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1.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(1): 20-26, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546125

RESUMO

Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a tool to study compensatory mechanisms to central hypovolemia for decades. However, the underlying hemodynamic mechanisms were mostly assessed noninvasively and remain unclear. We hypothesized that incremental LBNP reduces diastolic filling and thereby affects left ventricular (LV) diastolic suction (DS). Here, we investigated the impact of graded LBNP at three different levels of seal as well as during ß-adrenergic stimulation by invasive pressure-volume (PV) analysis. Eight Landrace pigs were instrumented closed-chest for PV assessment. LBNP was applied at three consecutive locations: I) cranial, 10 cm below xiphoid process; II) medial, half-way between cranial and caudal; III) caudal, at the iliac spine. Level III was repeated under dobutamine infusion. At each level, baseline measurements were followed by application of incremental LBNP of -15, -30, and -45 mmHg. LBNP induced varying degrees of preload-dependent hemodynamic changes, with cranial LBNP inducing more pronounced effects than caudal. According to the Frank-Starling mechanism, graded LBNP progressively reduced LV stroke volume (LV SV) following a decrease in LV end-diastolic volume. Negative intraventricular minimal pressures were observed during dobutamine-infusion as well as higher levels of LBNP. Of note, incremental LV negative pressures were accompanied by increasing DS volumes, derived by extrapolating the volume at zero transmural pressure, the so-called equilibrium volume (V0), related to LV SV. In conclusion, graded preload reduction via LBNP shifts the PV loop to smaller volumes and end-systolic volume below V0, which induces negative LV pressures and increases LV suction. Accordingly, LBNP-induced central hypovolemia is associated with increased DS.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study examined the effects of incremental lower body negative pressure (LBNP) from -15 to -45 mmHg on hemodynamic regulation using invasive pressure-volume assessment in closed-chest pigs. Graded preload reduction via LBNP induces negative left ventricular (LV) pressures while increasing LV suction and thus allowing the ventricle to eject below the equilibrium volume at the end of systole. Accordingly, LBNP-induced central hypovolemia is associated with increased diastolic suction.


Assuntos
Pressão Negativa da Região Corporal Inferior , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Animais , Dobutamina , Hemodinâmica , Hipovolemia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sucção , Suínos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 189, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-use flexible bronchoscopes eliminate cross contamination from reusable bronchoscopes and are cost-effective in a number of clinical settings. The present bench study aimed to compare the performance of a new single-use bronchoscope (Boston Scientific EXALT Model B) to a marketed single-use comparator (Ambu aScope 4), each in slim, regular and large diameters. METHODS: Three bronchoscopy tasks were performed: water suction and visualization, "mucus" mass (synthetic mucoid mixture) suctioned in 30 s, and "mucus" plug (thicker mucoid mixture) suction. Suction ability, task completion times, and subjective ratings of visualization and overall performance on a scale of one to 10 (best) were compared. All bronchoscopy tasks were completed by 15 physicians representing diversity in specialization including pulmonary, interventional pulmonary, critical care, anesthesia, and thoracic surgery. Each physician utilized the six bronchoscope versions with block randomization by bronchoscope and task. RESULTS: Aspirated mean mass of "mucus" using EXALT Model B Regular was comparable to that for an aScope 4 Large (41.8 ± 8.3 g vs. 41.5 ± 5.7 g respectively, p = 0.914). In comparisons of scopes with the same outer diameter, the aspirated mean mass by weight of water and "mucus" was significantly greater for EXALT Model B than for aScope 4 (p < 0.001 for all three diameters). Mean ratings for visualization attributes were significantly better for EXALT Model B compared to aScope 4 (p-value range 0.001-0.029). CONCLUSION: A new single-use bronchoscope provided strong suction capability and visualization compared to same-diameter marketed single-use comparators in a bench model simulation.


