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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the change in trend of antenatal mental health and associated factors among a cohort of pregnant women during the second wave of COVID-19 using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Previous study using the same scale, during the first wave reported a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. RESULTS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the two large maternity hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka: Castle Street Hospital for Women (CSHW) and De Soysa Hospital for Women (DSHW). Consecutively recruited 311 women were studied. Out of which, 272 (87.5%) were having uncomplicated pregnancies at the time of the survey and 106 (34.1%) were either anxious, depressed, or both. Prevalence of anxiety was 17.0% and depression 27.0%. Overall, continuing COVID-19 pandemic increased antenatal anxiety and depression. The trend was to aggravate depression more intensively compared to anxiety in this cohort of women studied. Special support is needed for pregnant mothers during infectious epidemics taking more attention to antenatal depression.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gestantes , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(1): 20-29, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017754

RESUMO

Objective: To examine inequalities and opportunity gaps in co-coverage of health and nutrition interventions in seven countries. Methods: We used data from the most recent (2015-2018) demographic and health surveys of mothers with children younger than 5 years in Afghanistan (n = 19 632), Bangladesh (n = 5051), India (n = 184 641), Maldives (n = 2368), Nepal (n = 3998), Pakistan (n = 8285) and Sri Lanka (n = 7138). We estimated co-coverage for a set of eight health and eight nutrition interventions and assessed within-country inequalities in co-coverage by wealth and geography. We examined opportunity gaps by comparing coverage of nutrition interventions with coverage of their corresponding health delivery platforms. Findings: Only 15% of 231 113 mother-child pairs received all eight health interventions (weighted percentage). The percentage of mother-child pairs who received no nutrition interventions was highest in Pakistan (25%). Wealth gaps (richest versus poorest) for co-coverage of health interventions were largest for Pakistan (slope index of inequality: 62 percentage points) and Afghanistan (38 percentage points). Wealth gaps for co-coverage of nutrition interventions were highest in India (32 percentage points) and Bangladesh (20 percentage points). Coverage of nutrition interventions was lower than for associated health interventions, with opportunity gaps ranging from 4 to 54 percentage points. Conclusion: Co-coverage of health and nutrition interventions is far from optimal and disproportionately affects poor households in south Asia. Policy and programming efforts should pay attention to closing coverage, equity and opportunity gaps, and improving nutrition delivery through health-care and other delivery platforms.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sri Lanka
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 35, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Open Educational Resources (OER) and Social Media (SM) for academic information seeking is common among undergraduates nowadays. There is limited data on OER and SM use for education in Sri Lanka. This study was aimed at evaluating the OER and SM use for education among the medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya. Stratified random sampling was used to select students from the first year to the final year. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data. RESULTS: The study included 257 responses (response rate: 89.5%), of which 185 (72.0%) were females. The OER and SM use for educational purposes at least once a month among students was 96.1% (95%CI: 93.7-98.5%) and 88.3% (95%CI: 84.4-92.3%) respectively. There was no gender difference in OER and SM use. The main reasons for accessing OER were the availability of information at any time (36.1%) and ease of information access (31.5%). Wiki sites (84.4%) and Facebook (79.8%) were the highest accessed OER and SM platforms. The majority of students were in view that the information on wiki sites (51.4%) and results of general non-specific web searches (56.0%) were reliable. Only 33.9% of students searched information from educational and government-related sources and 18.7% had accessed e-journals. Through SM, 79.0% joined educational groups and 77.0% followed the medical-related sites, pages and people. More than one-third of students (35.8%) could not find academic information from SM due to the information overload and 31.1% mentioned that SM distracted their education. CONCLUSION: The majority of the students used OER and SM for education; however, only a minority accessed reliable information. Students accepted information available in wiki sites and general non-specific web searchers without considering the credibility of sources. The majority of the students did not refer to e-journals. Distractions to academic work and the difficulty to access accurate information were major concerns of using SM. This study highlights the importance of improving information literacy among medical students.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Sri Lanka
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131741, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358888

