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1.
Codas ; 34(2): e20200220, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019076

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to verify if hesitations would occur, preferably, in strong or weak positions of four of the prosodic constituents: phonological utterance, intonational phrase, phonological phrase and clitic group. METHODS: the data were extracted from a bank composed of 147 interview situations recorded with children aged 5-6 years. Was used the principle of relative prominence for the analysis of prosodic constituents. From this principle, the hesitant occurrences identified in prominent elements in the organization of each of the prosodic constituents was considered as for strong position and, as in a weak position, the hesitant occurrences identified in parts of constituents that surround the prominent positions. The judges detected 2.399 hesitant occurrences. RESULTS: the following total hesitations were identified in strong and weak positions, respectively: (1) in the phonological utterance = 305 (28.37%) and 770 (71.63%); (2) in the intonational phrase = 285 (20.67%) and 1094 (79.33%); (3) in the phonological phrase = 129 (16.49%) and 653 (83.51%); and (4) in the clitic group = 154 (15.21%) and 859 (84.79%). CONCLUSION: although hesitant occurrences have been identified in strong positions in all prosodic constituents analyzed, there was prevalence due to the weak position. This result corroborates studies that claim that hesitations would occur in non-nuclear prosodic portions. Furthermore to this confirmation, the results reinforce the effectiveness of the prosodic phonology model in relation to the principle of relative prominence.


OBJETIVO: verificar se as hesitações ocorreriam, preferencialmente, em posições fortes ou fracas de quatro dos constituintes prosódicos: enunciado fonológico, frase entonacional, frase fonológica e grupo clítico. MÉTODO: os dados foram extraídos de um banco composto por 147 situações de entrevistas realizadas com crianças de 5-6 anos de idade. Para análise dos constituintes prosódicos, foi utilizado o princípio da proeminência relativa. A partir desse princípio, foram consideradas como em posição forte as ocorrências hesitativas identificadas em elementos proeminentes na organização de cada um dos constituintes prosódicos e, como em posição fraca, as ocorrências hesitativas identificadas em partes de constituintes que circundam as posições proeminentes. Foram detectadas, pelos juízes, 2.399 ocorrências hesitativas. RESULTADOS: foram identificadas, respectivamente, em posições fortes e fracas os seguintes totais de hesitações: (1) no enunciado fonológico = 305 (28,37%) e 770 (71,63%); (2) na frase entonacional = 285 (20,67%) e 1094 (79,33%); (3) na frase fonológica = 129 (16,49%) e 653 (83,51%); e (4) no grupo clítico = 154 (15,21%) e 859 (84,79%). CONCLUSÃO: embora as ocorrências hesitativas tenham sido identificadas em posições fortes em todos os constituintes prosódicos analisados, houve prevalência pela posição fraca. Esse resultado corrobora estudos que afirmam que as hesitações ocorreriam em porções prosodicamente não nucleares. Além dessa confirmação, os resultados reforçam a eficácia do modelo da fonologia prosódica em relação ao princípio da proeminência relativa.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Acústica da Fala
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9217236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957308

RESUMO

Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS Model 6600) is an evaluation instrument that assesses the effectiveness of surgical interventions, treatments, and therapy for voice disorders. It can be used for the assessment of voice disorders by supporting other perceptual and instrumental methods. It is important to establish normative data, because the use of appropriate norms is necessary for diagnostic and descriptive accuracy. Therefore, this study is aimed primarily at establishing adult normative databases for phonatory aerodynamic measures obtained with the KayPENTAX PAS Model 6600 among healthy adult Turkish speakers and then examining the effect of age, gender, and age-gender interaction variables on these measures. The contribution of the study is considered so important since it will generate normative data for all measurements-except the mean pitch-by the five protocols of PAS for the first time. Two hundred and six healthy Turkish speakers with normal voice (106 women and 100 men) were included in the study and stratified into three age groups. Forty-five phonatory aerodynamic measures across five PAS protocols (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, variation in sound pressure level, and voicing efficiency) were collected. Age, gender, and age-gender interaction variables were analyzed for 45 PAS parameters. Significant gender and age effect was found for 30 and 19 variables, respectively. Gender-age interaction together was observed for only 6 parameters. Significant differences were not found for the remaining 10 parameters. Significant age and gender effects were observed for 35 phonatory and aerodynamic measures which are essential part of the objective clinical assessment of voice. Consequently, normative data used as reference in voice assessment should be generated according to age and gender differences.