Assuntos
Broncoscópios , Broncoscopia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Sucção , Água
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(19): 1468-1471, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599413

RESUMO

Nine patients with large complex paraclinoid aneurysms were treated by hybrid surgery in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University between January 2016 and July 2021. Intraoperative angiography was conducted for real-time evaluation of the aneurysm and its clipping efficacy. A total of 8 aneurysms were clipped under temporary proximal control with balloon occlusion. Suction decompression was simultaneously applied in 2 of these cases. After surgery, 2 patients developed symptomatic cerebral infarction, 3 patients developed transient oculomotor nerve palsy, but no patients had vision deterioration. Postoperative follow-up showed that small neck residue occurred in 1 case, but with the rest of aneurysms were completely occluded without parent artery stenosis. Hybrid surgery was proved to be advantageous in real-time assessment of aneurysm morphology and clipping efficacy. Combination of temporary proximal balloon occlusion and suction decompression technique can help in reducing the difficulty of aneurysm exposure and remodeling, thereby improving the outcome and decreasing the complications.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Angiografia Cerebral , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Sucção/métodos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 28(2): 166-170, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548901

RESUMO

PURPOSE Paracentesis is commonly performed in interventional radiology practice, and large volume paracentesis (LVP) using wall suction can take up to an hour to complete, placing significant stress on room and resource time. As the number of LVP procedures performed by Interventional Radiologists continue to increase, this study was undertaken to analyze the impact of the RenovaRP® Paracentesis Management System (GI Supply) on procedure time and patient satisfaction. METHODS Between March 9, 2020 and May 29, 2020, procedural data and patient satisfaction was collected as part of a practice quality improvement project and retrospectively analyzed on 39 sequential paracenteses performed with wall suction prior to acquiring the RenovaRP® system and subsequently on 42 paracenteses performed with use of the device. RESULTS A substantially higher fluid flow rate was found using the RenovaRP® system compared to wall suction, 237.2 mL/min vs. 108.6 mL/min (P < .001). This resulted in a significant decrease in procedure room time from 53 min to 31 min (P < .001). There was associated improvement in the patient experience during paracentesis. CONCLUSION The RenovaRP® decreases procedure time for LVP with improvement in the patient experience during paracentesis.


Assuntos
Ascite , Paracentese , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Paracentese/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sucção
5.
J Exp Biol ; 225(11)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543020

RESUMO

Suction feeding in ray-finned fishes involves powerful buccal cavity expansion to accelerate water and food into the mouth. Previous XROMM studies in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have shown that more than 90% of suction power in high performance strikes comes from the axial musculature. Thus, the shape of the axial muscles and skeleton may affect suction feeding mechanics. Royal knifefish (Chitala blanci) have an unusual postcranial morphology, with a ventrally flexed vertebral column and relatively large mass of epaxial muscle. Based on their body shape, we hypothesized that royal knifefish would generate high power strikes by utilizing large neurocranial elevation, vertebral column extension and epaxial shortening. As predicted, C. blanci generated high suction expansion power compared with the other three species studied to date (up to 160 W), which was achieved by increasing both the rate of volume change and the intraoral subambient pressure. The large epaxial muscle (25% of body mass) shortened at high velocities to produce large neurocranial elevation and vertebral extension (up to 41 deg, combined), as well as high muscle mass-specific power (up to 800 W kg-1). For the highest power strikes, axial muscles generated 95% of the power, and 64% of the axial muscle mass consisted of the epaxial muscles. The epaxial-dominated suction expansion of royal knifefish supports our hypothesis that postcranial morphology may be a strong predictor of suction feeding biomechanics.


Assuntos
Bass , Perciformes , Animais , Bass/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Sucção
6.
Neurol India ; 70(2): 749-752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532652

RESUMO

Background: Intraoperative trans-esophageal migration of pulled-out screws, especially while using the zero-profile implant system, has been rarely reported in the literature. Objective: In this technical note, we are describing a simple technique to retrieve a trans-esophageally migrated pulled-out screw using a suction catheter. Material and Methods: A 32-year-old female presented with spastic quadriparesis. She underwent C5-C6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Nine months following the surgery, X-ray cervical spine showed implant loosening and failure of fusion across the instrumented disc space. However, during revision surgery, the loosened screw could not be located visually in the initial attempts, though it could be felt by probing the prevertebral space with the index finger. Intraoperative X-rays showed that the screw migrated curiously in the cranial direction as the surgical field was probed further manually. The screw was then finally retrieved using Magill's forceps assisted by video laryngoscopy assisted by intermittent negative pressure application via a blunt-tipped suction catheter. Results: She was discharged home on a Philadelphia collar, and at 1 year of follow-up, she was completely asymptomatic. Conclusion: Perforation of the aerodigestive tract by a displaced cervical spine implant is an uncommon complication. Manipulation during surgery may cause the implants embedded into the wall of the aerodigestive tract to become dislodged and then migrate into the pharyngeal lumen. In resource-constrained situations or when intraoperative endoscopy is not available, a trial of screw retrieval using a suction catheter may be attempted.


