTS: During the first five years, 37 students completed the program. Many of these students were underrepresented in science. Of the students that had completed their undergraduate degree at the time of the last survey, most students either continued their education in a health professional or graduate program, or were employed in a career related to mental health or substance use. CONCLUSIONS: The current report reflects upon the outcomes of the program and future directions. With continued effort, SPURA will provide critical education for future leaders and health care professionals on topics related to substance use and mental health disorders, resulting in a greater number of advocates for those afflicted by substance use.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Mentores , South Dakota , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(20): e0083221, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378953

RESUMO

Iron-bearing minerals are key components of the Earth's crust and potentially critical energy sources for subsurface microbial life. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) is situated in a range of iron-rich lithologies, and fracture fluids here reach concentrations as high as 8.84 mg/liter. Iron cycling is likely an important process, given the high concentrations of iron in fracture fluids and detection of putative iron-cycling taxa via marker gene surveys. However, a previous metagenomic survey detected no iron cycling potential at two DeMMO localities. Here, we revisited the potential for iron cycling at DeMMO using a new metagenomic data set including all DeMMO sites and FeGenie, a new annotation pipeline that is optimized for the detection of iron cycling genes. We annotated functional genes from whole metagenomic assemblies and metagenome-assembled genomes and characterized putative iron cycling pathways and taxa in the context of local geochemical conditions and available metabolic energy estimated from thermodynamic models. We reannotated previous metagenomic data, revealing iron cycling potential that was previously missed. Across both metagenomic data sets, we found that not only is there genetic potential for iron cycling at DeMMO, but also, iron is likely an important source of energy across the system. In response to the dramatic differences we observed between annotation approaches, we recommend the use of optimized pipelines where the detection of iron cycling genes is a major goal. IMPORTANCE We investigated iron cycling potential among microbial communities inhabiting iron-rich fracture fluids to a depth of 1.5 km in the continental crust. A previous study found no iron cycling potential in the communities despite the iron-rich nature of the system. A new tool for detecting iron cycling genes was recently published, which we used on a new data set. We combined this with a number of other approaches to get a holistic view of metabolic strategies across the communities, revealing iron cycling to be an important process here. In addition, we used the tool on the data from the previous study, revealing previously missed iron cycling potential. Iron is common in continental crust; thus, our findings are likely not unique to our study site. Our new view of important metabolic strategies underscores the importance of choosing optimized tools for detecting the potential for metabolisms like iron cycling that may otherwise be missed.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias , Fenômenos Geológicos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S , South Dakota
6.
S D Med ; 74(3): 115-120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232590

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prepregnancy obesity has been shown to be associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes but little is known about the associations with health-related behaviors and conditions before, during and after pregnancy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used data from the South Dakota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (SD PRAMS) survey, which is an ongoing state-based surveillance system of maternal behaviors, attitudes, and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. The 2017 and 2018 SD PRAMS sampled a total of 3,805 mothers who were randomly selected from birth certificate records to be representative of all South Dakota women who delivered a live-born infant. Logistic regression was used to determine whether prepregnancy obesity was associated with adverse health conditions after controlling for demographic factors. RESULTS: Women with prepregnancy obesity, compared to those who were non-obese, were more likely to report an unintended pregnancy (45 percent vs. 39 percent), smoking three months before pregnancy (32 percent vs. 22 percent), delayed prenatal care (12 percent vs. 16 percent), hypertension during pregnancy (22 percent vs. 9 percent), gestational diabetes (19 percent vs. 8 percent), depression during pregnancy (21 percent vs. 14 percent), C-section delivery (35 percent vs. 22 percent), high birth weight (15 percent vs. 8 percent), and the infant hospitalized for three or more days (41 percent vs. 30 percent). Of women with prepregnancy obesity, 37 percent had been talked to by health care providers about maintaining a healthy weight the 12 months before pregnancy compared to 13 percent of non-obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers should be more intentional about stressing the potential risks of prepregnancy obesity to properly educate mothers and women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , South Dakota/epidemiologia
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6611-6618, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289148

