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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(7. Vyp. 2): 5-13, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912550

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, which results in the formation of primary demyelinating lesions in the white and gray matter, as well as diffuse axonal and neuronal damage. Although there has been substantial progress in drug research in relapsing-remitting MS, treatment of progressive forms of the disease, can be challenging. Diffuse and compartmentalized lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration of the CNS tissue inhibits the differentiation of myelinating mature oligodendrocytes, disrupting the process of remyelination. Chronic inflammation that occurs behind a closed blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to microglia activation, which increases mitochondrial damage to axons and neurons, and therefore triggers chronic oxidative stress and histotoxic hypoxia. Thus, raising awareness about the mechanisms of neurodegeneration appears relevant. In the late stages of MS, it is caused by chronic neuroaxonal damage, disruption of the regenerative ability of the CNS, and to a great extent determines the disease outcome.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/complicações , Oligodendroglia/patologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11367, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790754

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated reduction in cortical and subcortical, including basal ganglia (BG), gray matter volumes (GMV) in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental condition that is more prevalent in males than in females. However, the volumetric deficits vary across studies. Whether volumetric reductions are more significant in males than females; to what extent these neural markers are heritable and relate to cognitive dysfunction in ADHD remain unclear. To address these questions, we followed published routines and performed voxel-based morphometry analysis of a data set (n = 11,502; 5,464 girls, 9-10 years) curated from the Adolescent Brain Cognition Development project, a population-based study of typically developing children. Of the sample, 634 and 2,826 were identified as monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins/siblings, respectively. In linear regressions, a cluster in the hypothalamus showed larger GMV, and bilateral caudate and putamen, lateral orbitofrontal and occipital cortex showed smaller GMVs, in correlation with higher ADHD scores in girls and boys combined. When examined separately, boys relative to girls showed more widespread (including BG) and stronger associations between GMV deficits and ADHD scores. ADHD traits and the volumetric correlates demonstrated heritability estimates (a2) between 0.59 and 0.79, replicating prior findings of the genetic basis of ADHD. Further, ADHD traits and the volumetric correlates (except for the hypothalamus) were each negatively and positively correlated with N-back performance. Together, these findings confirm volumetric deficits in children with more prominent ADHD traits. Highly heritable in both girls and boys and potentially more significant in boys than in girls, the structural deficits underlie diminished capacity in working memory and potentially other cognitive deficits in ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Substância Cinzenta , Adolescente , Encéfalo , Criança , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Putamen
3.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269787, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with cognitive impairments. However, the underlying neural mechanism of cognitive impairments in PD is still not clear. This study aimed to investigate the anatomic alternations of gray matter in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their associations with neurocognitive measurements. METHODS: T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired from 23 PD patients with MCI, 23 PD patients without MCI, and 23 matched healthy controls. The MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surfaced-based morphometry (SBM) methods to assess the structural changes in gray matter volume and cortical thickness respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the diagnostic accuracies of the indexes of interest. The correlations between the structural metrics and neurocognitive assessments (e.g., Montreal cognitive assessment, MOCA; Mini-mental state examination, MMSE) were further examined. RESULTS: PD patients with MCI showed reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in the frontal cortex (e.g., right inferior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus) and extended to insula as well as cerebellum compared with the healthy controls and PD patients without MIC. Thinner of cortical thickens in the temporal lobe (e.g., left middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus) extending to parietal cortex (e.g., precuneus) were found in the PD patients with MCI relative to the healthy controls and PD patients without MCI.ROC analysis indicated that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values in the frontal, temporal, and subcortical structures (e.g., insula and cerebellum) could differentiate the PD patients with MCI and without MCI and healthy controls. Furthermore, GMV of the right middle frontal gyrus and cortical thickness of the right superior temporal gyrus were correlated with neurocognitive dysfunctions (e.g., MOCA and MMSE) in PD patients with MCI. CONCLUSION: This study provided further evidence that PD with MCI was associated with structural alternations of brain. Morphometric analysis focusing on the cortical and subcortical regions could be biomarkers of cognitive impairments in PD patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Parkinson , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
4.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) ; 15(2): 117-133, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurological correlates of impaired insight in non-affective psychosis remain unclear. This study aimed to review and meta-analyze the studies assessing the grey matter volumetric correlates of impaired insight in non-affective psychosis. METHODS: This study consisted of a systematic review of 23 studies, and a meta-analysis with SDM-PSI of the 11 studies that were whole-brain and reported maps or peaks of correlation of studies investigating the grey matter volumetric correlates of insight assessments of non-affective psychosis, PubMed and OVID datasets were independently reviewed for articles reporting neuroimaging correlates of insight in non-affective psychosis. Quality assessment was realized following previous methodological approaches for the ABC quality assessment test of imaging studies, based on two main criteria: the statistical power and the multidimensional assessment of insight. Study peaks of correlation between grey matter volume and insight were used to recreate brain correlation maps. RESULTS: A total of 418 records were identified through database searching. Of these records, twenty-three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that used different insight scales were included. The quality of the evidence was high in 11 studies, moderate in nine, and low in three. Patients with reduced insight showed decreases in the frontal, temporal (specifically in superior temporal gyrus), precuneus, cingulate, insula, and occipital lobes cortical grey matter volume. The meta-analysis indicated a positive correlation between grey matter volume and insight in the right insula (i.e., the smaller the grey matter, the lower the insight). CONCLUSION: Several brain areas might be involved in impaired insight in patients with non-affective psychoses. The methodologies employed, such as the applied insight scales, may have contributed to the considerable discrepancies in the findings.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem , Transtornos Psicóticos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/psicologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
5.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 14(1): 98, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) report cognitive deterioration. However, their performance in neuropsychological evaluation falls within the normal range. The present study aims to analyse whether structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals grey matter changes in the SCD population compared with healthy normal controls (HC). METHODS: Parallel systematic searches in PubMed and Web of Science databases were conducted, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Quality assessment was completed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). RESULTS: Fifty-one MRI studies were included. Thirty-five studies used a region of interest (ROI) analysis, 15 used a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and 10 studies used a cortical thickness (CTh) analysis. Ten studies combined both, VBM or CTh analysis with ROI analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Medial temporal structures, like the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex (EC), seemed to present grey matter reduction in SCD compared with HC, but the samples and results are heterogeneous. Larger sample sizes could help to better determine if these grey matter changes are consistent in SCD subjects.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Substância Cinzenta , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 276, 2022 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821107