Assuntos
Fusão Vertebral , Adulto , Parafusos Ósseos/efeitos adversos , Cateteres , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia , Feminino , Humanos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Sucção
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2985, 2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624105

RESUMO

The speed and efficiency of data collection and image processing in cryo-electron microscopy have increased over the last decade. However, cryo specimen preparation techniques have lagged and faster, more reproducible specimen preparation devices are needed. Here, we present a vitrification device with highly automated sample handling, requiring only limited user interaction. Moreover, the device allows inspection of thin films using light microscopy, since the excess liquid is removed through suction by tubes, not blotting paper. In combination with dew-point control, this enables thin film preparation in a controlled and reproducible manner. The advantage is that the quality of the prepared cryo specimen is characterized before electron microscopy data acquisition. The practicality and performance of the device are illustrated with experimental results obtained by vitrification of protein suspensions, lipid vesicles, bacterial and human cells, followed by imaged using single particle analysis, cryo-electron tomography, and cryo correlated light and electron microscopy.


Assuntos
Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Vitrificação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas , Sucção
8.
Br Dent J ; 232(10): 753, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624273
9.
Med Eng Phys ; 104: 103807, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of total knee arthroplasties are performed with a tourniquet as it is perceived this gives rise to superior cement fixation. Tourniquets, however, have been associated with increased pain, post-operative swelling, and reduced knee range of movement which can all detrimentally impact patient recovery. This laboratory-based study aimed to assess if it is possible to achieve equivalent (or even enhanced) cementation without a tourniquet using a novel suction device. METHODS: Cement penetration was compared between conditions simulating bone with back-bleeding with and without the use of suction in open-cell rigid foam tibia models and porcine specimens. Suction was applied via a urinary catheter inserted into the tibial recess created for the implant's stem. Cement penetration depth was measured from micro-CT scans. The pull-off strength of cemented tibial implant analogues in porcine specimens with and without suction was also assessed. RESULTS: Suction gave rise to a significant (p = 0.028) increase in cement penetration depth in both the rigid foam, 5.4 - 6.6 mm, and porcine specimens, 0.7 - 1.0 mm. A non-significant increase in implant pull-off strength was also observed. CONCLUSION: Suction during cementation in a back-bleeding model resulted in significantly greater cement penetration depth. Using suction surgeons can avoid potential disadvantages of tourniquet use without compromising cementation.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Torniquetes , Animais , Cimentos Ósseos , Cimentação/métodos , Humanos , Sucção , Suínos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choking is a prevalent source of injury and mortality worldwide. Traditional choking interventions, including abdominal thrusts and back blows, have remained the standard of care for decades despite limited published data. Suction-based airway clearance devices (ACDs) are becoming increasingly popular and there is an urgent need to evaluate their role in choking intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness (i.e., resolution of choking symptoms) and safety (i.e., adverse events) of identified airway clearance devices interventions to date. METHODS: This retrospective descriptive analysis included any individual who self-identified to manufacturers as having used an ACD as a choking intervention prior to 1 July 2021. Records were included if they contained three clinical variables (patient's age, type of foreign body, and resolution of choking symptoms). Researchers performed data extraction using a standardized form which included patient, situational, and outcome variables. RESULTS: The analysis included 124 non-invasive (LifeVac©) and 61 minimally invasive (Dechoker©) ACD interventions. Median patient age was 40 (LifeVac©, 2-80) and 73 (Dechoker©, 5-84) with extremes of age being most common [<5 years: LifeVac© 37.1%, Dechoker© 23.0%; 80+ years: 27.4%, 37.7%]. Food was the most frequent foreign body (LifeVac© 84.7%, Dechoker© 91.8%). Abdominal thrusts (LifeVac© 37.9%, Dechoker© 31.1%) and back blows (LifeVac© 39.5%, Dechoker© 41.0%) were often co-interventions. Resolution of choking symptoms occurred following use of the ACD in 123 (LifeVac©) and 60 (Dechoker©) cases. Three adverse events (1.6%) were reported: disconnection of bellows/mask during intervention (LifeVac©), a lip laceration (Dechoker©), and an avulsed tooth (Dechoker©). CONCLUSION: Initial available data has shown ACDs to be promising in the treatment of choking. However, limitations in data collection methods and quality exist. The second phase of this evaluation will be an industry independent, prospective assessment in order to improve data quality, and inform future choking intervention algorithms.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Corpos Estranhos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Corpos Estranhos/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sucção
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408130

