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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910731

RESUMO

Thioredoxin (Trx), a small redox protein, exhibits thermal stability at high temperatures regardless of its origin, including psychrophiles. Trxs have a common structure consisting of the central ß-sheet flanked by an aliphatic cluster on one side and an aromatic cluster on the other side. Although the roles of aromatic amino acids in the folding and stability of proteins have been studied extensively, the contributions of aromatic residues to the stability and function of Trx, particularly Trxs from cold-adapted organisms, have not been fully elucidated. This study examined the roles of aromatic amino acids in the aromatic cluster of a Trx from the psychrophilic Arctic bacterium Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 (SpTrx). The aromatic cluster of SpTrx was comprised of W11, F26, F69, and F80, in which F26 at the ß2 terminus was buried inside. The substitution of tyrosine for F26 changed the SpTrx conformation substantially compared to that of F69 and F80. Further biochemical and spectroscopic investigations on F26 showed that the F26Y, F26W, and F26A mutants resulted in structural instability of SpTrx in both urea- and temperature-induced unfolding and lower insulin reduction activities. The Trx reductase (SpTR) showed lower catalytic efficiencies against F26 mutants compared to the wild-type SpTrx. These results suggest that buried F26 is essential for maintaining the active-site conformation of SpTrx as an oxidoreductase and its structural stability for interactions with SpTR at colder temperatures.


Assuntos
Fenilalanina/química , Sphingomonas/química , Tiorredoxinas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Insulina/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Desdobramento de Proteína , Sphingomonas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Tirosina/química
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730741

RESUMO

Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) by Sphingomonas paucimobilis B34 bacteria was successfully achieved and followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The biosynthesized TiO2NPs were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 15.6 nm. These TiO2NPs were used as nono-catalyst for removing of malachite green (MG) dye (at 103 mol/L) from wastewater solution. As indicated by the results, the biosynthesized TiO2NPs represented a capable approach for MG removal with up to 83 % efficiency. The removal process was found to follow a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Furthermore, the developed TiO2NPs-MG hybrid nanocomposite was efficiently removed from the medium by using Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass after wastewater treatment. S. platensis biomass was able to remove up to 89.43 % of the hybrid nanocomposite by a biosorption process. The resultant water effluent, after TiO2NPs-MG removal, showed no toxicity towards Vigna radiate L. seedlings implying its safety for agriculture purposes. According to the obtained results, S. platensis living biomass could play a dual re-cycling role, as natural biosorbent for removing both nanoparticles and dye (TiO2NPs-MG hybrid nano-composite) from solution after wastewater treatment for healthier environmental management.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Spirulina , Purificação da Água , Biomassa , Corantes de Rosanilina , Sphingomonas , Titânio
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2982-2988, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664473

RESUMO

In this study, three dominant bacteria Cellulomonas flavigena (Ⅰ), Cellulomonas flavigena (Ⅱ), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (Ⅲ) from Fire Phoenix rhizosphere soil were used to develop a multi-microbial agent system. For oil-contaminated soil in the Dagang oilfield, the immobilized test bacteria were inoculated into the Fire Phoenix rhizosphere soil to examine the effects of bacterial agents on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. The results showed that PAHs degradation was promoted under the ⅠⅢ (with an effective number of viable bacteria of 109 cfu·mL-1) and ⅠⅡⅢ (with an effective number of viable bacteria of 107 cfu·mL-1) treatments. The PAHs degradation rates were 32.2% and 41.4%, respectively, being significantly higher than that in the control treatments. The ⅠⅡⅢ treatment significantly promoted the belowground biomass of Fire Phoenix, which was 31.2% higher than that of the control treatment. Our results suggested that the multi-microbial agent constructed by the three dominant bacteria ⅠⅡⅢ could be used as a strengthening method for the remediation of PAHs-contaminated soil by Fire Phoenix, which provided a novel method for microbial enhanced phytoremediation technology.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Cellulomonas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sphingomonas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435946