Assuntos
Fonação/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Laringe/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Acústica da Fala , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia
3.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(6): 2668-2680, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723650

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among subjective auditory-perceptual ratings of vocal quality, objective acoustic and aerodynamic measures of vocal function, and patient-perceived severity of their vocal complaint. Method This study was a retrospective chart review of adult patients evaluated at a single outpatient center over a 1.5-year time period. Twenty-two clinical objective and subjective measures of voice were extracted from 676 charts (310 males, 366 females). To identify the underlying concepts addressed in an initial voice assessment, principal component analyses were conducted for males and females to account for sex differences. Linear regression models were conducted to examine the relationship between the principal components and patient perceived severity. Results Seven principal components were identified for both sexes and accounted for 75% and 71% of the variance in the clinical measures, respectively. Of these seven principal components, only two predicted male patient perceived severity, which accounted for 22% of the variance. In contrast, four principal components predicted female patient perceived severity of their voice disorder and accounted for 19% of the variance. Conclusions The results highlight the underlying aspects of vocal quality and functioning that are evaluated during an initial assessment. Male and female patients differ in which of these components may contribute self-perceived severity of a voice disorder. Identifying these underlying components may support clinical decision making when developing a clinical protocol and highlights the overlap between patient concerns and clinical measures. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.16879603.


Assuntos
Distúrbios da Voz , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acústica da Fala , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico
4.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 86(5): 17-21, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783468

RESUMO

New procedure of vowel acoustic space (VAS) (of vowel acoustic triangles) transformation for the purpose of characterization of vowel production in individuals with long-term hearing loss (HL) was developed. OBJECTIVE: To characterize VAS of adult Russian speakers with long-term HL using newly developed acoustic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Recordings of sustained Russian cardinal vowels /a/, /i/, /u/ of 10 women and 10 men with long-term HL were acoustically analyzed. For each participant, two first formants of each vowel were measured and log-transformed (logF1, logF2). VAS was transformed into right triangles, their /u/ corners were moved to the origin, and their legs were aligned with axes. VAS was almost symmetrical, equal and have a maximum size in the control group consisted of subjects without hearing impairment while these of long-term HL group VAS size tended to have reduced and VAS stretched along one axis. RESULTS: Our study showed that a new VAS normalization approach can distinguish at least three groups of people with long-term HL. CONCLUSION: There are those with vowel triangles stretched along logF1-axis, with vowel triangles stretched along logF2-axis, and with symmetrical vowel triangles. Causes of the VAS differences require further investigation.


Assuntos
Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Federação Russa , Acústica da Fala
5.
J Med Invest ; 68(3.4): 276-279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759144

RESUMO

Objective : In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of voice in pediatric patients with vocal nodules using acoustic analysis of voice. Methods : Thirty-five pediatric patients with vocal nodules and 32 control children without dysphonia were enrolled in this study. Their voice samples were analyzed using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program. Acoustic parameters of voice, such as pitch period perturbation quotient (PPQ), amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), and noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), were measured. Results : In phonation at a loudness of over 80 dBA, the PPQ, APQ, and NHR values of the voice significantly increased in children with vocal nodules than in the control children without dysphonia. The sensitivities and specificities of PPQ, APQ, and NHR for prediction of vocal nodules in children were 62.86% and 84.38%, 74.29% and 75.00%, and 31.43% and 93.75%, respectively. Discussion : The present findings suggest that vocal nodules affect vocal fold vibration, resulting in impaired control of pitch and loudness leading to increased noise components. NHR could be used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment, such as voice rehabilitation, in pediatric patients with vocal nodules because of its high specificity for prediction of vocal nodules in children. J. Med. Invest. 68 : 276-279, August, 2021.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Qualidade da Voz , Acústica , Criança , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Disfonia/etiologia , Humanos , Fonação , Acústica da Fala
6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 2647, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717445