RESUMO

Airway clearance refers to the clearing of any airway blockage caused due to foreign objects such as mud, gravel, and biomaterials such as blood, vomit, or teeth fragments using the technology of choice, portable suction devices. Currently available devices are either too heavy and bulky to be carried, or insufficiently powered to be useful despite being in accordance with the ISO 10079-1 standards. When applied to portable suction, the design and testing standards lack clinical relevancy, which is evidenced by how available portable suction devices are sparingly used in pre-hospital situations. Lack of clinical relevancy despite being in accordance with design/manufacturing standards arise due to little if any collaboration between those developing clinical standards and the bodies that maintain design and manufacturing standards. An updated set of standards is required that accurately reflects evidence-based requirements and specifications, which should promote valid, rational, and relevant engineering designs and manufacturing standards in consideration of the unique scenarios facing prehospital casualty care. This paper aims to critically review the existing standards for portable suction devices and propose modifications based on the evidence and requirements, especially for civilian prehospital and combat casualty care situations.


Assuntos
Sistema Respiratório , Sucção
12.
Acta Chir Plast ; 64(1): 44-49, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extravasation is the movement of fluid outside its conduit into the extracellular tissue, possibly leading to a local inflammatory reaction, compartment syndrome, tissue necrosis, and full thickness skin loss at the affected area. To prevent these complications, early recognition, referral and treatment of an extravasation injury is of utter importance. CASE REPORT: We present a case, illustrating an extravasation injury into the breast managed by a renovated surgical technique - emergency evacuation low-pressure suction (EELS). A 54-year-old woman attended the emergency department with 1.5 L of total parenteral nutrition leaked into her right breast via a central portal catheter. The patient was seen within 24 hours of the incident, and presented with a diffuse swollen, tender and erythematous right breast but no overlying skin necrosis. Dry EELS via two small stab incisions was performed to evacuate the extravasated total parenteral nutrition and to minimise the aspiration of healthy fat tissue of the breast. Only a few cases of extravasation injuries into the breast have been described and most cases involve chemotherapy extravasation from a central catheter. Presumably there is an underreporting of this complication in the literature. CONCLUSION: This case-report promotes the use of aspiration in the management of diffusely spread extravasated injuries. EELS is a more appropriate term than liposuction, as there is no intention to evacuate healthy fat tissue. This new term is less confusing and might help medical staff and patients to better understand the treatment as it will break the affiliation with an aesthetic procedure. It is an effective and cosmetically satisfactory technique to treat early total parenteral nutrition extravasation injury at the level of the breast.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais , Extravasamento de Materiais Terapêuticos e Diagnósticos , Extravasamento de Materiais Terapêuticos e Diagnósticos/etiologia , Extravasamento de Materiais Terapêuticos e Diagnósticos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Nutrição Parenteral Total , Sucção
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418374

