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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 171, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471467

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes cause serious economic losses in sheep production systems. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with these parasites, a study was conducted on 595 sheep in Córdoba, Colombia. Prevalence and parasite burden were determined using the McMaster technique. Larvae were cultured from feces to identify the nematode genera. For the analysis of associated factors and parasite burden, data means, medians, and confidence intervals were compared. A georeferenced data analysis was performed and an epidemiological map was constructed. An overall prevalence of 88.2% was found, with the highest prevalence and parasite burden for Strongylida (83.2%) and Strongyloides (41%) nematodes. The mean parasite burden was 1255 eggs per gram. The gastrointestinal nematode genera identified were Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, and Cooperia. In general, a significant association was found between parasite burden and dewormed animals, anthelmintic used, date of last deworming, and breeds. The FAMACHA® method and body condition showed a significant association with the Strongylida parasite burden. Clusters with higher intensity of gastrointestinal nematode burden and high prevalence were observed in the regions of Bajo Sinú, Sinú Medio, and San Jorge.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Gastroenteropatias , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Estrongilídios , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Óvulo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 296: 109503, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237518

RESUMO

This field and abattoir study assessed the association of the severity and prevalence of small lungworm lesions with the carcass characteristics of 1332 lambs and adult sheep bred on three farms in southeast SA. Liveweight and measures of lungworm infection were measured on farm, then lung lesions and carcass characteristics assessed at slaughter. The overall prevalence of small lungworm lesions at slaughter was 79 % (928/1177; 95 % CI 76, 81), with a prevalence of 87 % (569/658; 95 % CI 84, 89) in lambs, and 69 % (359/519; 95 % CI 65, 73) in adults, respectively. Small lungworm infected lambs and adults had a similar hot standard carcass weight and dressing percentage compared to non-infected animals, both overall and within their respective cohort. Overall, the mean carcass weight for non-infected and infected lambs was 23.4 kg (95 % CI 18, 29), and 23.6 kg (95 % CI 18, 29), respectively, with a mean difference of 0.2 kg (95 % CI -0.4, 0.8; P = 0.5). Mean carcass weight for non-infected and infected adults was 21.3 kg (95 % CI 15, 28), and 21.5 kg (95 % CI 15, 28), with a mean difference of 0.2 kg (95 % CI -0.5, 0.9; P = 0.5). This study confirmed a very high prevalence of small lungworm lesions in sheep bred on farms in this region of SA, but their hot standard carcass weights were not reduced by these lesions. Additional information to compare the presence of lesions with productivity within an individual was collected at slaughter which provided more detailed information than is currently collected by routine abattoir surveillance. The limitations of the currently available diagnostic tests for small lungworm were also demonstrated. This indicated a need for the development of more sensitive tests to assess lungworm infections both on farm and at the abattoir. Currently, farmers in this region are concerned about the very high prevalence of small lungworm in their sheep, but this study provides reassurance that the presence of mild lesions does not reduce production.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Composição Corporal , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Estrongilídios , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
3.
BMC Biotechnol ; 21(1): 35, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable DNA extraction protocol to use on individual Teladorsagia circumcincta nematode specimens to produce high quality DNA for genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Pooled samples have been critical in providing the groundwork for T. circumcincta genome construction, but there is currently no standard method for extracting high-quality DNA from individual nematodes. 11 extraction kits were compared based on DNA quality, yield, and processing time. RESULTS: 11 extraction protocols were compared, and the concentration and purity of the extracted DNA was quantified. Median DNA concentration among all methods measured on NanoDrop 2000™ ranged between 0.45-11.5 ng/µL, and on Qubit™ ranged between undetectable - 0.962 ng/µL. Median A260/280 ranged between 0.505-3.925, and median A260/230 ranged - 0.005 - 1.545. Larval exsheathment to remove the nematode cuticle negatively impacted DNA concentration and purity. CONCLUSIONS: A Schistosoma sp. DNA extraction method was determined as most suitable for individual T. circumcincta nematode specimens due to its resulting DNA concentration, purity, and relatively fast processing time.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Genéticas , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/genética , Animais , Fezes , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Estrongilídios/classificação , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
4.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(1): 145-149, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847094