RESUMO

Species belonging to the genus Sphingomonas have been isolated from environments such as soil, water and plant tissues. Many strains are known for their capability of degrading aromatic molecules and producing extracellular polymers. A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, red-pigmented, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, rod-shaped strain, designated DH-S5T, has been isolated from pork steak packed under CO2-enriched modified atmosphere. Cell diameters were 1.5×0.9 µm. Growth optima were at 30 °C and at pH 6.0. Phylogenetic analyses based on both complete 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-genome sequence data revealed that strain DH-S5T belongs to the genus Sphingomonas, being closely related to Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537T (97.4 % gene sequence similarity), followed by Sphingomonas qilianensis X1T (97.4 %) and Sphingomonas hylomeconis GZJT-2T (97.3 %). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization value between the isolate strain and S. alpina DSM 22537T was 21.0 % with an average nucleotide identity value of 77.03 %. Strain DH-S5T contained Q-10 as the ubiquinone and major fatty acids were C18 : 1 cis 11 (39.3 %) and C16 : 1 cis 9 (12.5 %), as well as C16 : 0 (12.1 %) and C14 : 0 2-OH (11.4 %). As for polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine and sphingoglycolipid could be detected, alongside traces of monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine. Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain DH-S5T (=DSM 110829T=LMG 31606T) is classified as a representative of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas aliaeris sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Carne de Porco , Sphingomonas , Animais , Atmosfera , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alemanha , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sphingomonas/classificação , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117641, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426384

RESUMO

Salinity is a limiting factor in the growth of plants in coastal wetlands. The interaction of halophytes with salt-tolerant endophytes has been one of the major concerns in this area. However, the mechanism by which endophytes promote halophyte growth remains unclear. The growth and physiological responses of Suaeda salsa inoculated with endophytic bacteria (Sphingomonas prati and Sphingomonas zeicaulis) at 0 ‰ and 20 ‰ NaCl were studied. The results showed that Sphingomonas zeicaulis had stronger positive effects on the growth of Suaeda salsa under 0 ‰ NaCl, and Sphingomonas prati performed better under 20 ‰ NaCl. Sphingomonas prati inoculation increased the mean height, root length, fresh weight and dry weight by 45.43%, 9.91%, 82.00% and 102.25%, respectively, compared with the uninoculated treatment at 20 ‰ NaCl. Sphingomonas prati inoculation decreased MDA content by 23.78%, while the soluble sugar and soluble protein contents increased by 15.08% and 12.57%, respectively, compared to the control, at 20 ‰ NaCl. Increases in SOD and CAT in the Sphingomonas prati inoculation were 1.03 and 1.47-fold greater, respectively, than in the Sphingomonas zeicaulis inoculation, under 20 ‰ NaCl. Moreover, Sphingomonas prati and Sphingomonas zeicaulis had antagonistic interactions in Suaeda salsa according to the results of the "interaction equation" (most G values were negative). PCA, clustering analysis and the PLS model revealed two mechanisms for regulating plant salt tolerance by which Sphingomonas prati enhanced Suaeda salsa growth: (1) Sphingomonas prati improved intracellular osmotic metabolism and (2) Sphingomonas prati promoted the production of CAT in the antioxidant enzyme system and retained permeability. This study provides new insight into the comprehensive understanding and evaluation of endophytic bacteria as biological inoculants in plants under salt stress.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae , Tolerância ao Sal , Bactérias , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Sphingomonas , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323678

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and non-motile bacterium, strain sand1-3T, was isolated from beach sand collected from Haeundae Beach located in Busan, Republic of Korea. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analyses, Sphingomonas daechungensis CH15-11T (97.0 %), Sphingomonas edaphi DAC4T (96.8 %), Sphingomonas xanthus AE3T (96.5 %) and Sphingomonas oryziterrae YC6722T (96.0 %) were selected for comparing phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Cells of strain sand1-3T grew at 7-50 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Major polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, sphingoglycolipid, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified phosphoglycolipid. The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω6c and/or C18 : 1 ω7c) and C18 : 1 2-OH. Moreover, the sole respiratory quinone and major polyamine were identified as ubiquinone-10 and homospermidine, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 65.9 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity values of strain sand1-3T and its reference strains with publicly available genomes were 17.9-18.9 %, 72.0-75.3 % and 63.3-76.5 % respectively. Based on polyphasic evidence, we propose Sphingomonas sabuli sp. nov. as a novel species within the genus Sphingomonas. The type strain is sand1-3T (=KCTC 82358T=NBRC 114538T).


