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1.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23(5): 749-759, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899992

RESUMO

Population genetic and ecological data may help to control invasive plants, which are considered a major threat to natural habitats. In contrast to expected bottleneck events, genetic diversity of such invasive populations may be high due to extensive propagule pressure or admixture. The ecological impact of invasive species has been broadly evaluated in the field; however, long-term studies on the fate of invasive plants are scarce. We analysed genetic diversity and structure in invasive Spiraea tomentosa populations in eastern Germany and western Poland using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Potential hybridization between co-occurring diploid Sp. tomentosa and tetraploid Sp. douglasii was investigated using Flow Cytometry. The genetic analyses were complemented by data from a 13-year vegetation study in an area invaded by these Spiraea species. We found no evidence for hybridization between Spiraea species. In populations of Sp. tomentosa both genetic diversity (He = 0.26) and genetic structure (ΦPT = 0.27) were high and comparable to other outcrossing woody plants. Low levels of clonality, presence of seedlings and new patches in sites that had been colonized over the last 13 years imply that populations spread via sexual reproduction. In all habitat types, native species diversity declined following Sp. tomentosa invasion. However, detailed aerial mapping of a forest reserve with ongoing succession revealed that Spiraea spp. populations have declined over a 10-year period. Despite its potential for dispersal and negative effects on native plant communities, invasive Spiraea populations may be controlled by increasing canopy cover in forest habitats.


Assuntos
Rosaceae , Spiraea , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Ecossistema , Florestas , Variação Genética , Spiraea/genética
2.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 23(11): 1037-1042, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307789

RESUMO

Brahucins A (1) and B (2), the new oleanane-type triterpene lactones, have been isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of Spiraea brahuica Boiss, along with betulinic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), 3-O-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl) oleanolic acid (5), vanillic acid (6) and caffeic acid (7), reported for the first time from this species. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic studies including MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Spiraea , Triterpenos , Lactonas , Estrutura Molecular
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668601

RESUMO

Potentilla dickinsii var. glabrata and Spiraea insularis in the family Rosaceae are species endemic to Ulleung Island, Korea, the latter of which is listed as endangered. In this study, we characterized the complete plastomes of these two species and compared these with previously reported plastomes of other Ulleung Island endemic species of Rosaceae (Cotoneaster wilsonii, Prunus takesimensis, Rubus takesimensis, and Sorbus ulleungensis). The highly conserved complete plastomes of P. dickinsii var. glabrata and S. insularis are 158,637 and 155,524 base pairs with GC contents of 37% and 36.9%, respectively. Comparative phylogenomic analysis identified three highly variable intergenic regions (trnT-UGU/trnL-UAA, rpl32/trnL-UAG, and ndhF/rpl32) and one variable genic region (ycf1). Only 14 of the 75 protein-coding genes have been subject to strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 representative plastomes within the Rosaceae supported the monophyly of Potentilla and the sister relationship between Potentilla and Fragaria and indicated that S. insularis is sister to a clade containing Cotoneaster, Malus, Pyrus, and Sorbus. The plastome resources generated in this study will contribute to elucidating the plastome evolution of insular endemic Rosaceae on Ulleung Island and also in assessing the genetic consequences of anagenetic speciation for various endemic lineages on the island.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Potentilla/genética , Spiraea/genética , Uso do Códon , Sequência Conservada , Especiação Genética , Ilhas , Coreia (Geográfico) , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Rosaceae/genética , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Environ Entomol ; 48(2): 351-362, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753426