RESUMO

Resistance of cyathostomins to benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics is widespread in horses in many parts of the world. This study compared three methods for the determination of benzimidazole resistance of Cyathostominae in 18 horses from a stud farm in Romania. The horses were treated with Fenbendazole. The resistance test was performed by FECRT, ERP and PCR. On Day 0, larvae of species belonging to the Cyathostominae subfamily, types A, B, C, D and Gyalocephalus, as well as Strongylus vulgaris species of the Strongylinae subfamily, were identified. At 42 days post treatment with fenbendazole only larvae of Cyathostominae, types A and D were identified. Resistance to Fenbendazole was found in one horse, using the FECRT and ERP tests. Both genetic resistance and susceptibility to BZ anthelmintics was observed in 13 samples (72.22%) using the PCR test. However, three samples (16.67%) showed only the BZ-susceptibility gene. In 2 samples, (11.11%) only the resistance gene to BZ anthelmintics was identified. Several inconsistencies in the evidence of resistance to benzimidazole were observed between the PCR test and the other two methods, which indicates that several methods for determining and controlling the resistance should be used in practice.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cavalos , Romênia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
5.
Am Nat ; 197(3): 324-335, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625970

RESUMO

AbstractReproduction in wild animals can divert limited resources away from immune defense, resulting in increased parasite burdens. A long-standing prediction of life-history theory states that these parasites can harm the reproductive individual, reducing its subsequent survival and fecundity, producing reproduction-fitness trade-offs. Here, we examined associations among reproductive allocation, immunity, parasitism, and subsequent survival and fecundity in a wild population of individually identified red deer (Cervus elaphus). Using path analysis, we investigated whether costs of lactation in terms of downstream survival and fecundity were mediated by changes in strongyle nematode count and mucosal antibody levels. Lactating females exhibited increased parasite counts, which were in turn associated with substantially decreased fitness in the following year in terms of overwinter survival, fecundity, subsequent calf weight, and parturition date. This study offers observational evidence for parasite regulation of multiple life-history trade-offs, supporting the role of parasites as an important mediating factor in wild mammal populations.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Aptidão Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Lactação , Traços de História de Vida , Estrongilídios , Animais , Cervos/imunologia , Feminino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 970-980, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480577

RESUMO

The population of the Mauritian pink pigeon (Nesoenas mayeri) fell to fewer than 20 individuals in the 1970s. Following intensive conservation efforts, the free-living population is now estimated to be 470 individuals. However, because of the population bottleneck the species remains at risk of extinction because of genetic loss and inbreeding depression. A European captive population was established in 1977 and a European Endangered Species Program (EEP) was formalized in 1992. As birds in the EEP captive population possess unique alleles not observed in the surviving free-living birds, the EEP management plan recommends transferring EEP birds to Mauritius to improve genetic diversity. Health screening of the current EEP population to identify circulating pathogens was performed. Forty-two birds from three collections in the United Kingdom and one in Jersey were screened for a wide range of pathogens, present clinically or subclinically, including important viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Eleven birds tested positive for at least one pathogen: Trichomonas spp. (5), Yersinia kristensenii (2), Yersinia aleksiciae (1), coccidial oocysts (3), and strongyle ova (3). None of the positive birds showed overt signs of clinical disease, although two birds with Trichomonas spp. had suboptimal body condition. Genotyping of one Trichomonas gallinae sample revealed a type-C strain (low pathogenicity). The results from this screening will contribute towards a disease risk assessment, to create a pre-export protocol for translocation of captive EEP birds to Mauritius.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Columbiformes , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccídios , Humanos , Estrongilídios , Trichomonas/isolamento & purificação , Yersinia
7.
Parasitology ; 148(1): 31-41, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054876

RESUMO

Wildlife translocations, which involve the introduction of naive hosts into new environments with novel pathogens, invariably pose an increased risk of disease. The meningeal worm Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is a nematode parasite of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), which serves as its primary host and rarely suffers adverse effects from infection. Attempts to restore elk (Cervus canadensis) to the eastern US have been hampered by disease caused by this parasite. Using DNA sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes, we examined the hypothesis that elk translocated within the eastern US could be exposed to novel genetic variants of P. tenuis by detailing the genetic structure among P. tenuis taken from white-tailed deer and elk at a source (Kentucky) and a release site (Missouri). We found high levels of diversity at both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA in Missouri and Kentucky and a high level of differentiation between states. Our results highlight the importance of considering the potential for increased disease risk from exposure to novel strains of parasites in the decision-making process of a reintroduction or restoration.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Genes de Helmintos , Variação Genética , Kentucky , Missouri , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/genética , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação
8.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(6): 713-725, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145657