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental illnesses (SMI) linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a common neurotropic pathogen which after the primary infection establishes latency with periodic reactivations. We hypothesized that the latent HSV1 infection is associated with brain structural abnormalities and cognitive impairment, especially in SMI. We included 420 adult patients with SMI (schizophrenia or bipolar spectrum) and 481 healthy controls. Circulating HSV1 immunoglobulin G concentrations were measured with immunoassays. We measured the total grey matter volume (TGMV), cortical, subcortical, cerebellar and regional cortical volumes based on T1-weighted MRI scans processed in FreeSurfer v6.0.0. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Seropositive patients had significantly smaller TGMV than seronegative patients (642 cm3 and 654 cm3, respectively; p = 0.019) and lower IQ (104 and 107, respectively; p = 0.018). No TGMV or IQ differences were found between seropositive and seronegative healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that (a) in both schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum, seropositive patients had similarly smaller TGMV than seronegative patients, whereas the HSV1-IQ association was driven by the schizophrenia spectrum group, and (b) among all patients, seropositivity was associated with smaller total cortical (p = 0.016), but not subcortical or cerebellar grey matter volumes, and with smaller left caudal middle frontal, precentral, lingual, middle temporal and banks of superior temporal sulcus regional cortical grey matter volumes. The results of this cross-sectional study indicate that HSV1 may be an environmental factor associated with brain structural abnormalities and cognitive impairment in SMI.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Herpes Simples/complicações , Humanos , Inteligência , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Prev Med ; 161: 107149, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803358

RESUMO

The brain controls human behavior, and the gray matter is the main resource of neuronal cells. We examined the longitudinal relationship between six basic lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, sleep, alcohol consumption, smoking, and social activity including employment) and total gray matter volume in community-dwelling adults in Japan. This two-year follow-up study with data derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging, Aichi, Japan, included adults aged 40-87 years (n = 1665, men: 51%). Lifestyle habits were assessed at baseline (2008-2010) using self-reported questionnaires and three-day dietary records. Total gray matter volume at baseline and after two years was estimated using T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and FreeSurfer software. The association between each lifestyle factor, the total number of healthy lifestyle habits, and gray matter volume change was determined via a multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for baseline age, total gray matter volume, and other confounders. The mean ± standard deviation decrease in total gray matter volume during the two-year follow-up period was 0.94 ± 1.86% in men and 0.61 ± 2.27% in women. In the multiple regression analysis, volume loss in total gray matter positively correlated with male smoking, while it was negatively correlated with male social activity and employment, female dietary diversity, and the total number of healthy lifestyle habits (standardized beta coefficient; -0.061 in men [p = 0.07], -0.113 in women [p < 0.05]). Therefore, engaging in social activities, non-smoking, a diverse diet, or adopting one healthy lifestyle habit may help prevent gray matter volume loss.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Vida Independente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Hábitos , Humanos , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
J Behav Addict ; 11(2): 417-426, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895476