RESUMO

Airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) are significant contributors leading to many human health issues. Thus, this study was designed to perform chemical analysis and biological impact of airborne particulate matter 10 (PM10) in the World heritage City of Kandy City in Sri Lanka. 12 priority PAHs and 34 metals, including 10 highly toxic HMs were quantified. The biological effects of organic extracts were assayed using an in vitro primary porcine airway epithelial cell culture model. Cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and gene expressions of selected inflammatory and cancer-related genes were also assessed. Results showed that the total PAHs ranged from 3.062 to 36.887 ng/m3. The metals were dominated by Na > Ca > Mg > Al > K > Fe > Ti, while a few toxic HMs were much higher in the air than the existing ambient air quality standards. In the bioassays, a significant cytotoxicity (p < 0.05) was observed at 300 µg/mL treatment, and significant (p < 0.05) DNA damages were noted in all treatment groups. All genes assessed were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) after 24 h of exposure and after 48 h, only TGF-ß1 and p53 did not significantly up-regulate (p < 0.05). These findings confirm that the Kandy city air contains potential carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds and thus, exposure to Kandy air may increase the health risks and respiratory tract-related anomalies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Células Epiteliais , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Sistema Respiratório/química , Sri Lanka , Suínos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150405, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582866

RESUMO

The spatial variation of soil erosion is essential for farming system management and resilience development, specifically in the high climate hazard vulnerable tropical countries like Sri Lanka. This study aimed to investigate climate and human-induced soil erosion through spatial modeling. Remote sensing was used for spatial modeling to detect soil erosion, crop diversity, and rainfall variation. The study employed a time-series analysis of several variables such as rainfall, land-use land-cover (LULC) and crop diversity to detect the spatial variability of soil erosion in farming systems. Rain-use efficiency (RUE) and residual trend analysis (RESTREND) combined with a regression approach were applied to partition the soil erosion due to human and climate-induced land degradation. Results showed that soil erosion has increased from 9.08 Mg/ha/yr to 11.08 Mg/ha/yr from 2000 to 2019 in the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka. The average annual rainfall has increased in the western part of the Central Highlands, and soil erosion hazards such as landslides incidence also increased during this period. However, crop diversity has been decreasing in farming systems, namely wet zone low country (WL1a) and wet zone mid-country (WM1a), in the western part of the Central Highlands. The RUE and RESTREND analyses reveal climate-induced soil erosion is responsible for land degradation in these farming systems and is a threat to sustainable food production in the farming systems of the Central Highlands.


Assuntos
Erosão do Solo , Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chuva , Sri Lanka
6.
Gene ; 812: 146103, 2022 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896522

RESUMO

Characterization of hot spring microbiota is useful as an initial platform for exploring industrially important microbes. The present study focused on characterization of microbiota in four hot springs in Sri Lanka: Maha Oya; Wahava; Madunagala; and Kivlegama using high throughput 16S amplicon sequencing. Temperatures of the selected springs were ranged from 33.7 °C to 52.4 °C, whereas pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.2. Bacteria were found to be the dominant microbial group (>99%) compared to Archaea which represented less than 1% of microbiota. Four hot springs comprised of unique microbial community structures. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Cloroflexi, Deinococcus and Actenobacteria were the major bacterial phyla. Moderately thermophilic genera such as Thermodesulfobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus were detected as major genera that could be used in industrial applications operating at temperatures around 50 °C and alkaline reaction conditions.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fontes Termais/análise , Microbiota , Filogenia , Sri Lanka
7.
Environ Res ; 203: 111779, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339700