Assuntos
Sphingomonas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Carotenoides , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Areia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Espermidina , Sphingomonas/genética
7.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113304, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280861

RESUMO

As taste-and-odor outbreaks are common in surface waters worldwide, extensive studies have focused on the identification of microorganisms involved in the production of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM). However, fewer studies have tried to identify potential degraders in natural environments. Eagle Creek Reservoir, a temperate and eutrophic water body, experienced two major seasonal odorous outbreaks in 2013 with maximal concentrations of 99.1 (MIB) and 77.3 ng L-1 (GSM). Fractionation analyses of the odorous compounds showed that MIB was found more frequently in the dissolved fraction while GSM was mostly cell-bound. This difference likely impacts taste-and-odor (T&O) compound susceptibility to biodegradation by bacteria. Spearman relationships of epilimnetic samples collected between spring and early fall linked dissolved MIB occurrences to higher abundances of Bacteroidetes like Flavobacterium resistens, F. granuli, F. saliperosum (p < 0.001), F. kamogawaensis (p < 0.01) capable of MIB degradation. Occurrences of cell-bound GSM were correlated to two α-Proteobacteria Novosphingobium hassiacum (p < 0.001) and Sphingomonas oligophenolica (p < 0.01), both identified as potential degraders of GSM. The roles of Pseudomonas and Bacillus were ambiguous, and these genera might have been involved in both compound biodegradations (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Naftóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Canfanos , Flavobacterium , Naftóis/análise , Odorantes/análise , Sphingomonadaceae , Sphingomonas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068940

RESUMO

Carotenoids are used commercially for dietary supplements, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals because of their antioxidant activity. In this study, colored microorganisms were isolated from deep sea sediment that had been collected from Suruga Bay, Shizuoka, Japan. One strain was found to be a pure yellow carotenoid producer, and the strain was identified as Sphingomonas sp. (Proteobacteria) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis; members of this genus are commonly isolated from air, the human body, and marine environments. The carotenoid was identified as nostoxanthin ((2,3,2',3')-ß,ß-carotene-2,3,2',3'-tetrol) by mass spectrometry (MS), MS/MS, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Nostoxanthin is a poly-hydroxy yellow carotenoid isolated from some photosynthetic bacteria, including some species of Cyanobacteria. The strain Sphingomonas sp. SG73 produced highly pure nostoxanthin of approximately 97% (area%) of the total carotenoid production, and the strain was halophilic and tolerant to 1.5-fold higher salt concentration as compared with seawater. When grown in 1.8% artificial sea salt, nostoxanthin production increased by 2.5-fold as compared with production without artificial sea salt. These results indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SG73 is an efficient producer of nostoxanthin, and the strain is ideal for carotenoid production using marine water because of its compatibility with sea salt.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Sphingomonas/metabolismo , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação , Xantofilas/metabolismo , Japão , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sais/farmacologia , Água do Mar , Sphingomonas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/química
9.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(22): 5722-5739, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060838

RESUMO

Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) is a common water-soluble polycarboxylate used in a broad range of applications. PAA biodegradation and environmental assimilation were first identified in river water bacterial strains, Sphingomonas sp. KT-1 and Pedobacter sp. KP-2. Within Sphingomonas sp. KT-1, PahZ1KT-1 cleaves ß-amide linkages to oligo(aspartic acid) and then is degraded by PahZ2KT-1. Recently, we reported the first structure for PahZ1KT-1. Here, we report novel structures for PahZ2KT-1 bound to either Gd3+/Sm3+ or Zn2+ cations in a dimeric state consistent with M28 metallopeptidase family members. PahZ2KT-1 monomers include a dimerization domain and a catalytic domain with dual Zn2+ cations. MD methods predict the putative substrate binding site to span across the dimerization and catalytic domains, where NaCl promotes the transition from an open conformation to a closed conformation that positions the substrate adjacent to catalytic zinc ions. Structural knowledge of PahZ1KT-1 and PahZ2KT-1 will allow for protein engineering endeavors to develop novel biodegradation reagents.