RESUMO

The objective of this longitudinal cohort study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in healthcare workers employed at healthcare settings in three rural counties in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota from May 13, 2020, through December 22, 2020. Three blood draws were performed at five clinical sites and tested for the presence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies using a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA), neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped particles (SARS-CoV-2pp) assay, and serum virus neutralization (SVN) assay. The seroprevalence was determined to be 1/336 (0.29%) for samples collected from 5/13/20 to 7/13/20, 5/260 (1.92%) for samples collected from 8/13/20 to 9/25/20, and 35/235 (14.89%) for samples collected from 10/16/20 to 12/22/20. Eight of the 35 (22.8%) seropositive individuals identified in the final draw did not report a previous diagnosis with COVID-19. There was a high correlation (>90%) between the FMIA and virus neutralization assays. Each clinical site's seroprevalence was higher than the cumulative incidence for the general public in the respective county as reported by state public health agencies. As of December 2020, there was a high percentage (85%) of seronegative individuals in the study population.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Testes de Neutralização , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
S D Med ; 74(2): 54-57, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccinations are one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th century, leading to a reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with the infectious diseases they prevent. Unfortunately, vaccination rates within the U.S. have been declining, and many of these vaccine-preventable diseases are again on the rise. Due to this, methods to increase vaccination rates are being explored. Vaccine standing orders are one method being employed. This pilot study explored the effects vaccine standing orders placed in the electronic medical record (EMR) had on the number of pediatric vaccinations administered in one South Dakota clinic. METHODS: Nursing staff reviewed the EMR and state records to determine what immunizations the pediatric patients, defined as those 18 years of age and under, were due for according to the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) recommended vaccination schedule. They then placed vaccine standing orders in the EMR for each delinquent vaccination based on these findings. The number of vaccines administered during a five-month period before (Jan. 1 - May 31, 2019) and a five-month period after (June 1 - Oct.31, 2019) implementation of standing orders were compared. Results were analyzed using an independent samples t-test. RESULTS: The absolute number of vaccinations administered after standing orders were instituted was greater than those administered prior to standing orders. The average number of vaccines given per month more than doubled, resulting in a statistically significant increase in vaccination rates by 117 percent. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrated a significant increase in the number of immunizations administered with the use of standing orders.


Assuntos
Prescrições Permanentes , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , South Dakota , Vacinação
9.
S D Med ; 74(2): 76-78, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161688

RESUMO

National epidemiological studies indicate that vaping or e-cigarette use has increased in alarming proportions among American adolescents. In vaping, a battery-powered device heats up a liquid into an aerosol which is inhaled by the user. The aerosol, commonly referred to as vapor, usually contains nicotine, flavoring, marijuana along with other chemicals and substances. This article highlights serious yet avoidable health risks from vaping amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaping may mediate transmission, infections, disease progression and risk of succumbing to COVID-19. An overview of possible solutions and resources for South Dakota physicians is also discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112851, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089956

RESUMO

This study develops and applies the Institutional Panarchy Framework (IPF) to examine institutional adaptations in the rights, rules, and authority to govern public access and use of 'nonmeandered waters' (NMWs) overlying private lands in the South Dakota Prairie Pothole Region (SD PPR). Data collection from March 2017 through July 2019 involved field observations of legislative and other public meetings and review of legislation, policy, court cases, documents, and existing statistics. Findings demonstrated how hydrological changes resulted in everyday, operational level changes in how access and use rights to NMWs were executed, conflict over rules governing use and access of NMWs at the collective choice level, and eventually constitutional level changes in the authority to determine rights and rules of access and use of NMWs. A key contribution for commons and socio-hydrological governance scholarship is that institutional resistance and pressures for change are not unidirectional; feedbacks from lower institutional levels spur change at higher levels and broader scales. Broader policy implications include institutional mechanisms for potential improvements in water quality, farm sustainability, and climate justice.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Hidrologia , Aclimatação , South Dakota
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 264-272, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822142