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Screen media activity (SMA) may impact neurodevelopment in youth. Cross-sectionally, SMA has been linked to brain structural patterns including cortical thinning in children. However, it remains unclear whether specific brain structural co-variation patterns are related to SMA and other clinically relevant measures such as psychopathology, cognition and sleep in children. Methods: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) participants with useable baseline structural imaging (N = 10,691; 5,107 girls) were analyzed. We first used the Joint and Individual Variation Explained (JIVE) approach to identify cortical and subcortical covariation pattern(s) among a set of 221 brain features (i.e., surface area, thickness, or cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes). Then, the identified structural covariation pattern was used as a predictor in linear mixed-effect models to investigate its associations with SMA, psychopathology, and cognitive and sleep measures. Results: A thalamus-prefrontal cortex (PFC)-brainstem structural co-variation pattern (circuit) was identified. The pattern suggests brainstem and bilateral thalamus proper GM volumes covary more strongly with GM volume and/or surface area in bilateral superior frontal gyral, rostral middle frontal, inferior parietal, and inferior temporal regions. This covariation pattern highly resembled one previously linked to alcohol use initiation prior to adulthood and was consistent in girls and boys. Subsequent regression analyses showed that this co-variation pattern associated with SMA (ß = 0.107, P = 0.002) and externalizing psychopathology (ß = 0.117, P = 0.002), respectively. Discussion and Conclusions: Findings linking SMA-related structural covariation to externalizing psychopathology in youth resonate with prior studies of alcohol-use initiation and suggest a potential neurodevelopmental mechanism underlying addiction vulnerability.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Substância Cinzenta , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal
10.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 43(7): 991-997, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain iron dyshomeostasis is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to neurodegeneration. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most commonly inherited disorder of systemic iron overload. Although there is an increasing interest in excessive brain iron deposition, there is a paucity of evidence showing changes in brain iron exceeding that in healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* mapping are established MR imaging techniques that we used to noninvasively quantify brain iron in subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were imaged using a multiecho gradient-echo sequence at 3T. Quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* data were generated, and regions within the deep gray matter were manually segmented. Mean susceptibility and R2* relaxation rates were calculated for each region, and iron content was compared between the groups. RESULTS: We noted elevated iron levels in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis compared with healthy controls using both R2* and QSM methods in the caudate nucleus, putamen, pulvinar thalamus, red nucleus, and dentate nucleus. Additionally, the substantia nigra showed increased susceptibility while the thalamus showed an increased R2* relaxation rate compared with healthy controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* showed abnormal levels of brain iron in subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis compared with controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping and R2* can be acquired in a single MR imaging sequence and are complementary in quantifying deep gray matter iron.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Hemocromatose , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemocromatose/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ferro , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12008, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835801

RESUMO

Several studies have highlighted the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with strong diffusion weighting to reveal white matter microstructural lesions, but data in gray matter (GM) remains scarce. Herein, the effects of b-values combined with different numbers of diffusion-encoding directions (NDIRs) on DTI metrics to capture the normal hippocampal microstructure and its early alterations were investigated in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]). Two initial DTI datasets (B2700-43Dir acquired with b = 2700 s.mm-2 and NDIR = 43; B1000-22Dir acquired with b = 1000 s.mm-2 and NDIR = 22) were collected from 18 normal and 18 EAE mice at 4.7 T. Three additional datasets (B2700-22Dir, B2700-12Dir and B1000-12Dir) were extracted from the initial datasets. In healthy mice, we found a significant influence of b-values and NDIR on all DTI metrics. Confronting unsupervised hippocampal layers classification to the true anatomical classification highlighted the remarkable discrimination of the molecular layer with B2700-43Dir compared with the other datasets. Only DTI from the B2700 datasets captured the dendritic loss occurring in the molecular layer of EAE mice. Our findings stress the needs for both high b-values and sufficient NDIR to achieve a GM DTI with more biologically meaningful correlations, though DTI-metrics should be interpreted with caution in these settings.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Esclerose Múltipla , Substância Branca , Animais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12005, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835813