Assuntos
Sphingomonas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Hidrólise , Conformação Molecular , Nitrocompostos , Peptídeos , Quinazolinas
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 265: 118110, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966819

RESUMO

Because of its excellent stability, non-toxicity, biodegradability and unique rheology, welan gum can be widely used in various fields, such as petroleum, biomedicine and food products. In this study, a high-yield mutant strain FM01-S09 was screened through two rounds of UV mutagenesis. Remarkably, the production of welan gum could be further increased by adding 4 mM NaCl at 32 h fermentation, reaching 30.12 ± 0.25 g/L (28.66% higher than no adding), and the NaCl-WG solution had stronger structural, impact resistance, and temperature resistance than H2O2-WG and WG solutions. Furthermore, the mechanism by which NaCl promotes welan gum synthesis was also investigated. It was found that cell membrane characteristics, intracellular microenvironment makeup, and key enzyme gene expression levels were significantly altered in different fermentation stages. Therefore, the addition of NaCl could effectively promote the growth and fermentation performance of Sphingomonas sp., providing a novel strategy for cost-effective welan gum production.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Sphingomonas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Reologia/métodos , Sphingomonas/genética , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
J Exp Bot ; 72(15): 5673-5686, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987653

RESUMO

Inoculation with pollution-degrading endophytes boosts the catabolism of residual contaminants and promotes the pollution adaptation of host plants. We investigated the interaction pattern between Sphingomonas strain HJY-rfp, a chlorpyrifos-degrading endophytic bacterium, and rice (Oryza sativa) under pesticide stress using hydroponic cultivation. We observed a notable trend of endophytic root colonization in rice plants treated with 10 mg l-1 chlorpyrifos solution, and after 24 h the migration of HJY-rfp enhanced the chlorpyrifos degradation rate in leaves and stems by 53.36% and 40.81%, respectively. Critically, the rice root exudate profile (organic acids and amino acids) changed under chlorpyrifos stress, and variations in the contents of several components affected the chemotactic behaviour of HJY-rfp. HJY-rfp colonization dramatically activated defensive enzymes, which enabled efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and led to 9.8%, 22.5%, and 41.9% increases in shoot length, fresh weight, and accumulation of total chlorophyll, respectively, in rice suffering from oxidative damage by chlorpyrifos. Endophytic colonization caused up-regulation of detoxification genes that have shown a significant positive correlation with chlorpyrifos degradation in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that agrochemical stress causes plants to actively recruit specific symbiotic microbes to detoxify contaminants and survive better under pollution conditions.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Oryza , Sphingomonas , Endófitos , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Raízes de Plantas
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4369-4381, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021814

RESUMO

The herbicide butachlor has been used in huge quantities worldwide, affecting various environmental systems. Butachlor residues have been detected in soil, water, and organisms, and have been shown to be toxic to these non-target organisms. This paper briefly summarizes the toxic effects of butachlor on aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans, and proposes the necessity of its removal from the environment. Due to long-term exposure, some animals, plants, and microorganisms have developed resistance toward butachlor, indicating that the toxicity of this herbicide can be reduced. Furthermore, we can consider removing butachlor residues from the environment by using such butachlor-resistant organisms. In particular, microbial degradation methods have attracted much attention, with about 30 kinds of butachlor-degrading microorganisms have been found, such as Fusarium solani, Novosphingobium chloroacetimidivorans, Chaetomium globosum, Pseudomonas putida, Sphingomonas chloroacetimidivorans, and Rhodococcus sp. The metabolites and degradation pathways of butachlor have been investigated. In addition, enzymes associated with butachlor degradation have been identified, including CndC1 (ferredoxin), Red1 (reductase), FdX1 (ferredoxin), FdX2 (ferredoxin), Dbo (debutoxylase), and catechol 1,2 dioxygenase. However, few reviews have focused on the microbial degradation and molecular mechanisms of butachlor. This review explores the biochemical pathways and molecular mechanisms of butachlor biodegradation in depth in order to provide new ideas for repairing butachlor-contaminated environments. KEY POINTS: • Biodegradation is a powerful tool for the removal of butachlor. • Dechlorination plays a key role in the degradation of butachlor. • Possible biochemical pathways of butachlor in the environment are described.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetanilidas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Chaetomium , Fusarium , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sphingomonadaceae , Sphingomonas
13.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(4): 1657-1670, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009736