RESUMO

Worldwide studies have used the technique of pollen trapping, collecting pollen loads from returning honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers, to evaluate the exposure of honey bees to pesticides through pollen and as a biomonitoring tool. Typically, these surveys have found frequent contamination of pollen with multiple pesticides, with most of the estimated risk of acute oral toxicity to honey bees coming from insecticides. In our survey of pesticides in trapped pollen from three commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Connecticut, we found most samples within the range of acute toxicity in a previous state pollen survey, but a few samples at one nursery with unusually high acute oral toxicity. Using visual sorting by color of the pollen pellets collected in two samples from this nursery, followed by pesticide analysis of the sorted pollen and palynology to identify the plant sources of the pollen with the greatest acute toxicity of pesticide residues, we were able to associate pollen from the plant genus Spiraea L. (Rosales: Rosaceae) with extraordinarily high concentrations of thiamethoxam and clothianidin, and also with high concentrations of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos. This study is the first to trace highly toxic pollen collected by honey bees to a single plant genus. This method of tracking high toxicity pollen samples back to potential source plants could identify additional high-risk combinations of pesticide application methods and timing, movement into pollen, and attractiveness to bees that would be difficult to identify through modeling each of the contributing factors.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Pólen/química , Spiraea , Animais , Jardinagem , Guanidinas/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Tiametoxam/análise , Tiazóis/análise
5.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(22): 3215-3222, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726702

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract from the roots of Spiraea salicifolia L. (Rosaceae) led to the isolation of one new neolignan glycoside, (7S,8R)-3,5-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolignan-3',4,9,9'-tetraol 9-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), along with two known neolignan glycosides, (7S,8R)-3-methoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolignan-3',4,9,9'-tetraol 9-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) and (7R,8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3). The structural characterisations of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data and comparison with the literatures reported on the chemical constituents from Juniperus communis var. depressa. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the Spiraea genus. Furthermore, the isolated compounds were subjected to assay inhibitory activity on pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and all the compounds showed anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Spiraea/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Juniperus/química , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Células RAW 264.7
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 118: 164-170, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482177

RESUMO

Defective skin barrier characterize canine atopic dermatitis (AD). Pyoderma is the most common complication. Herbal compounds have been suggested as alternatives to control bacterial colonization for their effect on natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This study evaluated the effects of 0.1% Peumus boldus leaf and Spiraea ulmaria plant extract combination on clinical signs, bacterial colonization and AMPs secretion in atopic dogs compared to placebo. Twenty privately-owned atopic dogs were randomly divided in 2 groups (treatment: n = 10; placebo: n = 10) and their abdomen was sprayed every 24 h for 4 weeks. Total and inguinal clinical scores (CADESI-03), manual bacterial count, and skin washes for AMPs (cBD3-like and cCath) were performed on days 0, 14 and 28. AMPs were detected using in-house, previously-validated, canine-specific ELISAs. Data were statistically analyzed and a p < 0.05 was considered significant. Clinical scores and AMPs secretion did not differ significantly between the two groups at any time point. A significant reduction of the clinical scores was seen in the placebo group at 14 and 28 days (p < 0.04). On days 14 and 28, a reduction in the bacterial count was seen in the treated group compared with placebo (p < 0.009 and p = 0.04, respectively). Compared to baseline, a reduction in Staphylococcus spp. was seen in the treated group after 14 days of treatment (p < 0.03). These results show the efficacy of this plant extract combination against bacterial colonization, suggesting its potential usefulness in preventing bacterial infection in atopic dogs. The influence of this compound on AMPs secretion or other mechanisms should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Peumus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Spiraea/química , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 123: 137-148, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462675