RESUMO

The multicontrast EPImix sequence generates six contrasts, including a T1-weighted scan, in ~1 min. EPImix shows comparable diagnostic performance to conventional scans under qualitative clinical evaluation, and similarities in simple quantitative measures including contrast intensity. However, EPImix scans have not yet been compared to standard MRI scans using established quantitative measures. In this study, we compared conventional and EPImix-derived T1-weighted scans of 64 healthy participants using tissue volume estimates and predicted brain-age. All scans were pre-processed using the SPM12 DARTEL pipeline, generating measures of grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume. Brain-age was predicted using brainageR, a Gaussian Processes Regression model previously trained on a large sample of standard T1-weighted scans. Estimates of both global and voxel-wise tissue volume showed significantly similar results between standard and EPImix-derived T1-weighted scans. Brain-age estimates from both sequences were significantly correlated, although EPImix T1-weighted scans showed a systematic offset in predictions of chronological age. Supplementary analyses suggest that this is likely caused by the reduced field of view of EPImix scans, and the use of a brain-age model trained using conventional T1-weighted scans. However, this systematic error can be corrected using additional regression of T1-predicted brain-age onto EPImix-predicted brain-age. Finally, retest EPImix scans acquired for 10 participants demonstrated high test-retest reliability in all evaluated quantitative measurements. Quantitative analysis of EPImix scans has potential to reduce scanning time, increasing participant comfort and reducing cost, as well as to support automation of scanning, utilising active learning for faster and individually-tailored (neuro)imaging.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 32(3): 553-564, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843662

RESUMO

Human brainstem internal anatomy is intricate, complex, and essential to normal brain function. The brainstem is affected by stroke, multiple sclerosis, and most neurodegenerative diseases-a 1-mm focus of pathologic condition can have profound clinical consequences. Unfortunately, detailed internal brainstem anatomy is difficult to see with conventional MRI sequences. We review normal brainstem anatomy visualized on widely available clinical 3-T MRI scanners using fast gray matter acquisition T1 inversion recovery, probabilistic diffusion tractography, neuromelanin, and susceptibility-weighted imaging. Better anatomic localization using these recent innovations improves our ability to diagnose, localize, and treat brainstem diseases. We aim to provide an accessible review of the most clinically relevant brainstem neuroanatomy.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742356

RESUMO

This systematic review formulated a research question based on the PICO method in accordance with the Guidelines for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), "What is the effect of juggling as dual-task activity on neuroplasticity in the human brain?" In total, 1982 studies were analysed, 11 of which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These studies included 400 participants who had no prior juggling experience or were expert jugglers. The research methodology in seven studies was based on a long-term intervention with juggling. Three studies were based on brain imaging during the act of juggling, and one study was based on comparing differences between experienced jugglers and non-jugglers without the intervention. In all of these selected studies, positive structural changes in the human brain were found, including changes mainly in the gray matter (GM) volume in the visual motion complex area (hMT/V5) and the white matter (WM) volume in fractional anisotropy (FA). Based on this evidence, it can be concluded that the bimanual juggling task, as a dual-task activity, may effectively integrate brain areas to improve neuroplasticity. The small number of well-designed studies and the high risk of bias call for further research using a juggling intervention to identify conclusive evidence.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Substância Branca , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Plasticidade Neuronal
15.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 28(9): 1372-1379, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly heterogeneous reflected by different affected side of body and type of motor symptom. We aim to explore clinical characteristics and underlying brain structure alterations in PD with different predominant sides and motor types. METHODS: We recruited 161 PD patients and 50 healthy controls (HC). Patients were classified into four subtypes according to their predominant side and motor type: left akinetic/rigid-dominant (LAR), left tremor-dominant (LTD), right akinetic/rigid-dominant (RAR), and right tremor-dominant (RTD). All participants assessed motor and cognitive performances, then underwent T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging scanning. A general linear model was used to compare neuroimaging parameters among five groups. RESULTS: Among four PD subtypes, patients of LAR subtype experienced the worst motor impairment, and only this subtype showed worse cognitive performance compared with HC. Compared with HC and other subtypes, LAR subtype showed a significant reduction in cortical thickness of the right caudal-anterior-cingulate gyrus and fractional anisotropy of the right cingulum bundle. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that LAR subtype had the worst clinical performance, which the severer damage in the right cingulate region might be the underlying mechanism. This study underscores the importance of classifying PD subtypes based on both the side and type of motor symptom for clinical intervention and research to optimize behavioral outcomes in the future.