RESUMO

Auditory feedback is an important component of speech motor control, but its precise role in developing speech is less understood. The role of auditory feedback in development was probed by perturbing the speech of children 4-9 years old. The vowel sound /ɛ/ was shifted to /æ/ in real time and presented to participants as their own auditory feedback. Analyses of the resultant formant magnitude changes in the participants' speech indicated that children compensated and adapted by adjusting their formants to oppose the perturbation. Older and younger children responded to perturbation differently in F1 and F2. The compensatory change in F1 was greater for younger children, whereas the increase in F2 was greater for older children. Adaptation aftereffects were observed in both groups. Exploratory directional analyses in the two-dimensional formant space indicated that older children responded more directly and less variably to the perturbation than younger children, shifting their vowels back toward the vowel sound /ɛ/ to oppose the perturbation. Findings support the hypothesis that auditory feedback integration continues to develop between the ages of 4 and 9 years old such that the differences in the adaptive and compensatory responses arise between younger and older children despite receiving the same auditory feedback perturbation.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Humanos , Fonética , Fala , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
7.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 2912, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717474

RESUMO

Voice disorders can reduce the speech intelligibility of affected speakers. This study evaluated the effect of noise, voice disorders, and room acoustics on vowel intelligibility, listening easiness, and the listener's reaction time. Three adult females with dysphonia and three adult females with normal voice quality recorded a series of nine vowels of American English in /h/-V-/d/ format (e.g., "had"). The recordings were convolved with two oral-binaural impulse responses acquired from measurements in two classrooms with 0.4 and 3.1 s of reverberation time, respectively. The stimuli were presented in a forced-choice format to 29 college students. The intelligibility and the listening easiness were significantly higher in quiet than in noisy conditions, when the speakers had normal voice quality compared to a dysphonic voice, and in low reverberated environments compared to high reverberated environments. The response time of the listener was significantly longer for speech presented in noisy conditions compared to quiet conditions and when the voice was dysphonic compared with healthy voice quality.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Qualidade da Voz
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 2865, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717491

RESUMO

Lexical pitch accent in Japanese is primarily realized as a steep fall in fo from an accented syllable into the following one. In addition, when a phrase that contains an accented syllable is followed by another phrase, the following phrase undergoes downstep, a compression of the fo range. Furthermore, while their acoustic identity is not yet clear, secondary cues to Japanese pitch accent are known to exist. The present study examined how speakers of Tokyo Japanese used acoustic information from these three sources in perceiving lexical pitch accent in Tokyo Japanese. Listeners heard stimuli in which the acoustic cues related to accent were independently manipulated and were asked to identify if a word presented sentence-medially was a final-accented word or its unaccented counterpart. Results found that listeners' judgments of words were most consistent with the presence or absence of downstep. That is, listeners identified that the preceding phrase contained an accented word when the following phrase was downstepped. Listeners also used the fo fall to determine if the word in question was a final-accented word or an unaccented word. Secondary cues to pitch accent were most weakly related to listeners' identification of accent.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção da Fala , Japão , Fonética , Acústica da Fala
9.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 2635, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717507

RESUMO

One's own voice (autophony) is transmitted to the ears as direct airborne sound, bone conduction, and indirect airborne sound from reflections characterized by overall gain and spectro-temporal features. This study investigates how the spectral profile and gain of simulated indirect airborne sound, quantified as voice support (STV), affect the speaking voice of talkers. Pairs of participants performed a conversation elicitation task in anechoic conditions. The indirect airborne sound was provided in real-time via open headphones that maintain the direct airborne transmission path. Experimental conditions included high-pass, low-pass, and all-pass versions of STV, each presented at three overall gains, and a Baseline condition with no electroacoustic contribution to STV. The results show an overall speech level reduction of 0.22 dB for every additional dB of speech-weighted STV, i.e., a -0.22 dB/dB slope. There was some effect of STV spectrum on speech: slope for the high-pass condition was steeper (statistically significant) and significantly different from the all-pass slope; spectral balance (2-4 kHz vs 0-2 kHz) of speech showed an interaction effect between gender and experimental conditions. This paper's findings may inform acoustic treatments in environments where overall sound reduction is of interest for favorable ergonomics and occupational health for voice professionals.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Voz , Condução Óssea , Comunicação , Humanos , Fala , Acústica da Fala
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 2446, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717508