RESUMO

A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification. Using a multilocus approach, here we assessed the influence of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) uplift and fluctuating regional climate on genetic diversity of two sister spiroides shrubs, Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica. Combined with palaeodistributional reconstruction modelling, we investigated the current and past-predicted distribution of these species under different climatic episodes. The study demonstrated that continuous pulses of retreat and expansion during last glacial-interglacial episodes, combined with the uplifting of QTP shaped the current distribution of these species. All the populations showed high level of genetic diversity based on both cpDNA and SSR markers. The average gene diversity within populations based on cpDNA markers was 0.383 ±â€¯0.052 for S. alpina and 0.477 ±â€¯0.048 for S. mongolica. The observed and expected heterozygosities based on SSR for both Spiraea alpina and S. mongolicawere HE(0.72-0.90)/HO(0.35-0.78) and HE(0.77-0.92)/HO(0.47-0.77) respectively. Palaeodistributional reconstruction indicated species' preferences at southeastern edge of the plateau during last glacial maximum, at higher altitude areas of QTP and range expansion to central plateau during the interglacial episodes. Assignment tests in STRUCTURE, discriminant analysis of principal coordinates and Immigrants analysis in GENECLASS based on nuclear SSR markers did not support the hypothesis of gene flow between both the species. However, maximum likelihood approach based on cpDNA showed sharing of haplotypes between both species.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Paleontologia , Filogeografia , Spiraea/classificação , Spiraea/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Clima , Mudança Climática , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Teóricos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tibet , Fatores de Tempo
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 762, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diterpene alkaloids are secondary plant metabolites and chemotaxonomical markers with a strong biological activity. These compounds are characteristic for the Ranunculaceae family, while their occurrence in other taxa is rare. Several species of the Spiraea genus (Rosaceae) are examples of this rarity. Screening Spiraea species for alkaloid content is a chemotaxonomical approach to clarify the classification and phylogeny of the genus. Novel pharmacological findings make further investigations of Spiraea diterpene alkaloids promising. RESULTS: Seven Spiraea species were screened for diterpene alkaloids. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations were performed on Spiraea chamaedryfolia, the species found to contain diterpene alkaloids. Its alkaloid-rich fractions were found to exert a remarkable xanthine-oxidase inhibitory activity and a moderate antibacterial activity. The alkaloid distribution within the root was clarified by microscopic techniques.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Spiraea/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Spiraea/classificação , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 105: 310-320, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27336837

RESUMO

Seaweed extracts (SWE) might play an important role in enhancing growth and phytochemical composition of medicinal shrubs. In this study, we investigate the morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of irrigation levels (100% and 50% of the evapotranspiration rate) coupled with a weekly treatment of SWE of Ascophyllum nodosum at 5 and 7 mL L(-1) as a soil drench or foliar spray on Spiraea nipponica "Snowmound" and Pittosporum eugenioides "Variegatum" grown in containers under controlled greenhouse conditions. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in both plant species was largely enhanced while the proline accumulation was reduced. After 8 weeks of treatments, drought condition reduced plant vegetative growth and gas exchange, as well as leaf water potential, but increased the phenolic and flavonoid contents in leaves, their antioxidant capacities and proline content. The application of SWE enhanced the performance of both species during mild drought conditions by means of increasing leaf number and area, dry weights, plant height, gas exchange and leaf water potential. The maximum vegetative growth, physiological performance and phytochemical composition of both species was achieved using the drench SWE treatments (5 and 7 mL L(-1)) in moderate drought conditions, which improved the plant water status, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic rate. SWE enhanced plant growth and the phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of plant leaves of both species during moderate drought conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Rosales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alga Marinha/química , Spiraea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Análise de Variância , Biomassa , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Rosales/anatomia & histologia , Rosales/metabolismo , Spiraea/anatomia & histologia , Spiraea/metabolismo , Água
10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 14(9): 2716-22, 2016 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26837236

RESUMO

A bio-inspired synthetic strategy for the efficient construction of the structurally complex azapentacyclic ABEFG ring systems of Spiraea atisine-type diterpenoid alkaloids bearing a characteristic internal carbinolamine ether linkage between C(7) and C(20) has been successfully developed. The highly bridged azapentacyclic core structure was constructed rapidly from a readily prepared trans-6,6-bicyclic AB ring precursor through a 14-step sequence. Highlights of the synthesis include a straightforward formal lactone migration from the tricyclic γ-lactone unit of naturally occurring spiramilactone E, and an efficient biomimetic synthesis of the azapentacyclic ABEFG ring systems of spiramines C and D from the corresponding tetracyclic subunits of spiraminol and spiramilactone B.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/síntese química , Diterpenos/síntese química , Spiraea/química , Alcaloides/química , Diterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Fitoterapia ; 109: 8-13, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26625838

RESUMO

Five new naturally occurring natural products, including two atisine-type diterpene alkaloids (1 and 2), two atisane-type diterpenes (3 and 4), and a new natural product spiramine C2 (5), along with nine known ones (6-14), were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Spiraea japonica var. acuminata Franch. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities of all the compounds were evaluated by the conventional half-leaf method. Six compounds (2, 3, 6, 7, 11, and 12) exhibited moderate activities at 100 µg/mL with inhibition rates in the range of 69.4-92.9%, which were higher than that of the positive control, ningnanmycin. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Antivirais/química , Diterpenos/química , Spiraea/química , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Zootaxa ; 3936(3): 387-407, 2015 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25947443