Assuntos
Leucoaraiose , Doença de Parkinson , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Tremor , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between smoking, long-term brain atrophy, and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. Here, we assessed long-term effects of smoking by evaluating MRI and clinical outcome measures after 10 years in smoking and nonsmoking patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). METHODS: We included 85 treatment-naive patients with RRMS with recent inflammatory disease activity who participated in a 10-year follow-up visit after a multicenter clinical trial of 24 months. Smoking status was decided for each patient by 2 separate definitions: by serum cotinine levels measured regularly for the first 2 years of the follow-up (during the clinical trial) and by retrospective patient self-reporting. At the 10-year follow-up visit, clinical tests were repeated, and brain atrophy measures were obtained from MRI using FreeSurfer. Differences in clinical and MRI measurements at the 10-year follow-up between smokers and nonsmokers were investigated by 2-sample t tests or Mann-Whitney tests and linear mixed-effect regression models. All analyses were conducted separately for each definition of smoking status. RESULTS: After 10 years, smoking (defined by serum cotinine levels) was associated with lower total white matter volume (ß = -21.74, p = 0.039) and higher logT2 lesion volume (ß = 0.22, p = 0.011). When defining smoking status by patient self-reporting, the repeated analyses found an additional association with lower deep gray matter volume (ß = -2.35, p = 0.049), and smoking was also associated with a higher score (higher walking impairment) on the log timed 25-foot walk test (ß = 0.050, p = 0.039) after 10 years and a larger decrease in paced auditory serial addition test (attention) scores (ß = -3.58, p = 0.029). DISCUSSION: Smoking was associated with brain atrophy and disability progression 10 years later in patients with RRMS. The findings imply that patients should be advised and offered aid in smoking cessation shortly after diagnosis, to prevent long-term disability progression.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Atrofia/patologia , Cotinina , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 783: 136699, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (OAwMCI) exhibit subtle balance control and gait deficits which are predominantly associated with structural brain pathologies such as impaired white matter integrity and reduced gray matter volume. However, the relationship between balance recovery mechanisms and neural substrates in OAwMCI remains unknown. This study thus aimed to explore the associations of volitional (self-initiated) and reactive balance (in response to an external perturbation) control with structural brain integrity. METHODS: Ten OAwMCI (MoCA 18-25/30; greater than 55 years) were examined on the limits of stability test (volitional balance via Equitest), stance perturbation test (reactive balance via ActiveStep treadmill) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Forward movement (frequently performed functional activity of daily living) was quantified by maximum excursion (maximum ability to shift one's center of gravity toward the theoretical limit [MXE-%])and directional control (amount of movement exhibited towards the target proportional to the movement away from the target [DCL-%]) on the limits of stability test. Slip-like (prevalent type of accidental falls) perturbations were quantified by postural stability (shortest distance of the COM motion state, i.e., its position and velocity, to the theoretical boundary) on the ActiveStep treadmill. White matter integrity was quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA, movement of water molecules directionality) and gray matter volume measured in mm3. RESULTS: For volitional balance control, reduced forward MXE was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with lower FA in left (R2 = 0.56) and right (R2 = 0.60) corticospinal tract, left (R2 = 0.49) and right (R2 = 0.51) corticothalamic tract, left (R2 = 0.70) and right (R2 = 0.57) frontopontine tract, right (R2 = 0.67) cingulum, anterior commissure (R2 = 0.82), and corpus callosum (R2 = 0.62). Reduced forward DCL was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with reduced gray matter volume in the left (R2 = 0.75) and right (R2 = 0.81) cerebellum, brainstem (R2 = 0.64), right (R2 = 0.49) thalamus. For reactive balance control, reduced postural stability (p < 0.05) was significantly associated with reduced FA in the left (R2 = 0.75) and right (R2 = 0.64) corticospinal tract, left (R2 = 0.67) and right (R2 = 0.65) frontopontine tract. Reduced postural stability was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with reduced gray matter volume in the brainstem (R2 = 0.72) and right cerebellum (R2 = 0.70). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that structural brain integrity influences stability control in OAwMCI for both volitional and reactive balance tasks, which may share some common cortico-subcortical motor pathways and relay centers. Results also show that the integrity of descending pathways from cortical attentional centers could influence stability control for both tasks.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Substância Branca , Idoso , Anisotropia , Encéfalo , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Substância Branca/patologia
18.
Brain Res ; 1790: 147989, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738426