RESUMO

The epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality rates among dry-zonal farming communities has become a public health priority in Sri Lanka. Though a large number of hypotheses were introduced as causative factors, none of them have been confirmed so far. As drinking water quality is among the most suspected causative factors for the emergence of CKDu, a detailed hydro-geochemical investigation was carried out concurrently with the population screening in the Monaragala district of Sri Lanka where high incidences of CKDu are reported. A population screening was performed selecting 46,754 people using both dipstick proteinuria test and Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (ACR). The results revealed that the disease prevalence is about 6.7 % in the district. A total of 60 groundwater samples, 30 each, were collected from CKDu-prevalent locations and control locations where there are no CKDu cases reported. The samples were analyzed to identify any possible linkage between water quality and disease prevalence. Concentrations of hardness, F-, Na+, and Mg2+ in groundwater revealed a statistically significant difference between CKDu and control wells at a confident level of p = 0.05. The study revealed that alkali (Na++K+) and alkaline earth cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) were relatively higher in drinking water sources used by CKDu patients, compared to the well waters used by healthy individuals. Nearly 87 % of the wells used by CKDu cases showed higher fluoride levels that exceed the threshold level (1.0 mg L-1). Contents of nephrotoxic trace elements such as As, Cd, and Pb were found to be comparable in both types of wells and were well below the WHO permissible levels, thus negating their prime influence on the CKDu prevalence. It is obtrusive that the elevated fluoride levels together with water hardness associated with higher Mg2+ levels have a possible relation with CKDu and may influence the disease progression.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Fluoretos/análise , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Dureza , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
8.
Food Chem ; 368: 130746, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411857

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify useful chemical markers for the differentiation of true and false cinnamon; to develop a fast and efficient method of differentiation using MIR associated with chemometric methods. A total of 129 cinnamon samples from 3 countries (Brazil, Sri Lanka, and Paraguay) were purchased, being differentiated by visual analysis. The bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, HPLC, and MIR analysis were performed. The data obtained were submitted to PCA and PLS-DA. The results showed that the samples of true cinnamon have a higher concentration of eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and antioxidant capacity, as well as a lower coumarin content. The PCA showed the separation of two groups of cinnamon samples. PLS-DA was effective in differentiating the studied samples with an accuracy of 94.44% and 100% for the composition and MIR analysis, respectively. The MIR proved to be an alternative for the rapid differentiation of true and false cinnamon.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Eugenol , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Espectral , Sri Lanka
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 614, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial and temporal changes in the dengue incidence are associated with multiple factors, such as climate, immunity among a population against dengue viruses (DENV), circulating DENV serotypes and vertical transmission (VT) of DENV in an area at a given time. The level of VT in a specific location has epidemiological implications in terms of viral maintenance in vectors. Identification of the circulating DENV serotypes in both patients and Aedes mosquito larvae in an area may be useful for the early detection of outbreaks. We report here the results of a prospective descriptive study that was conducted to detect the levels of VT in Aedes mosquito larvae and circulating DENV serotypes in patients and Aedes mosquito larvae from December 2015 to March 2017 in an area of Sri Lanka at high risk for dengue. METHODS: A total of 200 patients with clinically suspected dengue who had been admitted to a tertiary care hospital during a dengue outbreak (3 study periods: December 2015-January 2016, June-August 2016, December 2016-January 2017) and in the inter-outbreak periods (February-May 2016 and September-November 2016) were investigated. Blood samples were drawn from the study participants to test for DENV. The houses of the study participants were visited within 7 days of admission to the hospital, and Aedes larvae were also collected within a radius of 400 m from the houses. The larvae were separately identified to species and then pooled according to each patient's identification number. Patients' sera and the Aedes larvae were tested to identify the infecting DENV serotypes using a reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method. Levels of VT in Aedes mosquito larvae were also identified. RESULTS: All four DENV serotypes (DENV-1 to -4) were identified in the study area. In the early part of the study (December 2015-February 2016), DENV-3 was predominant and from April 2016 to March 2017, DENV-2 became the most predominant type. Four cases of DENV co-infections were noted during the study period in patients. Interestingly, all four DENV serotypes were detected in Aedes albopictus larvae, which was the prominent immature vectorial form identified throughout the study period in the area, showing 9.8% VT of DENV. With the exception of DENV-4, the other three DENV serotypes were identified in Aedes aegypti larvae with a VT of 8.1%. CONCLUSION: Comparatively high rates of VT of DENV was detected in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae. A shift in the predominant DENV serotype with simultaneous circulation of all four DENV serotypes was identified in the study area from December 2015 to March 2017.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Estações do Ano , Sorogrupo , Animais , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Larva/virologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1279, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although genitourinary Tuberculosis (GUTB) is the second commonest source of extrapulmonary TB in most countries, the reported rate of GUTB in Sri Lanka remains low. The characteristics of GUTB in Sri Lanka have not been studied and documented so far. We aimed to study the clinical and imaging characteristics, treatment modalities and outcome of GUTB in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Data collected from patients treated by a single urological surgeon in two institutes consecutively over a period of 21 years were analysed. All patients with a microbiological and/or histopathological diagnosis of GUTB were included. Median duration of follow-up was 24 months (range: 6-96). RESULTS: There were 82 patients and 45 (54.9%) were men. The median age was 51 (range: 26-75) years. Most patients (39%, n = 32) had vague non-specific symptoms at presentation. Common specific symptoms at presentation were haematuria (15.8%, n = 13) and scrotal manifestations (15.8%, n = 13). Mantoux test was done in 70 patients and was > 10 mm in 62 (88.5%). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was available in 69 patients and was > 30 mm in 54 (78.3%) patients. Chest x-ray and x-ray kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) abnormalities were detected in 9 (11%) and 6 (7.3%) respectively. CT-urography was performed in 72 patients and abnormalities were detected in 57 (79%) patients. Forty-two patients underwent cystoscopy and 73.8% (n = 31) had abnormal findings. Microbiological diagnosis was feasible in 43 (52.4%) and rest were diagnosed histopathologically. Commonest organs involved were kidney (64.6%, n = 53), ureter (51.2%, n = 42), bladder (43.9%, n = 36) and testis/epididymis (15.8%, n = 13). One patient had TB of the prostate. All were treated primarily with anti-TB drugs however, 50 (61%) required ancillary therapeutic interventions. The majority of interventions were reconstructive surgeries (n = 20, 24.4%) followed by excisional surgeries (n = 19, 23.2%) and drainage procedures (n = 11, 13.4%). Seven patients developed serious adverse reactions to anti-TB drugs. Five patients developed a thimble bladder with disabling storage symptoms. Eight patients had deranged renal functions at diagnosis and three patients developed progressive deterioration of renal function and two patients died of end stage renal disease. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of urine for acid-fast bacilli, Mantoux test, CT-Urography, cystoscopy and histopathology is necessary to diagnose GUTB in resource-poor settings. Most ureteric strictures, non-functioning kidneys and epididymal masses need surgical treatment. Long-term follow up is essential to detect progressive deterioration of renal function.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Urogenital , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Urogenital/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Urogenital/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Urogenital/epidemiologia , Bexiga Urinária
11.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919553