RESUMO

As part of the national recovery effort, endangered black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) were reintroduced to the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota, US in 2000. Despite an encouraging start, numbers of ferrets at the site have declined. In an effort to determine possible causes of the population decline, we undertook a pathogen survey in 2012 to detect exposure to West Nile virus (WNV), canine distemper virus (CDV), plague (Yersinia pestis), tularemia (Francisella tularensis), and heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) using coyotes (Canis latrans) as a sentinel animal. The highest seroprevalence was for WNV with 71% (20/28) of coyotes testing antibody-positive. Seroprevalence of CDV and plague were lower, 27% and 13%, respectively. No evidence of active infection with tularemia or heartworm was seen in the coyotes sampled. As this study did not sample black-footed ferrets themselves, the definitive cause for the decline of this population cannot be determined. However, the presence of coyotes seropositive for two diseases, plague and CDV, lethal to black-footed ferrets, indicated the potential for exposure and infection. The high seroprevalence of WNV in the coyotes indicated a wide exposure to the virus; therefore, exposure of black-footed ferrets to the virus is also likely. Due to the ability of WNV to cause fatal disease in other species, studies may be useful to elucidate the impact that WNV could have on the success of reintroduced black-footed ferrets as well as factors influencing the spread and incidence of the disease in a prairie ecosystem.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Coiotes/sangue , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Furões , Peste/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/sangue , Cinomose/sangue , Cinomose/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Feminino , Masculino , Peste/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Yersinia pestis
12.
J Pediatr ; 236: 157-163.e1, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the interplay between maternal exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and father's acknowledgment of paternity (AOP; a proxy for paternal involvement) in the risk of low birth weight (<2500 grams) and preterm birth (<37 weeks) among offspring. STUDY DESIGN: Data come from the 2018 North Dakota and South Dakota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 1896). Logistic regression models were used to assess low birth weight and preterm birth outcomes. Moderation analyses are conducted to assess the interaction between maternal ACEs and father's AOP. RESULTS: Moderation analyses demonstrated a positive interaction between an accumulating number of maternal ACEs and being unmarried without AOP for low birth weight and preterm birth. Upon comparing newborns of unmarried women without AOP, those whose mothers were exposed to 4 or more ACEs had a 3.74 times greater probability of low birth weight (0.050 vs 0.187) and a 1.74 times greater probability of preterm birth (0.085 vs 0.148) than those whose mothers reported no ACE exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to accumulating ACEs substantially increases the risk of deleterious infant health outcomes, but only for newborns of unmarried women without AOP. Future research should assess the efficacy of interventions that can mitigate the impact of maternal ACEs in the absence of father's AOP.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Saúde do Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Paterno , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , North Dakota , Paternidade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , South Dakota
13.
S D Med ; 74(1): 6-12, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691050