RESUMO

This paper examines seven acoustic properties of /s/ in Chilean Spanish (CS) and Salvadoran Spanish (ES). Acoustic measurements from 36 speakers, balanced for gender and dialect, reveal several cross-dialectal differences: CS /s/ was significantly longer than ES /s/ in coda position and had a higher spectral center of gravity. Two findings were mitigated by gender: women in both dialects were more likely to voice /s/, but the magnitude of the difference in voicing between male and female speakers was greater in CS. There were no differences in relative intensity in CS, while in ES, /s/ used by males has significantly lower relative intensity than /s/ used by females. No dialect differences were found for variance, kurtosis, or skewness. While both CS and ES are frequently collocated under the umbrella of "/s/ weakening dialects," our results show that tokens of non-deleted /s/ are acoustically distinct. These findings suggest that shorter duration and lower spectral energy in ES could be the result of a looser or backer constriction of /s/ and may have implications for work examining cross-dialectal differences in /s/ lenition at the phonetics/phonology interface.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Voz , Acústica , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética
11.
Brain Lang ; 222: 105028, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597904

RESUMO

To achieve perceptual constancy, listeners utilize contextual cues to normalize speech variabilities in speakers. The present study tested the time course of this cognitive process with an event-related potential (ERP) experiment. The first neurophysiological evidence of speech normalization is observed in P2 (130-250 ms), which is functionally related to phonetic and phonological processes. Furthermore, the normalization process was found to ease lexical retrieval, as indexed by smaller N400 (350-470 ms) after larger P2. A cross-language vowel perception task was carried out to further specify whether normalization was processed in the phonetic and/or phonological stage(s). It was found that both phonetic and phonological cues in the speech context contributed to vowel normalization. The results suggest that vowel normalization in the speech context can be observed in the P2 time window and largely overlaps with phonetic and phonological processes.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Acústica da Fala
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258747, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673811

RESUMO

Joint speech behaviours where speakers produce speech in unison are found in a variety of everyday settings, and have clinical relevance as a temporary fluency-enhancing technique for people who stutter. It is currently unknown whether such synchronisation of speech timing among two speakers is also accompanied by alignment in their vocal characteristics, for example in acoustic measures such as pitch. The current study investigated this by testing whether convergence in voice fundamental frequency (F0) between speakers could be demonstrated during synchronous speech. Sixty participants across two online experiments were audio recorded whilst reading a series of sentences, first on their own, and then in synchrony with another speaker (the accompanist) in a number of between-subject conditions. Experiment 1 demonstrated significant convergence in participants' F0 to a pre-recorded accompanist voice, in the form of both upward (high F0 accompanist condition) and downward (low and extra-low F0 accompanist conditions) changes in F0. Experiment 2 demonstrated that such convergence was not seen during a visual synchronous speech condition, in which participants spoke in synchrony with silent video recordings of the accompanist. An audiovisual condition in which participants were able to both see and hear the accompanist in pre-recorded videos did not result in greater convergence in F0 compared to synchronisation with the pre-recorded voice alone. These findings suggest the need for models of speech motor control to incorporate interactions between self- and other-speech feedback during speech production, and suggest a novel hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the fluency-enhancing effects of synchronous speech in people who stutter.


Assuntos
Fonação , Fonética , Acústica da Fala , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 1830, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598614

RESUMO

To clarify the acoustic variables for predicting and classifying Japanese singleton and geminate consonants, raw and logarithmic durations of the consonants and their related segments were examined using 12 minimal pair words that were pronounced in a carrier sentence at various speaking rates by 20 native Japanese speakers. Regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the logarithmic durations were better at predicting and classifying Japanese singleton and geminate consonants than the raw durations used in many previous studies. Specifically, the best acoustic variables were the logarithmic duration of the consonant's closure or frication and the logarithmic average duration of the mora in the preceding carrier phrase. These results suggest that logarithmic durations are relational invariant acoustic variables that can cope with the durational variations of singleton and geminate consonants in a wide range of speaking rates.