RESUMO

The toxoflavin (Txn), broad host range phytotoxin produced by a variety of bacteria, including Burkholderia glumae, is a key pathogenicity factor of B. glumae in rice and field crops. Two bacteria exhibiting Txn-degrading activity were isolated from healthy rice seeds and identified as Sphingomonas adhaesiva and Agrobacterium sp. respectively. The genes stdR and stdA, encoding proteins responsible for Txn degradation of both bacterial isolates, were identical, indicating that horizontal gene transfer occurred between microbial communities in the same ecosystem. We identified a novel Txn-quenching regulation of bacteria, demonstrating that the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) StdR induces the expression of the stdA, which encodes a Txn-degrading enzyme, in the presence of Txn as a coinducer. Here we show that the bacterial StdRTxn -quenching regulatory system mimics the ToxRTxn -mediated biosynthetic regulation of B. glumae. Substrate specificity investigations revealed that Txn is the only coinducer of StdR and that StdA has a high degree of specificity for Txn. Rice plants expressing StdA showed Txn resistance. Collectively, bacteria mimic the mechanism of Txn biosynthesis regulation, employ it in the development of a Txn-quenching regulatory system and share it with neighbouring bacteria for survival in rice environments full of Txn.


Assuntos
Burkholderia , Oryza , Burkholderia/genética , Ecossistema , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Pirimidinonas , Percepção de Quorum , Sphingomonas , Triazinas
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(6): 2275-2290, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929605

RESUMO

The distribution and antibacterial activities of bacteria isolated from fifty-five marine sponge samples collected from the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara were investigated in the period between 2011 and 2013. The antibacterial activities of the methanolic extracts of marine sponge-associated bacteria tested against six pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus SA1 and SA2, Brucella melitensis B37, Vibrio vulnificus GK23, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 35150), and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhi (ATCC 167), using disk diffusion tests and minimum inhibitory concentration technique. The bacteria isolated from sponges and ambient seawater samples were identified using VITEK 2 Compact 30 automated microbial identification system. All bacterial extracts were exhibited antibacterial activity with various MIC values ranging from 7.8 mg/ mL to 1000 mg/mL against all pathogenic bacteria tested. The antibacterial efficacy rates found to be higher in the Aegean Sea than the Sea of Marmara samples. Fifty-five sponge samples belonging to fifteen species and host twenty-two bacterial species belonging to seven classes in two different marine areas at varying rates were detected. The most common sponge-associated bacterium was recorded as Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Bacillus cereus in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara, respectively. The composition and counts of the sponge-associated bacteria were found significantly higher than the free-living bacteria in the ambient sea water sampling points of both two marine areas. The presence of high antibacterial potential of sponge-related bacteria obtained in this study provided data for further studies on marine-derived antimicrobial agents, including the effects of environmental differences.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Poríferos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella , Sphingomonas , Turquia
15.
J Microbiol ; 59(6): 552-562, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877575

RESUMO

A polyphasic taxonomic approach was used to characterize three novel bacterial strains, designated as HDW12AT, HDW-15BT, and HDW15CT, isolated from the intestine of fish species Odontobutis interrupta or Siniperca scherzeri. All isolates were obligate aerobic, non-motile bacteria, and grew optimally at 30°C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences revealed that strain HDW12AT was a member of the genus Nocardioides, and closely related to Nocardioides allogilvus CFH 30205T (98.9% sequence identities). Furthermore, strains HDW15BT and HDW15CT were members of the genus Sphingomonas, and closely related to Sphingomonas lutea JS5T and Sphingomonas sediminicola Dae 20T (97.1% and 97.9% sequence identities), respectively. Strain HDW12AT contained MK-8 (H4), and strains HDW15BT and HDW15CT contained Q-10 as the respiratory quinone. Major polar lipid components of strain HDW12AT were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol, and those of strains HDW15BT and HDW15CT were sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine. The G + C content of strains HDW12AT, HDW15BT, and HDW15CT were 69.7, 63.3, and 65.5%, respectively. The results of phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic analyses suggest that strain HDW12AT represents a novel species within the genus Nocardioides, and strains HDW15BT and HDW15CT represent two novel species within the genus Sphingomonas. We propose the names Nocardioides piscis for strain HDW12AT (= KACC 21336T = KCTC 49321T = JCM 33670T), Sphingomonas piscis for strain HDW15BT (= KACC 21341T = KCTC 72588T = JCM 33738T), and Sphingomonas sinipercae for strain HDW15CT (= KACC 21342T = KCTC 72589T = JCM 33739T).