RESUMO

The present study was done to identify the viral diversity, seasonality and burden associated with childhood acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in Sri Lanka. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of hospitalized children (1 month-5 years) with ARTI were collected in 2 centers (wet and dry zones) from March 2013 to August 2014. Respiratory viral antigen detection by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used to identify the infecting viruses. IFA negative 100 NPA samples were tested for human metapeumovirus (hMPV), human bocavirus and corona viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 443 and 418 NPAs, 37.2% and 39.4% were positive for any of the 8 different respiratory viruses tested from two centers studied. Viral co-infection was detected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in both centers. Peak viral detection was noted in the wet zone from May-July 2013 and 2014 and in the dry zone from December-January 2014 suggesting a local seasonality for viral ARTI. RSV showed a clear seasonality with a direct correlation of monthly RSV infections with rainy days in the wet zone and an inverse correlation with temperature in both centers. The case fatality rate was 2.7% for RSV associated ARTI. The overall disability adjusted life years was 335.9 and for RSV associated ARTI it was 241.8. RSV was the commonly detected respiratory virus with an annual seasonality and distribution in rainy seasons in the dry and wet zones of Sri Lanka. Identifying the virus and seasonality will contribute to employ preventive measures and reduce the empirical use of antibiotics in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade/tendências , Feminino , Bocavirus Humano/patogenicidade , Bocavirus Humano/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/patogenicidade , Metapneumovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/mortalidade , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/patogenicidade , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936678