RESUMO

Between 2015 and 2019, the total number of births in South Dakota declined by 7 percent. As infant mortality rates are calculated per 1,000 live births, slight increases or decreases in total deaths and deaths due to specific causes manifest in notable shifts in yearly infant mortality rates (IMR). In 2019, 10 more infants died than in 2018 (80 vs. 70). With the decline in the state's births, the IMR increased from 5.9 to 6.7, which is significantly higher than the U.S. rate of 5.7 for 2018. South Dakota's 2019 increase in births of very low birth weight infants and deaths due to congenital anomalies contributed to this increase in mortality. In South Dakota, between 2015-19, 62 percent of all infant deaths occurred during the first 27 days of life. Though the rate of death for the state's minority infants remains significantly higher than that of its white infants, a decline in the ratio of the minority to white IMR is noted. Further, the rate of death due to sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) remained stable between 2018-19 but there is evidence that increasingly these deaths are caused by accidental suffocation or strangulation in bed which is typically preventable with safe sleeping environments for infants. The interactions between birth weight, incidence, cause, and timing of death are explored in this annual review of infant mortality.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Causas de Morte , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Gravidez , South Dakota/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle
14.
Environ Res ; 195: 110864, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic has been associated with hypertension, though it is unclear whether associations persist at the exposure concentrations (e.g. <100 µg/L) in drinking water occurring in parts of the Western United States. METHODS: We assessed associations between arsenic biomarkers and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension in the Strong Heart Family Study, a family-based cohort of American Indians from the Northern plains, Southern plains, and Southwest. We included 1910 participants from three study centers with complete baseline visit data (2001-2003) in the cross-sectional analysis of all three outcomes, and 1453 participants in the prospective analysis of incident hypertension (follow-up 2006-2009). We used generalized estimating equations with exchangeable correlation structure conditional on family membership to estimate the association of arsenic exposure biomarker levels with SBP or DBP (linear regressions) or hypertension prevalence and incidence (Poisson regressions), adjusting for urine creatinine, urine arsenobetaine, and measured confounders. RESULTS: We observed cross-sectional associations for a two-fold increase in inorganic and methylated urine arsenic species of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.35) mm Hg for SBP, 0.49 (95% CI: 0.03, 1.02) mm Hg for DBP, and a prevalence ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.21) for hypertension in fully adjusted models. During follow-up, 14% of subjects developed hypertension. We observed non-monotonic relationships between quartiles of arsenic and incident hypertension. Effect estimates were null for incident hypertension with continuous exposure metrics. Stratification by study site revealed elevated associations in Arizona, the site with the highest arsenic levels, while results for Oklahoma and North and South Dakota were largely null. Blood pressure changes with increasing arsenic concentrations were larger for those with diabetes at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a modest cross-sectional association of arsenic exposure biomarkers with blood pressure, and possible non-linear effects on incident hypertension.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Hipertensão , Índios Norte-Americanos , Arizona , Arsênio/toxicidade , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Oklahoma , Estudos Prospectivos , South Dakota , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 38(6): 557-565, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore health professional, patient, family, and caregiver perceptions of palliative care, availability of palliative care services to patients across South Dakota, and consistency and quality of palliative care delivery. METHODS: Six focus groups were conducted over two months. Participants included interprofessional healthcare team members, patients, family members of patients, and caregivers. Individuals with palliative care experiences or interest in palliative care were invited to participate. Recruitment strategies included emails, flyers, and direct contact by members of the Network. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants. RESULTS: Forty-six participants included patients, family members, caregivers and interprofessional health care team members. Most participants were Caucasian (93.3%) and female (80%). Six primary themes emerged: Need for guidance toward the development of a holistic statewide palliative care model; Poor conceptual understanding and awareness; Insufficient resources to implement complete care in all South Dakota communities; Disparities in the availability and provision of care services in rural SD communities; Need for relationship and connection with palliative care team; and Secondary effects of palliative care on patients/family/caregivers and interprofessional healthcare team members. Significance of Results: Disproportionate access is a principle problem identified for palliative care in rural South Dakota. Palliative care is poorly understood by providers and recipients of care. Service reach is also tempered by lack of resources and payer reimbursement constraints. A model for palliative care in these rural communities requires concerted attention to their unique needs and design of services suited for the rural residents.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , South Dakota
16.
J Telemed Telecare ; 27(1): 23-31, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966860

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tele-emergency models have been utilized for decades, with growing evidence of their effectiveness. Due to the variety of tele-emergency department (tele-ED) models used in practice, however, it is challenging to build standardized metrics for ongoing evaluation. This study describes two tele-ED programs, one specialized and one general, that provide care to paediatric populations. Through an examination of model structures and patient populations, we gain insight into how evaluative measures should reflect tele-ED model design and purpose. METHODS: Qualitative descriptions of the two tele-ED models are presented. We show a retrospective cohort analysis describing paediatric patients' key characteristics, reasons for visit, and disposition status by case/control status. Case/control patient encounter data were collected October 2015 through December 2017, from 15 spoke hospitals within each tele-ED program. RESULTS: The two tele-ED models serve distinct paediatric populations, and measures of tele-ED utilization and disposition reflect those differences. In the specialized University of California (UC) Davis Health program, tele-ED was utilized in 36% of paediatric critical care encounters and 78% of those were transferred. In the Avera eCARE program, tele-ED was activated in 1.7% of paediatric encounters and 50.6% of those were transferred. When Avera eCARE paediatric encounters were stratified by severity, measures of tele-ED use and disposition status among high-severity encounters were more similar to UC Davis Health. DISCUSSION: This study describes how design choices of tele-ED models have implications for evaluative measures. Measures of tele-ED model success need to reflect model purpose, populations served, and for whom tele-ED service use is appropriate.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica , Telemedicina , Adolescente , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , South Dakota , Telemedicina/métodos
17.
Geobiology ; 19(2): 173-188, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188587