Assuntos
Nocardioides/classificação , Nocardioides/isolamento & purificação , Sphingomonas/classificação , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Peixes/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Nocardioides/genética , Nocardioides/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Sphingomonas/genética , Sphingomonas/metabolismo
16.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130427, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862356

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the bioremediation efficiency and bacterial regulation mechanism of biochar-immobilized bacterium (BM) in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated saline soil by conducting pot experiments. In BM treatment, PAH-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. PJ2 was inoculated into biochar produced at 400 °C and 600 °C using the pine needles (BM400 and BM600). The removal rates of PAHs, soil physicochemical properties, abundance of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD), and bacterial community composition were determined. After 60 days of bioremediation, BM treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the removal rate of PAHs compared with biochar and PJ2 alone (15.94% and 37.3%, respectively). BM treatment clearly improved the physicochemical properties of saline soil. Moreover, the amount of Gram-positive PAH degraders increased in BM-treated soils compared with other treatments, and their gene abundance had a strong positive correlation with the removal rates of PAHs in soils (r = 0.896; P < 0.01). Furthermore, BM treatment increased the abundance of Sphingomonas genus, indicating that the strain PJ2 could survive and colonize in PAH-contaminated saline soil under the protection of biochar. This study provided an effective and green approach for the remediation and improvement of the PAH-contaminated saline soil.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Sphingomonas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sphingomonas/genética
17.
Chemosphere ; 275: 130109, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677267

RESUMO

In this study, an cadmium (Cd)-immobilizing and arginine decarboxylase-producing endophytic Sphingomonas sp. strain C40 obtained from the seeds of Oryza sativa Cliangyou 513 was characterized for its Cd availability and Cd uptake in host rice using hydroponic and soil experiments. The Cd concentration decreased by 51-95% compared to the control, while the spermidine concentration increased by 19-25% with Cd compared with no Cd in the strain C40-inoculated solution. Strain C40 decreased the above-ground tissue Cd content by 27-37% and increased spermine and spermidine contents by 28-67% and the expression levels of genes involved in spermine and spermidine production by 29-217% in rice roots compared to the controls. Furthermore, correlation analyses showed the significantly negative correlation between rice root spermine and spermidine contents and above-ground tissue Cd content. In the Cd-added soil, strain C40 promoted the rice biomass by 29-36% and decreased rice root, above-ground tissue, and grain Cd contents by 18, 16, and 33% and total grain Cd uptake by 14% compared with the controls at the maturity stage. Strain C40 decreased the exchangeable Cd content by 27% and increased the Fe and Mn oxides-bound Cd content by 45% in the rice rhizosphere soils at the maturity stage compared with the controls. These results suggested that the endophytic bacterial strain C40 increased rice root polyamine production and their related gene expression and the transformation of available Cd to unavailable Cd, leading to reduced Cd accumulation and translocation from the rice roots to grains.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Sphingomonas , Cádmio/análise , Carboxiliases , Oryza/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sphingomonas/genética
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(11)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741618