Assuntos
Fonética , Acústica da Fala , Acústica , Japão , Idioma
14.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 1806, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598630

RESUMO

This paper shows that machine learning techniques are very successful at classifying the Russian voiceless non-palatalized fricatives [f], [s], and [ʃ] using a small set of acoustic cues. From a data sample of 6320 tokens of read sentences produced by 40 participants, temporal and spectral measurements are extracted from the full sound, the noise duration, and the middle 30 ms windows. Furthermore, 13 mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are computed from the middle 30 ms window. Classifiers based on single decision trees, random forests, support vector machines, and neural networks are trained and tested to distinguish between these three fricatives. The results demonstrate that, first, the three acoustic cue extraction techniques are similar in terms of classification accuracy (93% and 99%) but that the spectral measurements extracted from the full frication noise duration result in slightly better accuracy. Second, the center of gravity and the spectral spread are sufficient for the classification of [f], [s], and [ʃ] irrespective of contextual and speaker variation. Third, MFCCs show a marginally higher predictive power over spectral cues (<2%). This suggests that both sets of measures provide sufficient information for the classification of these fricatives and their choice depends on the particular research question or application.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Acústica da Fala , Acústica , Humanos , Federação Russa , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
15.
Codas ; 33(6): e20200126, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify if there are differences in the vocal aspects of older people from three different age groups with presbyphonia diagnosis. METHODS: Sixty older adults joined this study. They were both female and male, with an age range from 60 to 90 years old (average: 72.3) and with presbyphonia diagnosis established after otolaryngology evaluation. From their voice recordings, it was possible to make the acoustic and auditory-perceptual analysis. The data collected was compared through statistical tests considering the division of the participants into the following groups: 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, and 81-90 years old. RESULTS: Even though the older people from all of the three groups have presented deviation in multiple vocal aspects such as instability and vocal noise in low frequencies, those with more than 80 years old have presented a higher deviation of the general grade of dysphonia, roughness, breathiness, and pitch. In this group, it was also observed higher deviations in jitter, shimmer, vocal breaks, and the GNE measure on the edge of normality. All the differences were statistically significant. The majority of the older participants from that group presented even a deviation in the phonatory deviation diagram and frequency break. CONCLUSION: Various acoustic and auditory-perceptual aspects had a higher deviation in the older adults over 80 years old, which reinforces the need to consider those specificities in the evaluation of the vocal aging impacts and also in the development of actions to minimize vocal declination.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Voz , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonação , Acústica da Fala , Qualidade da Voz
16.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 1524, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470262

RESUMO

In this work, vocal tract characteristic changes under the out-of-breath condition are explored. Speaking under the influence of physical exercise is called out-of-breath speech. The change in breathing pattern results in perceptual changes in the produced sound. For vocal tract, the first four formants show a lowering in their average frequency. The bandwidths BF1 and BF2 widen, whereas the other two get narrowed. The change in bandwidth is small for the last three. For a speaker, the change in frequency and bandwidth may not be uniform across formants. Subband analysis is carried out around formants for comparing the variation of the vocal tract with the source. A vocal tract adaptive empirical wavelet transform is used for extracting formant specific subbands from speech and source. The support vector machine performs the subband-based binary classification between the normal and out-of-breath speech. For all speakers, it shows an F1-score improvement of 4% over speech subbands. Similarly, a performance improvement of 5% can be seen for both male and female speakers. Furthermore, the misclassification amount is less for source compared to speech. These results suggest that physical exercise influences the source more than the vocal tract.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Voz , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrografia do Som , Fala
17.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 1209, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470273