RESUMO

Cyamophiliopsis is a small genus restricted to the Palaearctic Region and associated with Spiraea spp. (Rosaceae). In the present work, following five species are recognized in China: C. pseudofasciata sp. nov., C. sarmatica, C. spinosa sp. nov., C. xinjiangana sp. nov. and C. zaisani. Cyamophiliopsis is diagnosed, redescribed in detail, and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. All the species are described or redescribed, and the fifth instar immature of C. zaisani is described for the first time. Nomenclatorial problems are discussed concerning the Far East Russian Psylla spiraee which is transferred to Cyamophiliopsis as C. spiraee comb. nov.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/classificação , Spiraea/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Ecossistema , Feminino , Hemípteros/anatomia & histologia , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
13.
Arch Pharm Res ; 38(11): 1943-51, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925344

RESUMO

The phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract from the twigs of Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora (Rosaceae) using column chromatography led to the isolation of a new phenol glycoside, 1-O-(E)-caffeoyl-2-O-p-(E)-coumaroyl-ß-D-glucopyranose (1), together with 16 known phenolic compounds (2-17). The structure of this new compound was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and HR-FAB-MS data. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Spiraea/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metanol/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas de Bombardeamento Rápido de Átomos
14.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0119560, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885257

RESUMO

We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and δ15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of δ15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar δ15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the δ15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss δ15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that δ15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Incêndios , Água Doce/química , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Spiraea/enzimologia , Spiraea/metabolismo
15.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(8): 1884-8, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24684844

RESUMO

Spiramine C-D, the atisine-type diterpenoid alkaloids isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Spiraea japonica complex, are shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. In this study, we report that spiramine derivatives of spiramine C-D bearing α,ß-unsaturated ketone induce apoptosis of Bax(-/-)/Bak(-/-) MEFs cell, which is positively corresponding their cytotoxicity of tumor cell lines including multidrug resistance MCF-7/ADR. The results indicated that oxazolidine ring is necessary, and derivatives bearing double 'Michael reaction acceptor' group would significantly increased activities both of inducing apoptosis of Bax(-/-)/Bak(-/-) cells and cytotoxicity of tumor cells. The result indicated that spiramine derivative with α,ß-unsaturated ketone group is a new anti-cancer agent with a capability of inducing apoptosis of cancer cells in Bax/Bak-independent manner.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Spiraea/química , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 41(7): 4533-47, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24639177

RESUMO

We analyzed the different cold-resistance species Spiraea trichocarpa Nakai and Spiraea bumalda 'Goldmound' for low-temperature protein expression, protein types identification, and investigated the cold resistance mechanisms under different levels of low temperature by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. An average of 668 and 559 protein spots were detected by 2-DE of S. bumalda 'Goldmound' and S. trichocarpa Nakai, respectively, under different low-temperature treatments. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy identified 48 proteins, with varying expression, related to metabolism, amino acid synthesis, transportation, stress responses and oxidation-reduction reactions. The results showed that the photosynthesis of S. bumalda 'Goldmound' had been affected, enzymes (RuBisCO large and small subunits) involved in the Calvin cycle were up- and down-regulated, and ATP synthase in photophosphorylation was down-regulated. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase expression weakened in the TCA cycle, while amino acid synthesis strengthened. The activity of four antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], L-ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase) was reduced under varying low temperatures. Enzymes (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase and RuBisCO small chain precursor) involved in the photosynthesis of S. trichocarpa Nakai showed obvious up- and down-regulation under low temperatures. Cold treatment influenced the photosynthesis of S. trichocarpa Nakai and S. bumalda 'Goldmound', but the results showed significant differences between the two species, which were supposed to the fact that low temperature modified the metabolic mechanisms and led to the weaker cold resistance in S. bumalda 'Goldmound' than in S. trichocarpa Nakai.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Spiraea/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Spiraea/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
Phytochemistry ; 96: 223-34, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24176527