RESUMO

A woman in her 50s was admitted to the intensive therapy unit with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 pneumonitis. The patient was intubated on admission and worsening gas exchange necessitated multiple rounds of proning . She later improved, and her ventilation was switched to spontaneous mode. However, the patient started to develop air trapping with subsequent respiratory and cardiovascular compromise. Routine investigations showed no clear cause for her sudden deterioration and a suction catheter passed easily through the endotracheal tube. Bronchoscopy revealed mucinous/phlegmatic membranes had developed across the inner diameter of the endotracheal tube. This had created a one-way valve that allowed positive pressure ventilation through the tube into her lungs but only allowed a fraction of air to passively escape in expiration. This case report highlights a less commonly regarded complication associated with long-term intubation and lack of circuit humidification in the context of productive lung pathology.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Respiratória , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Sucção
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 152, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumoconiosis is a diffuse interstitial fibronodular lung disease, which is caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica. Whole lung lavage (WLL) is a therapeutic procedure used to treat pneumoconiosis. This study is to compare the effects of different negative pressure suction on lung injury in patients with pneumoconiosis undergoing WLL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 24 consecutively pneumoconiosis patients who underwent WLL from March 2020 to July 2020 at Emergency General Hospital, China. The patients were divided into two groups: high negative suction pressure group (group H, n = 13, negative suction pressure of 300-400 mmHg) and low negative suction pressure group (group L, n = 11, negative suction pressure of 40-50 mmHg). The arterial blood gas, lung function, lavage data, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses to access lung injury were monitored. RESULTS: Compared with those of group H, the right and left lung residual were significantly increased in the group L (P = 0.04, P = 0.01). Potential of hydrogen (pH), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), lactic acid (LAC) and glucose (GLU) varied from point to point in time (P < 0.01, respectively). There was statistical difference in the trend of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) over time between the two groups (P < 0.01, P = 0.02). In comparison with the group H, the levels of IL-10 (P = 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.01) in WLL fluid were significantly increased in the group L. There was no statistical difference in the trend of maximal volumtary ventilation (MVV), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%), residual volume (RV), residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC), carbon monoxide dispersion factor (DLCO%), forced expiratory volume in one second/ forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) over time between the two groups (P > 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Low negative suction pressure has the potential benefit to reduce lung injury in patients with pneumoconiosis undergoing WLL, although it can lead to increased residual lavage fluid. Despite differing suction strategies, pulmonary function parameters including FEV1%, RV and DLCO% became worse than before WLL. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial registration number ChiCTR2000031024, 21/03/2020.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Lesão Pulmonar , Pneumoconiose , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Pulmão , Pneumoconiose/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sucção , Superóxido Dismutase
15.
J Exp Biol ; 225(9)2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467004

RESUMO

The northern clingfish (Gobiesox maeandricus) has a suction-based adhesive disc that can stick to incredibly rough surfaces, a challenge for stiff commercial suction cups. Both clingfish discs and bioinspired suction cups have stiff cores but flexible edges that can deform to overcome surface irregularities. Compliant surfaces are common in nature and technical settings, but performance data for fish and commercial cups are gathered from stiff surfaces. We quantified the interaction between substrate compliance, surface roughness and suction performance for the northern clingfish, commercial suction cups and three biomimetic suction cups with disc rims of varying compliance. We found that all cups stick better on stiffer substrates and worse on more compliant ones, as indicated by peak stress values. On compliant substrates, surface roughness had little effect on adhesion, even for commercial cups that normally fail on hard, rough surfaces. We propose that suction performance on compliant substrates can be explained in part by effective elastic modulus, the combined elastic modulus from a cup-substrate interaction. Of all the tested cups, the biomimetic cups performed the best on compliant surfaces, highlighting their potential to be used in medical and marine geotechnical fields. Lastly, we discuss the overmolding technique used to generate the bioinspired cups and how it is an important tool for studying biology.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Peixes , Animais , Módulo de Elasticidade , Sucção
16.
Int Orthop ; 46(6): 1281-1287, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the benefits of closed suction drainage (CSD) in hybrid total hip arthroplasty (THA) with intra-articular administration of tranexamic acid (TXA). METHODS: We included 369 hips that underwent primary hybrid THA between November 2015 and September 2020. We compared peri-operative blood test results, blood loss, and post-operative complications including transfusion, wound complications, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) with or without CSD. Propensity score matching was performed to balance baseline patient demographics. RESULTS: Transfusion, wound complications, and VTE were observed in 1.9% (seven), 2.4% (nine), and 2.2% (eight) of hips, respectively. There were no significant differences in transfusion, blood loss, wound complications, and deep venous thrombosis in both overall patients and propensity score-matched patients with or without CSD. The calculated total blood loss was approximately 600 ml and showed no significant difference between the two groups in the matched cohort (p = 0.59). CONCLUSION: CSD does not provide any benefits and is not needed in primary hybrid THA with intra-articular administration of TXA.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Ácido Tranexâmico , Tromboembolia Venosa , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sucção , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 128, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to exposure to potentially infectious aerosols during treatments, the dental personnel is considered being at high risk for aerosol transmitted diseases like COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate aerosol exposure during different dental treatments as well as the efficacy of dental suction to reduce aerosol spreading. METHODS: Dental powder-jet (PJ; Air-Flow®), a water-cooled dental handpiece with a diamond bur (HP) and water-cooled ultrasonic scaling (US) were used in a simulation head, mounted on a dental unit in various treatment settings. The influence of the use of a small saliva ejector (SE) and high-volume suction (HVS) was evaluated. As a proxy of aerosols, air-born particles (PM10) were detected using a Laser Spectrometer in 30 cm distance from the mouth. As control, background particle counts (BC) were measured before and after experiments. RESULTS: With only SE, integrated aerosol levels [median (Q25/Q75) µg/m3 s] for PJ [91,246 (58,213/118,386) µg/m3 s, p < 0.001, ANOVA] were significantly increased compared to BC [7243 (6501/8407) µg/m3 s], whilst HP [11,119 (7190/17,234) µg/m3 s, p > 0.05] and US [6558 (6002/7066) µg/m3 s; p > 0.05] did not increase aerosol levels significantly. The use of HVS significantly decreased aerosol exposure for PJ [37,170 (29,634/51,719) µg/m3 s; p < 0.01] and HP [5476 (5066/5638) µg/m3 s; p < 0.001] compared to SE only, even reaching lower particle counts than BC levels for HP usage (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the exposure to potentially infectious aerosols, HVS should be used during aerosol-forming dental treatments.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aerossóis , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sucção , Água
18.
Small ; 18(19): e2201039, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419970