RESUMO

Nematodes of the genus Amphibiophilus Skrjabin, 1916 are a small group of parasites restricted to pyxicephalid frogs in southern Africa. In the present study, the new species A. bialatus parasitising the clicking stream frog Strongylopus grayii (Smith) as well as two forms parasitising the common river frog Amietia delalandii (Duméril & Bibron) from two distant localities are described. Amphibiophilus bialatus n. sp. clearly differs from the remaining species of the genus by having wide cervical alae, the dorsal oesophageal tooth not reaching the oral opening, and the presence of extra processes on the spicules. Specimens parasitising Am. delalandii in Mpumalanga Province and Limpopo Province, South Africa, differed from other species and from each other in the shape of the gubernaculum, though were almost identical in other characters. Based on morphological and molecular data, specimens from two localities were assigned to Amphibiophilus sp. 1 and Amphibiophilus sp. 2. Pairwise analyses of ITS-28S and cox1 gene fragments are presented for four Amphibiophilus spp.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/classificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , África do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie , Estrongilídios/anatomia & histologia , Estrongilídios/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19204, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154485

RESUMO

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, is a deleterious pest worldwide affecting fruit production. The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a potential biocontrol agent that could be effectively used to control this Mediterranean fruit fly. In this study, five EPN strains reported from different fields in Morocco were evaluated for their efficacy against C. capitata. In laboratory assays, Steinernema feltiae-SF-MOR9, S. feltiae-SF-MOR10 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora-HB-MOR7 strains showed significantly higher infectivity and penetration rates when compared to the other strains. S. feltiae-SF-MOR9 caused the highest larval mortality rate (80%) at 50 infective juveniles (IJs) cm-2. However, additional results showed that both S. feltiae strains were significantly effective in controlling C. capitata larvae in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) fruits on soil surface with high mortality rate at 50 and 100 IJs cm-2. Different soil textures and moisture levels resulted in a significant variation in EPN strain virulence against C. capitata. Sandy clay loam soil in combination with 50 IJs cm-2 of S. feltiae (SF-MOR9 or SF-MOR10) caused a higher mortality rate of C. capitata larvae. Furthermore, applying these EPN strains at 50-100 IJs cm-2 in combination with 10-15% moisture level showed optimal results against C. capitata larvae. Therefore, those two Moroccan EPN strains could be used as promising eco-friendly biological agents against C. capitata.


Assuntos
Ceratitis capitata/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Rabditídios , Estrongilídios , Animais , Marrocos
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17323, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057173

RESUMO

Rapid climate warming in the Arctic results in multifaceted disruption of biodiversity, faunal structure, and ecosystem health. Hypotheses have linked range expansion and emergence of parasites and diseases to accelerating warming globally but empirical studies demonstrating causality are rare. Using historical data and recent surveys as baselines, we explored climatological drivers for Arctic warming as determinants of range expansion for two temperature-dependent lungworms, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 1980 through 2017. Our field data shows a substantial northward shift of the northern edge of the range for both parasites and increased abundance across the expanded ranges during the last decade. Mechanistic models parameterized with parasites' thermal requirements demonstrated that geographical colonization tracked spatial expansion of permissive environments, with a temporal lag. Subtle differences in life histories, thermal requirements of closely related parasites, climate oscillations and shifting thermal balances across environments influence faunal assembly and biodiversity. Our findings support that persistence of host-parasite assemblages reflects capacities of parasites to utilize host and environmental resources in an ecological arena of fluctuating opportunity (alternating trends in exploration and exploitation) driving shifting boundaries for distribution across spatial and temporal scales.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aquecimento Global , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Fezes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Larva , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Rena/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Estrongilídios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027421