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiencies are mostly hidden; clinically less visible compared to macronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification with multiple micronutrients (MMN) is provided for children between 6-23 months, daily for two months at three-time points. We assessed the acceptance and adherence of this nutritional intervention in an urban community setting in Sri Lanka. This cross-sectional study enrolled caregivers of children aged 7 to 23 months with a cluster sampling method. Caregivers ' acceptance of taste and smell, health gains, ease of use, and need perception (Cronbach's reliability: 0.801) were assessed. Also, anemia knowledge (Cronbach's reliability: 0.642), MMN knowledge, and reported adherence (number of sachets consumed per month) were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. Adequate adherence was defined as the use of ≥80% sachets. The univariate and multivariate statistical analysis examined the association of acceptability, adherence, and anemia knowledge with independent variables (socio-demographic, household characteristics, and knowledge). The survey included 153 respondents. The Median (range) age of children was 12 months (7-23). The mean (SD) acceptability score was 66.82% (9.78%). Acceptance of sensory qualities (smell/taste) had a lower score than perceived health benefit. Most consumed MMN adequately (72.5%). The mean (SD) anemia knowledge score was 62.20% (25.79%). In multivariate analysis, child's age (OR: -0.360, 95% CI:-0.510,-0.211) and father's education (OR: 2.148, 95% CI: 0.439, 3.857) were independently associated with acceptability. Child's age (OR: -0.108, 95% CI:0.818, 0.985), anemia knowledge (OR:0.016, 95% CI: 1.003, 1.031) and acceptability (OR:0.236, 95% CI:1.140, 1.406) were significant determinants of adherence. Anemia knowledge was significantly associated with the mother's education and household income when adjusted. In conclusion, unpleasant smell/taste and daily schedule were reported as barriers to MMN use. Yet, perception and trust regarding health benefits were encouraging. Reported adherence was somewhat high. Improving acceptability and anemia knowledge could enhance adherence further in this population.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Micronutrientes , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 838, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817701

RESUMO

This study examines the effect of "waste management" factors (Knowledge, Motivation, Time, Awareness, Contribution, Attitudes) on household waste generation (HWG), more precisely the measured weight of waste generated at households for a week (MWWGHW) while controlling for the socioeconomic factors such as family size, monthly family income, education level, and occupation. It also examines the moderating effects of the geographic location (urban versus rural areas) on the relationships between waste management factors and MWWGHW while controlling for the aforementioned socioeconomic factors. The overall results show that socioeconomic factors such as Family Size ([Formula: see text] = 0.134; p < 0.001) and Monthly Family Income ([Formula: see text] = 0.301; p < 0.001) significantly and positively influence MWWGHW, whereas the Occupation factor ([Formula: see text] = - 0.106, p < 0.05) significantly and negatively influences MWWGHW. Furthermore, the results show that the Knowledge ([Formula: see text] = - 0.129, p < 0.05), Motivation ([Formula: see text] = - 0.161, p < 0.001), Contribution ([Formula: see text] = - 0.111, p < 0.05), and Awareness ([Formula: see text]= - 0.189, p < 0.001) factors significantly and negatively influence MWWGHW. While the results show that the geographic location Urban Area moderates significantly the relationship between the Motivation factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.129, p < 0.05), the same results show, however, that the geographic location Rural Area moderates significantly but negatively the relationships between Knowledge factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.187, p < 0.01); Motivation factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.390, p < 0.001); Contribution factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.154, p < 0.10); and Awareness factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.285, p < 0.001). Based on these results, implications for policy orientations and future research are provided.


Assuntos
Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Sri Lanka
14.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 varies depending on social distancing measures, circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, host factors and other environmental factors. We sought to investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak that occurred in a highly dense population area in Colombo, Sri Lanka from April to May 2020. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV2, assessed the SARS-CoV-2 specific total and neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) in a densely packed, underserved settlement (n = 2722) after identification of the index case on 15th April 2020. 89/2722 individuals were detected as infected by RT-qPCR with a secondary attack rate among close contacts being 0.077 (95% CI 0.063-0.095). Another 30 asymptomatic individuals were found to have had COVID-19 based on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. However, only 61.5% of those who were initially seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 had detectable total antibodies at 120 to 160 days, while only 40.6% had detectable Nabs. 74/89 (83.1%) of RT-qPCR positive individuals were completely asymptomatic and all 15 (16.9%) who experienced symptoms were classified as having a mild illness. 18 (20.2%) were between the ages of 61 to 80. 11/89 (12.4%) had diabetes, 8/89 (9%) had cardiovascular disease and 4 (4.5%) had asthma. Of the two viruses that were sequenced and were of the B.1 and B.4 lineages with one carrying the D614G mutation. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Almost all infected individuals developed mild or asymptomatic illness despite the presence of comorbid illnesses. Since the majority of those who were in this underserved settlement were not infected despite circulation of the D614G variant, it would be important to further study environmental and host factors that lead to disease severity and transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769759