RESUMO

Silicon carbide (SiC) aerogels are promising thermal insulators that are lightweight and possess high thermal stability. However, their application is hindered by their brittleness. Herein, an air suction effect induction (ASEI) strategy is proposed to fabricate a super thermally insulating SiC aerogel (STISA). The ASEI strategy exploits the air suction effect to subtly regulate the directional flow of the SiO gas, which can induce directional growth and assembly of SiC nanowires to form a directional lamellar structure. The sintering time is significantly reduced by >90%. Significant improvements in the compression and elasticity performance of the STISA are achieved upon the formation of a directional lamellar structure through the ASEI strategy. Moreover, the lamellar structure endows the STISA with an ultralow thermal conductivity of 0.019 W m-1 K-1 . The ASEI strategy paves the way for structural design of advanced ceramic aerogels for super thermal insulation.


Assuntos
Ar , Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono , Elasticidade , Compostos de Silício , Sucção , Condutividade Térmica
19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(17): e2104382, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388640

RESUMO

A soft gripper inspired by the glowing sucker octopus (Stauroteuthis syrtensis)' highly evolved grasping capability enabled by the umbrella-shaped dorsal and ventral membrane between each arm is presented here, comprising of a 3D-printed linkage mechanism used to actuate a modular mold silicone-casting soft suction disc to deform. The soft gripper grasp can lift objects using the suction generated by the pump in the soft disc. Moreover, the protruded funnel-shaped end of the deformed suctorial mouth can adapt to smooth and rough surfaces. Furthermore, when the gripper contacts the submerged target objects in a turbid environment, local suctorial mouth arrays on the suction disc are locked, causing the variable flow inside them, which can be detected as a tactile perception signal to the target objects instead of visual perception. Aided by the 3D-printed linkage mechanism, the soft gripper can grasp objects of different shapes and dimensions, including flat objects, objects beyond the grasping range, irregular objects, scattered objects, and a moving turtle. The results report the soft gripper's versatility and demonstrate the vast application potentials of self-adaptive grasping and sensing in various environments, including but are not limited to underwater, which is always a key challenge of grasping technology.


Assuntos
Octopodiformes , Robótica , Animais , Força da Mão , Robótica/métodos , Sucção
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