RESUMO

Semi-intensive equine breeding system favors gastrointestinal nematode infections. The treatment of these infections is based on the use of anthelmintics. However, the inappropriate use of these drugs has led to parasitic resistance to the available active principles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main classes of antiparasitic (ATP) used in control in adult and young animals, including: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole), pyrimidines (pyrantel pamoate), macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin and moxidectin), as well as the combination of active ingredients (ivermectin + pyrantel pamoate). The study was carried out in two military establishments, located in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), from January to December, 2018. The intervals between the treatments of the animals were performed from 30 to 90 days. Coproparasitological evaluations were determined by the egg count reduction in the faeces. Cyatostomine larvae were identified in pre and post-treatment cultures. The results demonstrated the multiple parasitic resistance of cyathostomins to fenbendazole, moxidectin in young animals, and to fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate in adult animals. Thus, it is necessary to define or diagnose parasitic resistance to assist in the creation of prophylactic parasitic control, using suppressive treatment with ATP associated with integrated alternatives. The progress of parasitic resistance can be slowed.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Militares , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea , Estrongilídios , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 286: 109242, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980728

RESUMO

The biological-based vaccine (Barbervax®) generates effective antibodies against the biologically essential H-gal-GP and H11 protein complex of the ruminant parasite Haemonchus contortus to target and kill the parasites after taking a blood meal. A comparative analysis of several parasite genera was performed to determine if a similar protein complex or one that is recognized by H-gal-GP and H11 specific antibodies was present. If so, it suggests the vaccine could be effective for other nematode parasites. Ancylostoma caninum, H. contortus, equine cyathostomins, bovine Bunostomum phlebotomum, Dracunculus lutrae, Parascaris sp., Ixodes scapularis, Amblyomma americanum, Dirofilaria immitis and Brugia malayi were evaluated for specific antibody binding using hyperimmunized antibodies against H-gal-GP and H11 native proteins. Of the parasites evaluated, specific and reproducible staining was observed in H. contortus and adult and encysted cyathostomins only. To further evaluate the similar reactivities between cyathostomins and H. contortus, cross-reactivity of equine serum with antibodies to cyathostomins on a H. contortus adult histology cross-section was observed using immunofluorescence. These findings pave the way for future studies on the safety and efficacy of H-gal-GP and H11 protein complex as a potential control for cyathostomins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 285: 109215, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862125

RESUMO

Feline lungworms such as Aerulostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are snail-borne pathogens causing respiratory disease in domestic cats. Paratenic hosts such as rodents and reptiles have also been implicated in the epidemiology of these parasites. Although A. abstrusus has been recognized for a long time as the most prevalent lungworm among cats worldwide, T. brevior is of major concern in kittens. Bearing in mind that disease due to T. brevior occurs mainly in pediatric patients younger than 6 months of age, the diagnosis of this parasite in two kittens presenting severe respiratory disease from the garden of one of the authors inspired us to investigate the potential routes of transmission for T. brevior in domestic cats. Of the three queens (A, B and C) that delivered kittens (n = 8), only cat A was positive for T. brevior, presenting her two kittens severe respiratory clinical signs, which lead to the exitus in one of them, 18 days of age. In addition, three kittens, the offspring of queen B, turned to be positive at the coprological examination after suckling from queen A, whereas those from queen C (that suckled only on their own mother) remained negative. A series of coprological, histological and molecular tests were conducted to confirm the presence of T. brevior in the patients as well as in the other cats cohabiting the same garden. Adult nematodes were retrieved from the trachea and bronchi of the dead kitten (kitten 1A), and larvae at the histology of the lung and liver parenchyma associated with bronco pneumonitis and lymphocytic pericholangitis, respectively. Cornu aspersum (n = 60), Eobania vermiculata (n = 30) snails (intermediate hosts) as well as lizards and rats (potential paratenic hosts) were collected from the same garden and processed through tissue digestion and molecular detection. Troglostrongylus brevior larvae were recovered through tissue digestion from two C. aspersum (3.33 %) and it was confirmed by PCR-sequencing approach, which also detected T. brevior DNA in the liver and lungs of one rat and in the coelomatic cavity of one gecko lizard. During the COVID-19 lockdown, when scientists spent more time at home, we grasp the opportunity to decipher T. brevior biology and ecology starting in a small ecological niche, such as the garden of our house. Data herein presented led us to suggest: i) the transmammary transmission of T. brevior in domestic cats; ii) the role of intermediate and paratenic hosts (including reptiles) in the epidemiology of the infection which they transmit; as well as iii) the importance of observational parasitology in studying any event that certainly occurs in small ecological niches, as it could be in our home gardens.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções Respiratórias/parasitologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 298, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species of Macroponema Mawson, 1978 are strongyloid nematodes which occur in the stomachs of macropodid marsupials in Australia. In this study, the genus Macroponema is revised, redescriptions of the two known species are provided, and two new species are added to the genus. METHODS: A molecular characterisation of the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of representative specimens of Macroponema from all known host species was undertaken to confirm the status of M. cf. comani. This resulted in the identification of a further new species within the genus. Consequently, a review of all available material in museum collections was undertaken. RESULTS: The two known species M. beveridgei Mawson, 1978 from Osphranter antilopinus (Gould) and O. robustus (Gould), and M. comani Mawson, 1978 from Macropus giganteus Shaw are re-described and their geographical distributions expanded. Two new species added to the genus are M. arundeli n. sp. from Ma. giganteus found in Queensland and the north east of New South Wales, and M. obendorfi n. sp. from O. antilopinus and O. robustus in the Northern Territory, the Kimberley Division of Western Australia and eastern Queensland. The latter species was formerly identified as M. cf. comani based on molecular studies. The specific identification of both of the new species is supported by ribosomal DNA sequence data. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the morphological and molecular characterisation of nematodes, this study has revealed the existence of four species within the genus Macroponema. The current phylogenetic data suggest that Macroponema spp. plausibly evolved by host switching; however, further studies are required to test this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/parasitologia , Filogenia , Estrongilídios/classificação , Estrongilídios/genética , Animais , Austrália , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Estrongilídios/anatomia & histologia
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1067-1068, May-June, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129778