RESUMO

The subsurface is Earth's largest reservoir of biomass. Micro-organisms are the dominant lifeforms in this habitat, but the nature of their in situ activities remains largely unresolved. At the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) located in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota (USA), we performed in situ electrochemical incubations designed to assess the potential for deep groundwater microbial communities to utilize extracellular electron transfer to support microbial respiration. DeMMO 4 was chosen for its stable geochemistry and microbial community. Graphite and indium tin oxide electrodes poised at -200 mV versus SHE were incubated along with open circuit controls and various minerals in a parallel flow reactor that split access to fluids across different treatments. From the patterns of net current over time (fluctuating between anodic and cathodic currents over the course of a few days to weeks) and the catalytic features measured using periodic cyclic voltammetry, evidence of both oxidative and reductive microbe-electrode interactions was observed. The predominant catalytic activity ranged from -210 to -120 mV. The observed temporal variability in electrochemical activity was unexpected given the documented stability in major geochemical parameters. This suggests that the accessed fluids are more heterogeneous in electrochemically active microbial populations than previously predicted from the stable community composition. As previously reported, the fracture fluid and surface-attached microbial communities at SURF differed significantly. However, only minimal differences in community composition were observed between poised potential electrodes, open circuit electrodes, and mineral incubations. These data support that in this environment the ability to attach to surfaces is a stronger driver of microbial community structure than the type or reactivity of the surface. We demonstrate that insight into specific activities can be gained from electrochemical methods, specifically chronoamperometry coupled with routine cyclic voltammetry, which provide a sensitive approach to evaluate microbial activities in situ.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Microbiota , Eletrodos , Transporte de Elétrons , South Dakota
18.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 18(1): 32-48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The top causes of death for American Indians (AIs), including heart and liver disease, are associated with alcohol use. Using the culturally based Framework of Historical Oppression, Resilience, and Transcendence (FHORT), the purpose of this article was to examine AI alcohol use from a sex-specific wellness approach, exploring its associated physical, behavioral, and mental risk and protective factors. METHOD: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey with 479 AI adults in South Dakota. We employed a series of multiple hierarchical regression analyses to assess the associations of demographic (sex, age, marital status, income, and educational attainment), physical (Body Mass Index and cardiovascular risk), behavioral (smoking and health self-efficacy) and mental (depressive symptoms) factors with alcohol use. RESULTS: Results indicated that surveyed males tended to drink three times that of females, and depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of alcohol use. DISCUSSION: This study highlights the need to examine AI alcohol use with sex in mind.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Nativos Estadunidenses , Fatores de Proteção , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar , South Dakota , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
S D Med ; 73(10): 458-460, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264524

RESUMO

This report describes a rare case of an 87-year-old woman presenting to a rural emergency department with ataxia. Throughout her admission, she developed areflexia and ophthalmoplegia consistent with a diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. The patient underwent a rapid recovery after receiving treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for a duration of five days and a two-month period of outpatient physical therapy.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Miller Fisher , Oftalmoplegia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Miller Fisher/complicações , Síndrome de Miller Fisher/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Miller Fisher/terapia , Oftalmoplegia/etiologia , South Dakota
20.
S D Med ; 73(10): 462-469, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current estimates suggest progressively increasing need for rural family medicine and primary care providers in the near future. Predominantly rural states such as South Dakota have even greater difficulty in attracting these providers. Since its founding, the Sanford School of Medicine (SSOM) at the University of South Dakota has designed its curriculum to encourage students to choose these specialties and practice within the state upon completing residency. The objective of this paper was to evaluate trends in specialty choice and geographic location of residency programs for SSOM graduates compared with national means. METHODS: A retrospective observational analysis of residency match data including specialty and geographic location of the program was performed for matched seniors of SSOM from the years 2000-2020 and compared to national data over the same period. RESULTS: The proportions of students matching with primary care, surgical, or medical specialties at SSOM was not significantly different from national means. Proportionally, SSOM had almost twice the national average of students matching into family medicine (17.5 percent vs 9.0 percent). A significantly greater proportion of SSOM graduates matched into general surgery (8.1 percent vs 6.0 percent). SSOM students were significantly more likely (71.5 percent) than national (63.0 percent) and Midwest (58 percent) averages to match within their home region. CONCLUSIONS: SSOM's curriculum has led to a greater proportion of graduates matching with family medicine programs and at the national average for primary care overall. SSOM students are also significantly more likely than the national average to match within the same region of their medical school.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Faculdades de Medicina , South Dakota
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