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the morphological brain changes among active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients, inactive TAO patients and healthy controls and to investigate the neuropathological relationship of TAO using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. METHODS: In this observational case-control study, we included 35 inactive TAO patients, 37 active TAO patients and 23 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted to evaluate the gray matter volume (GMV) changes among groups, and the correlations between GMV alterations and clinical parameters in active and inactive TAO groups were investigated. RESULTS: Active TAO patients showed significantly increased GMV in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), orbital superior frontal gyrus, orbital middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and postcentral gyrus compared with controls and significantly increased GMV in the right middle temporal gyrus, left SFG and precuneus compared with the inactive TAO group. No significant differences were observed between the inactive TAO group and healthy controls. Notably, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated altered GMV among groups and significantly (p < 0.001) differentiated active TAO from inactive TAO and healthy controls. In addition, the mean GMV in precuneus and postcentral gyrus were significantly associated with clinical parameters in active TAO. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested the localized GMV alterations among groups were associated with the pathophysiology of TAO and served as a potential discriminative pattern to detect clinical phases of TAO at the individual level. The altered brain morphometry may suggest a corresponding process of self-repair and remodeling of the brain structure as the disease progresses in TAO.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatia de Graves , Encéfalo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Oftalmopatia de Graves/diagnóstico por imagem , Oftalmopatia de Graves/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
19.
Magn Reson Med ; 88(4): 1608-1623, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The simultaneous quantification of T2 and T2 * maps based on fast sequences for combined GE and SE acquisition has rekindled research and clinical interest by offering a wide range of attractive applications, e.g., dynamic tracking of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). However, previously published methods based on EPI-readouts have been hindered by resolution and the number of acquired echoes. METHODS: This work presents a novel 10-echo GE-SE EPIK (EPI with keyhole) sequence for the rapid quantification of T2 '. T2 /T2 * maps from the GE-SE EPIK sequence were validated using three phantoms and 15 volunteers at 3T. The incorporation of a sliding window approach, combined with the full sampling of the k-space center inherent to EPIK, enables a high effective temporal resolution. That is, for an eight-slice breath-hold experiment, a temporal sampling rate of eight reconstructed slices per 1.1 s. RESULTS: In comparison with repeated single-echo SE, multi-echo GE, and spectroscopy methods, the GE-SE EPIK sequence shows good agreement in quantifying T2 /T2 * values, while the gray matter/white matter separation yielded the expected contrast differentiation. The OEF was calculated with a view to an initial application with clinical relevance, producing results comparable to those in the literature and with good sensitivity in breath-hold experiments. CONCLUSIONS: GE-SE EPIK provides increased resolution and more echoes, including two SEs, than comparable sequences. Moreover, GE-SE EPIK achieves this within an acquisition time of 57 s for 20 slices (matrix size = 128×128; FOV = 24 cm) and with a reasonably short TE for the final echo (114 ms). The sequence can dynamically track OEF changes in a breath-hold experiment.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Ecoplanar/métodos , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Oxigênio , Imagens de Fantasmas
20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 250, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705554

RESUMO

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a female-specific condition classified in the Diagnostic and Statical Manual-5th edition under depressive disorders. Alterations in grey matter volume, cortical thickness and folding metrics have been associated with a number of mood disorders, though little is known regarding brain morphological alterations in PMDD. Here, women with PMDD and healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Differences in grey matter structure between the groups were investigated by use of voxel- and surface-based morphometry. Machine learning and multivariate pattern analysis were performed to test whether MRI data could distinguish women with PMDD from healthy controls. Compared to controls, women with PMDD had smaller grey matter volume in ventral posterior cortices and the cerebellum (Cohen's d = 0.45-0.76). Region-of-interest analyses further indicated smaller volume in the right amygdala and putamen of women with PMDD (Cohen's d = 0.34-0.55). Likewise, thinner cortex was observed in women with PMDD compared to controls, particularly in the left hemisphere (Cohen's d = 0.20-0.74). Classification analyses showed that women with PMDD can be distinguished from controls based on grey matter morphology, with an accuracy up to 74%. In line with the hypothesis of an impaired top-down inhibitory circuit involving limbic structures in PMDD, the present findings point to PMDD-specific grey matter anatomy in regions of corticolimbic networks. Furthermore, the results include widespread cortical and cerebellar regions, suggesting the involvement of distinct networks in PMDD pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno Disfórico Pré-Menstrual , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual , Encéfalo , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Transtorno Disfórico Pré-Menstrual/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/patologia
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