RESUMO

1-O-cis-Cinnamoyl-ß-D-glucopyranose is known to be one of the most potent allelochemical candidates and was isolated from Spiraea thunbergii Sieb by Hiradate et al. (2004), who suggested that it derived its strong inhibitory activity from cis-cinnamic acid, which is crucial for phytotoxicity. In this study, key structural features and substituent effects of cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) on lettuce root growth inhibition was investigated. These structure-activity relationship studies indicated the importance of the spatial relationship of the aromatic ring and carboxylic acid moieties. In this context, conformationally constrained cis-CA analogues, in which the aromatic ring and cis-olefin were connected by a carbon bridge, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as plant growth inhibitors. The results of the present study demonstrated that the inhibitory activities of the five-membered and six-membered bridged compounds were enhanced, up to 0.27 µM, and were ten times higher than cis-CA, while the potency of the other compounds was reduced.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/síntese química , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Spiraea/química , Cinamatos/química , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Phytochemistry ; 96: 430-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24161492

RESUMO

Activity guided isolation of a Spiraea prunifolia extract yielded five caffeoyl hemiterpene glycosides: 4'-(6-O-caffeoyl-ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-2'-methyl butyric acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-6-O-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside, 1,2-O-dicaffeoyl-6-O-(4'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-caffeoyl-6-O-(4'-caffeoyl-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside, and 1-O-caffeoyl-6-O-(4'-caffeoyl-3'-hydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside, and nine known compounds. Structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and FAB-MS. To evaluate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of all fourteen compounds, DPPH radical scavenging, NBT superoxide scavenging, and inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were examined. Three of the caffeoyl hemiterpene glycosides exhibited potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities compared with Vitamin C and l-NMMA, which were used as positive controls.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hemiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Hemiterpenos/farmacologia , Spiraea/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Hemiterpenos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Picratos/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Phytochemistry ; 96: 132-47, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24070619

RESUMO

1-O-cis-Cinnamoyl-ß-D-glucopyranose is one of the most potent allelochemicals that has been isolated from Spiraea thunbergii Sieb by Hiradate et al. It derives its strong inhibitory activity from cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA), which is crucial for phytotoxicity. By preparing and assaying a series of cis-CA analogues, it was previously found that the key features of cis-CA for lettuce root growth inhibition are a phenyl ring, cis-configuration of the alkene moiety, and carboxylic acid. On the basis of a structure-activity relationship study, the substituent effects on the aromatic ring of cis-CA were examined by systematic synthesis and the lettuce root growth inhibition assay of a series of cis-CA analogues having substituents on the aromatic ring. While ortho- and para-substituted analogues exhibited low potency in most cases, meta-substitution was not critical for potency, and analogues having a hydrophobic and sterically small substituent were more likely to be potent. Finally, several cis-CA analogues were found to be more potent root growth inhibitors than cis-CA.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Spiraea/química , Acrilatos/química , Acrilatos/isolamento & purificação , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Ann Bot ; 111(5): 887-93, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23482330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eversporting eudicots were sought to see if they behave like gymnosperms. Behaviour of eversporting gymnosperm chimeras indicates a single apical cell is present in SAM and it would be of interest to see if eudicot chimeras have the same behaviour. METHODS: Four eversporting spireas, the pineapple mint and the Silver King euonymus were inspected for the fate of the yellow (mutant)-green (wild type) chimeras. KEY RESULTS: As with gymnosperms, unstable eudicot chimeras in the four spireas, the pineapple mint and the Silver King euonymus became stable yellow about 80 % or more of the time and 20 % or less became stable green. CONCLUSIONS: The statistically significant preponderance of chimeric fates becoming all yellow suggests that a single apical cell resides in the yellow tunica. As with gymnosperms, descendent cells of the yellow replacement corpus cell eventually take over the corpus. Here is the first chimeric set of data to support the hypothesis of a one-celled meristem in eudicots rather than the traditional view of a muticellular meristem.


Assuntos
Quimera/fisiologia , Euonymus/fisiologia , Mentha/fisiologia , Meristema/fisiologia , Spiraea/parasitologia , Euonymus/citologia , Mentha/citologia , Meristema/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Spiraea/citologia
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