RESUMO

Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is one of a few strains known to grow on the related compounds dibenzofuran (DBF) and dibenzo-p-dioxin (DXN) as the sole source of carbon. Previous work by others (B. Happe, L. D. Eltis, H. Poth, R. Hedderich, and K. N. Timmis, J Bacteriol 175:7313-7320, 1993, https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.175.22.7313-7320.1993) showed that purified DbfB had significant ring cleavage activity against the DBF metabolite trihydroxybiphenyl but little activity against the DXN metabolite trihydroxybiphenylether. We took a physiological approach to positively identify ring cleavage enzymes involved in the DBF and DXN pathways. Knockout of dbfB on the RW1 megaplasmid pSWIT02 results in a strain that grows slowly on DBF but normally on DXN, confirming that DbfB is not involved in DXN degradation. Knockout of SWIT3046 on the RW1 chromosome results in a strain that grows normally on DBF but that does not grow on DXN, demonstrating that SWIT3046 is required for DXN degradation. A double-knockout strain does not grow on either DBF or DXN, demonstrating that these are the only ring cleavage enzymes involved in RW1 DBF and DXN degradation. The replacement of dbfB by SWIT3046 results in a strain that grows normally (equal to the wild type) on both DBF and DXN, showing that promoter strength is important for SWIT3046 to take the place of DbfB in DBF degradation. Thus, both dbfB- and SWIT3046-encoded enzymes are involved in DBF degradation, but only the SWIT3046-encoded enzyme is involved in DXN degradation.IMPORTANCE S. wittichii RW1 has been the subject of numerous investigations, because it is one of only a few strains known to grow on DXN as the sole carbon and energy source. However, while the genome has been sequenced and several DBF pathway enzymes have been purified, there has been very little research using physiological techniques to precisely identify the genes and enzymes involved in the RW1 DBF and DXN catabolic pathways. Using knockout and gene replacement mutagenesis, our work identifies separate upper pathway ring cleavage enzymes involved in the related catabolic pathways for DBF and DXN degradation. The identification of a new enzyme involved in DXN biodegradation explains why the pathway of DBF degradation on the RW1 megaplasmid pSWIT02 is inefficient for DXN degradation. In addition, our work demonstrates that both plasmid- and chromosomally encoded enzymes are necessary for DXN degradation, suggesting that the DXN pathway has only recently evolved.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Dioxinas/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/química , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Sphingomonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Sphingomonas/enzimologia
19.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 49-55, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) and Dermacentor reticulatus (D. reticulatus) are the most common ticks in Poland. These ticks contain many bacteria, which compose a microbiome with potential impact on humans. The aim of the study was to discover the microbiome of ticks in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ticks were collected in The Protected Landscape Area of the Bug and Nurzec Valley, Poland, in 2016-2018 by flagging. They were cleaned in 70% ethanol and damaged in mortar with PBS (without Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions). DNA was extracted from the homogenates with spin columns kits, and used as a matrix in end-point PCR for bacterial 16S rRNA fragments amplifications, and further for next generation sequencing (NGS) by ILLUMINA. RESULTS: In 22 ticks (3 I. ricinus and 19 D. reticulatus) 38 microorganisms were detected. The most common were Francisella hispaniensis and Francisella novicida. In 17 ticks, Sphingomonas oligophenolica, and in 12 Rickettsia aeshlimanii were found. In 2, I. ricinus specific DNA of Borrelia americana and Borrelia carolinensis were found. In one female, D. reticulatus Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma centrale were found. Pseudomonas lutea and Ps. moraviensis were detected in 9 and 8 ticks, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Polish ticks microbiome contains not only well-known tick-borne pathogens, but also other pathogenic microorganisms. For the first time in Poland, Borrelia americana and Borrelia carolinensis in I. ricinus collected from the environment were detected. The dominant pathogenic microorganisms for humans were Francisella spp. and Rickettsia spp., and non-pathogenic - Sphingomonas oligophenolica. Knowledge of a tick microbiome might be useful in tick-borne biocontrol and tick-borne diseases prevention.


Assuntos
Dermacentor/microbiologia , Ixodes/microbiologia , Microbiota , Spirochaetales/genética , Animais , Francisella/classificação , Francisella/genética , Francisella/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano , Metagenômica , Polônia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Sphingomonas/classificação , Sphingomonas/genética , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Spirochaetales/classificação , Spirochaetales/isolamento & purificação
20.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129496, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524758

RESUMO

Vermiremediation on improvement of antimony (Sb) and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil was less reported. In this study, earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed into soil spiked with Sb and Cd and their mixture for 30 days, and then we measured multiple soil enzyme activities and bacteria communities via enzymatic reaction and high-throughput sequencing of 16 S rRNA genes. The results showed that Sb and Cd at high treatment levels inhibited the activities of urease, neutral phosphatase and protease significantly, but earthworm could promote the activities of urease and neutral phosphatase by 17.75%-121.91% and 1.46%-118.97%, respectively. However, earthworms inhibited catalase and had no effect on protease. The Geometric Mean Index suggested that earthworms led to a higher soil biochemistry function. According to a taxonomic analysis, bacterial community structure predominantly consisted of phylum Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, etc. and class Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, etc.; furthermore, Pielou index and Shannon index (Alpha diversity in the habitat) indicated that bacteria diversity and evenness increased in the presence of earthworms. The heating map revealed that earthworms made genus Sphingomonas, Flavobacterium, etc. and species Sphingomonas jaspsi, Conexibacter, etc. dominate. Overall, earthworm is a suitable remediation species to improve the ecological function of heavy metal polluted soil. However, the specific mechanism and causal relationship of how earthworm to control enzyme activity and bacteria community remained to be explored.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Antimônio , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Sphingomonas
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