RESUMO

Although there has been an increase in awareness of the struggles experienced by caregivers, discourse on caregiving remains confined mostly to academia, policy circles or the family unit. There have been suggestions that public discourse on informal caregiving dwells overwhelmingly on the outsize toll it takes on the health of caregivers. However, few studies have examined societal narratives on caregivers-a gap our study aims to fill. We leveraged an online media database of 12 billion words collated from over 30 million articles to explore societal narratives on caregivers in six Asian countries. Computational linguistics and statistical analysis were applied to study the content of narratives on caregivers. The prevalence of societal narratives on caregivers was highest in Singapore-five times higher than Sri Lanka, which evidenced the lowest prevalence. Findings reveal that the inadequacies of institutional care as well as the need to train and empower caregivers are pressing issues that need to be prioritized on the policy agenda in Asia. Of broader significance, the diverse capabilities across Asia present opportunities for cross-country learning and capacity-building.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Narração , Humanos , Singapura , Sri Lanka
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769944

RESUMO

Drowning among young adults is high in Sri Lanka. Water safety education is a recommended strategy for drowning prevention but is often overlooked for young adults. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adapted educational intervention, "Swim for Safety" on improving water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skills among undergraduates (19-28 years) in Sri Lanka. This study employed a parallel-group, two-arm randomized controlled trial design. The intervention group (n = 78) received a face-to-face, 12-lesson education programme, and the control group (n = 78) received a brochure and weekly mobile phone messages for six consecutive weeks. Baseline, post-intervention and three-month follow-up knowledge, attitudes and skills were evaluated. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire and skills were evaluated following a skills assessment protocol. In total 116 participants, 60 intervention group and 56 control group, completed the study. At baseline there were no differences between groups in median scores of water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skills. The intervention group demonstrated statistically significant increases in median water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skill scores compared with the control group, following the intervention and maintained at three-month follow-up (p < 0.05). The adapted Swim for Safety programme significantly improved water safety knowledge, attitudes, and survival swimming skills among young adults in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is recommended that the SfS programme be implemented widely to prevent drowning in young adults.


Assuntos
Afogamento , Natação , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Sri Lanka , Água , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770063

RESUMO

The WHO Systematic Assessment of Rehabilitation Situation (STARS) tool was developed by WHO to facilitate effective prioritization and strategic planning for rehabilitation in countries. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the fourth phase of its development, its field testing in seven countries focusing on its completeness, usefulness, accessibility and feasibility. Field testing occurred in Jordan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Solomon Islands, Laos, Haiti, and Guyana. Evaluation occurred through structured interviews and rating exercises with 17 government representatives, international consultants, WHO country or regional office staff and rehabilitation experts who were actively engaged and familiar with the STARS assessment and who were knowledgeable of the rehabilitation situation in the countries. STARS was appraised as relevant, complete and accurate in describing the country situation. Areas of inaccuracy were mostly linked to challenges in describing areas of services similarly when significant diversity existed. Feasibility and accessibility were mostly confirmed and more complex components of the tool as well as the guidance to the assessment process were slightly revised in light of the field-testing results. The field testing of WHO STARS confirmed its completeness, usefulness, accessibility and feasibility, and concerns raised by the interviews informed the last refinement of the tool. STARS is part of the WHO Rehabilitation in Health Systems-Guide for Action, available online, by September 2021, STARS had guided 21 country situation assessments.