RESUMO

A criação de equinos brasileira movimenta anualmente cerca de R$ 16,15 bilhões e impulsiona o setor econômico primário do país. O mercado de animais da raça Crioula vem se expandindo devido ao seu alto potencial zootécnico. No Rio Grande do Sul, a criação é tipicamente extensiva, aliada, muitas vezes, à alta densidade animal, o que favorece as constantes infecções por diversos parasitos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar retrospectivamente a frequência de parasitos gastrointestinais em cavalos da raça Crioula naturalmente infectados na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram utilizadas 585 amostras de fezes de equinos da raça Crioula, adultos, de ambos os sexos, recebidas de criatórios e centros reprodutivos localizados na região. Do total de amostras, 89,74% (525/585) foram positivas para algum helminto. Em 57,60% (337/585) das amostras, observaram-se somente ovos da família Strongylidae. Infecções por Parascaris spp. e Strongyloides sp., apresentaram frequências de 2,22% (13/585) e 1,53% (9/585), respectivamente. Assim, pode-se concluir que os parasitos mais frequentes na população equina da região sul do RS pertencem à família Strongylidae.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Estrongilídios , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Helmintos
16.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(7): e12717, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249432

RESUMO

Macrophages, the major population of tissue-resident mononuclear phagocytes, contribute significantly to the immune response during helminth infection. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are induced early in the anti-helminth response following tissue insult and parasite recognition, amplifying the early type 2 immune cascade initiated by epithelial cells and ILC2s, and subsequently driving parasite expulsion. AAM also contribute to functional alterations in tissues infiltrated with helminth larvae, mediating both tissue repair and inflammation. Their activation is amplified and occurs more rapidly following reinfection, where they can play a dual role in trapping tissue migratory larvae and preventing or resolving the associated inflammation and damage. In this review, we will address both the known and emerging roles of tissue macrophages during helminth infection, in addition to considering both outstanding research questions and new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Estrongilídios/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Arginase/imunologia , Quitinases/imunologia , Inflamação/parasitologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Resistina/imunologia
17.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12709, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145074