RESUMO

When pitch is explicitly modelled for parametric speech synthesis, microprosodic variations of the fundamental frequency f0 are usually disregarded by current intonation models. While there are numerous studies dealing with the nature and the origin of microprosody, little research has been done on its audibility and its effect on the naturalness of synthetic speech. In this work, the influence of obstruent-related microprosodic variations on the perceived naturalness of articulatory speech synthesis was studied. A small corpus of 20 German words and sentences was re-synthesized using the state-of-the-art articulatory synthesizer VocalTractLab. The pitch contours of the real utterances were extracted and fitted with the Target-Approximation-Model. After the real microprosodic variations were removed from the obtained pitch contours, synthetic variations were applied based on a microprosody model. Subsequently, multiple stimuli with different microprosody amplitudes were synthesized and evaluated in a listening experiment. The results indicate that microprosodic variations are barely audible, but can lead to a greater perceived naturalness of the synthesized speech in certain cases.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Idioma , Fala , Acústica da Fala
18.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 979, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470278

RESUMO

In forensic speech science, nasals are often reported to be particularly useful in characterizing speakers because of their low within-speaker and high between-speaker variability. However, empirical acoustic data from nasal consonants indicate that there is a somewhat larger role for the oral cavity in nasal consonant acoustics than is generally predicted by acoustic models. For example, in read speech, nasal consonant acoustics show lingual coarticulation that differs by nasal consonant, and syllabic position also seems to affect realizations of nasal consonants within speakers. In the current exploratory study, the within- and between-speaker variation in the most frequent nasals in Standard Dutch, /n/ and /m/, was investigated. Using 3695 [n] and 3291 [m] tokens sampled from 54 speakers' spontaneous telephone utterances, linear mixed-effects modeling of acoustic-phonetic features showed effects of phonetic context that differed by nasal consonant and by syllabic position. A subsequent speaker-classification test using multinomial logistic regression on the acoustic-phonetic features seems to indicate that nasals displaying larger effects of phonetic context also perform slightly better in speaker classification, although differences were minor. This might be caused by between-speaker variation in the degree and timing of lingual coarticulatory gestures.


Assuntos
Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Acústica , Idioma , Fala , Acústica da Fala
19.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 1548, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470280

RESUMO

Robust gender differences exist in the acoustic correlates of clearly articulated speech, with females, on average, producing speech that is acoustically and phonetically more distinct than that of males. This study investigates the relationship between several acoustic correlates of clear speech and subjective ratings of vocal attractiveness. Talkers were recorded producing vowels in /bVd/ context and sentences containing the four corner vowels. Multiple measures of working vowel space were computed from continuously sampled formant trajectories and were combined with measures of speech timing known to co-vary with clear articulation. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) modeling was used to predict ratings of vocal attractiveness for male and female talkers based on the acoustic measures. PLS components that loaded on size and shape measures of working vowel space-including the quadrilateral vowel space area, convex hull area, and bivariate spread of formants-along with measures of speech timing were highly successful at predicting attractiveness in female talkers producing /bVd/ words. These findings are consistent with a number of hypotheses regarding human attractiveness judgments, including the role of sexual dimorphism in mate selection, the significance of traits signalling underlying health, and perceptual fluency accounts of preferences.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Acústica , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética , Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
20.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210356, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582736

RESUMO

Fundamental frequency (fo), perceived as voice pitch, is the most sexually dimorphic, perceptually salient and intensively studied voice parameter in human nonverbal communication. Thousands of studies have linked human fo to biological and social speaker traits and life outcomes, from reproductive to economic. Critically, researchers have used myriad speech stimuli to measure fo and infer its functional relevance, from individual vowels to longer bouts of spontaneous speech. Here, we acoustically analysed fo in nearly 1000 affectively neutral speech utterances (vowels, words, counting, greetings, read paragraphs and free spontaneous speech) produced by the same 154 men and women, aged 18-67, with two aims: first, to test the methodological validity of comparing fo measures from diverse speech stimuli, and second, to test the prediction that the vast inter-individual differences in habitual fo found between same-sex adults are preserved across speech types. Indeed, despite differences in linguistic content, duration, scripted or spontan--eous production and within-individual variability, we show that 42-81% of inter-individual differences in fo can be explained between any two speech types. Beyond methodological implications, together with recent evidence that inter-individual differences in fo are remarkably stable across the lifespan and generalize to emotional speech and nonverbal vocalizations, our results further substantiate voice pitch as a robust and reliable biomarker in human communication.


Assuntos
Fala , Voz , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Acústica da Fala
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