Assuntos
Organização Mundial da Saúde , Guiana , Haiti , Humanos , Jordânia , Laos , Melanesia , Mianmar , Sri Lanka
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 758, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of antenatal depression in low-or-middle-income countries, but information about risk factors in these settings is still lacking. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence of and explore risk factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in Galle, Sri Lanka. METHODS: This study used a mixed-method approach. The quantitative portion included 505 pregnant women from Galle, Sri Lanka, with health record data, responses to psychometric questionnaires (MSPSS and PRAQ-R2), and antenatal depression screening (EPDS). The qualitative portion included interviews with public health midwives about their experiences and routine clinical practices with women with antenatal depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms was 7.5%, highest in women over the age of 30 (13.0%, OR = 3.88, 95%CI = 1.71 - 9.97), with diabetes (21.9%, OR = 3.99, 95%CI = 1.50 - 9.56), or pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy (19.4%, OR = 3.32, 95%CI = 1.17 - 8.21). Lower prevalence was observed in the primiparous (3.3%, OR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.12 - 0.64) employed outside the home (3.6%, OR = 0.33, 95%CI = 0.13 - 0.72), or upper-middle class (2.3%, OR = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.04 - 0.56). Anxiety levels were elevated in depressed women (OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 1.07 - 1.20), while perceived social support was lower (OR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.89 - 0.93). After multivariable adjustment, only parity (OR = 0.20, 95%CI 0.05 - 0.74) and social support from a "special person" (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.77 - 0.95) remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Qualitative findings also identified antenatal health problems and poor social support as risk factors for depressive symptoms. They also identified different contributing factors to poor mental health based on ethnicity, higher stress levels among women working outside the home, and misinformation about health conditions as a cause of poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in Galle is lower than the recorded prevalence in other regions of Sri Lanka. Risk factors for antenatal depressive symptoms were identified on biological, psychological, and social axes. These variables should be considered when developing future guidelines for mental health and obstetric treatment in this context.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tocologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
19.
Zootaxa ; 5068(3): 378-398, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810703

RESUMO

Twenty-nine species of arboreal tiger beetles are found in Sri Lanka of which 23 species are endemic. However, records of species dates back to many years and systematic studies are lacking. Considering the high percentage of endemic arboreal tiger beetle species of the country, and the pressure on their arboreal habitats due to accelerated development activities, it is imperative that the group is studied and conservation practices are implemented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to record the arboreal tiger beetle species currently prevailing in the country, their locations, habitat types, morphometric and morphological characters. The study was conducted from August 2017 to September 2020 for a duration of three years. Arboreal tiger beetles were collected by hand picking when encountered during visual survey, in eighty-five locations in Sri Lanka. Specimens were identified using standard taxonomic keys. Locational data, habitat types, morphometric and morphological characters were recorded and all species were photographed. Arboreal tiger beetles were recorded from 22 locations which represented all climatic zones and provinces, and 14 districts of the country. Nine species of three genera, Tricondyla (3 species), Derocrania (5 species), Neocollyris (1 species), were identified and six of the species were endemic. Derocrania scitiscabra was the most common and widely distributed species encountered in the study and was found mainly occupying lands that were cultivated. Tricondyla gounellei that had been known only from Southern India was recorded for the first time in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ecossistema , Sri Lanka , Árvores
20.
Zootaxa ; 5067(3): 352-376, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810738

RESUMO

In broadening the understanding of the diversity, distribution and seasonality of gelatinous zooplankton of Sri Lanka, a survey ('Waya-jel-Survey) was carried out in coastal waters of the country from 2016 to 2020, and the collected specimens of pelagic tunicates were taxonomically identified. Further, a comprehensive literature survey was conducted and the previous records on the occurrences of pelagic tunicates within the exclusive economic zone of Sri Lanka were cross-checked and listed in developing the first-ever annotated checklist. Among the samples collected in this study, Pyrostremma spinosum and Thalia sibogae were reported for the first time from Sri Lankan waters while two more thaliaceans, i.e., Doliolum denticulatum and Pegea confoederata, and six appendicularians, i.e., Fritillaria borealis sargassi, F. formica digitata, Oikopleura cophocerca, O. fusiformis, O. longicauda, and O. rufescens were re-recorded. In total, forty species (including two subspecies) in 19 genera, belonging to five families from four orders of the classes Appendicularia (n = 17 species) and Thaliacea (n = 23 species) were reported to be inhabited in Sri Lankan waters. Most of the records were from the Laccadive Sea region while the majority of the species have been reported during the northwest monsoon (December to February) period.


Assuntos
Urocordados , Animais , Sri Lanka
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