RESUMO

AIMS: The role of the immune response to cyathostomin infections in horses remains unknown. Intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia has previously been noted as a component in cyathostomin infection; however, the function is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate the local and systemic gene expression to cyathostomin infections following larvicidal treatment and explore their relation to goblet cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six ponies with naturally acquired cyathostomin infections were randomly allocated into three groups: fenbendazole-treated (10 mg/kg PO 5 days), moxidectin-treated (0.4 mg/kg PO once) and untreated control. Whole blood from all horses was collected weekly, and tissue samples from the large intestine collected during necropsy at 2 and 5 weeks post-treatment (WPT). Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-22, IFN-γ, resistin-like molecule beta (RELM-ß), Mucin 2 (MUC2) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α was measured using qRT-PCR. There were statistically significant linear correlations between luminal worm burdens and MUC2 (r = -.2358) and RELM-ß (r = -.2261). CONCLUSION: This suggests an active role of immune system post-treatment in parasite expulsion, specifically in goblet cells, and that the organs respond differently to treatment and the larvae themselves. This may have implications in the disease process and treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Estrongilídios/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Estrongilídios/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e016719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049145

RESUMO

In Brazil, species of the genus Ramphocelus with the presence of various endoparasites have already been reported. Coccidia have been the parasites most frequently found. All species of this genus have similar habitats and ecological niches, which makes parasite transmission easy. The aim of this study was to diagnose the presence of endoparasites in fecal samples from specimens of Ramphocelus carbo that were caught in the Cazumbá-Iracema Extractive Reserve (Cazumbá Resex), in the State of Acre. The specimens (n = 30) were caught in mist nets arranged in different ecosystems of the Reserve. After identification, the bird specimens were placed in cloth bags for a maximum of 30 minutes to collect feces. Among the 22 samples collected, 63.63% (n = 14) were positive for endoparasites. The coccidia were the parasites most frequently. Helminths belonging to Ascaridiidae (Nematoda), Strongylida (Nematoda) and Davaneidae (Cestoda) were recorded for the first time in R. carbo in the State of Acre. Parasites belonging to Strongylida and Davaneidae were recorded for the first time in a species of Ramphocelus. These findings add information on the parasitic fauna of wild birds, since in the Amazon region there are few studies on this subject.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Coccídios/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Passeriformes/classificação , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Helminthol ; 94: e114, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928550

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal helminth parasites of 170 common wallaroos or euros, Osphranter robustus (Gould), collected from all mainland states in which the species occurs as well as the Northern Territory, are presented, including previously published data. A total of 65 species of helminths were encountered, including four species of anoplocephalid cestodes found in the bile ducts and small intestine, and 61 species of strongylid nematodes, all but two of which occurring in the stomach, and with the remainder occurring in the terminal ileum, caecum and colon. Among the mainland subspecies of O. robustus, 52 species of helminths were encountered in O. r. robustus, compared with 30 species in O. r. woodwardi and 35 species in O. r. erubescens. Of the parasite species encountered, only 17 were specific to O. robustus, the remaining being shared with sympatric host species. Host-specific species or species occurring in O. robustus at a high prevalence can be classified as follows: widely distributed; restricted to northern Australia; restricted to the northern wallaroo, O. r. woodwardi; found only in the euro, O. r. erubescens; found essentially along the eastern coast of Australia, primarily in O. r. robustus; and species with highly limited regional distributions. The data currently available suggest that the acquisition of a significant number of parasites is due to co-grazing with other macropodids, while subspeciation in wallaroos as well as climatic variables may have influenced the diversification of the parasite fauna.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Macropodidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Cestoides/parasitologia , Colo/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Íleo/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/parasitologia , Estômago/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Estrongilídios/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
20.
Parasitology ; 147(3): 348-359, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840634

RESUMO

Comparing parasitic infection among individuals of wildlife populations can provide insight into factors that influence wildlife disease ecology. Strongylids are parasitic worms that infect the intestinal tract of vertebrates, and infection with strongylids can be approximated by counting strongylid eggs in dung samples. Here we tested for correlations between strongylid egg counts and 18 different individual characteristics, environmental and social factors in individually known wild African elephants. We counted more eggs in the dung samples of younger elephants and females relative to mature elephants and males. We also found that elephants spending more time outside reserves shed more strongylid eggs than elephants that were more often within reserves. Elephants that were less socially integrated, as measured by how much aggression they received from other elephants, shed fewer strongylid eggs; relatedly, socially isolated orphan elephants that had left their family shed fewer strongylid eggs than elephants that remained with their family. Our results suggest that landscapes altered by livestock grazing and social disruption caused by humans may impact parasitic infection in wildlife.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Movimento , Comportamento Social , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Estrongilídios/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Elefantes/fisiologia , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
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