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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130667, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339981

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different fertilizers on the physicochemical properties, multi-element and volatile composition of cucumbers. All samples were divided into five groups according to different combinations and amounts of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer. The co-application of chicken manure (120,000 kg/ha) and NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer (750 kg/ha) achieved the best texture properties, whereas the addition of the microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha significantly improved the color quality of cucumbers. Similarly, the co-application of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha enhanced the number and abundance of volatile components detected in the cucumbers. Cucumbers from the control group contained the highest levels of most of the determined elements. Overall, a combination of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and 6000 kg/ha microbial fertilizer is recommended as a relatively efficient fertilizer utilization for cucumbers.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Solo
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130734, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359003

RESUMO

Isocycloseram is a new isoxazoline insecticide that can efficiently control the diamondback moth in cruciferous crops. The aim of this study was to establish a method for the determination of isocycloseram residues in/on cabbage and in the soil using HPLC-UV at 264 nm. A field test was conducted in December 2019 and 2020 to monitor isocycloseram dissipation in Jiangxi, China. Acetonitrile was used to extract isocycloseram from cabbage and soil. C18 and GCB were used to purify cabbage extracts, whereas soil extracts did not require purification. At the addition level of 0.01-1.0 mg/kg, the average recoveries in cabbage and soil were 91.81-109.95% and 89.89-104.08% respectively. After having applied 10% isocycloseram DC, isocycloseram dissipated faster in the cabbage matrix. Isocycloseram residues on cabbage leaves could be removed through simple cleaning methods, especially by soaking in 2% citric acid.


Assuntos
Brassica , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meia-Vida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126694, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332483

RESUMO

Although the compound pollution of microplastics and arsenic (As) in paddy soil can affect the growth and quality of rice, relevant research on this phenomenon was limited. Therefore, we combined a pot experiment with computational chemistry to explore the effects and mechanism of polystyrene (PSMP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microplastics on As bioavailability. PSMP and PTFE interacted with rice root exudates through van der Waals forces, approached the rice root system, inhibited root activity, reduced the relative abundance of Geobacteria and Anaeromyxobacter, and consequently reduced the iron plaques on the root surfaces. Consequently, As uptake by the rice was inhibited. PSMP and PTFE reduced the hemoglobin content by directly destroying its tertiary structure, thereby retarding rice growth. In contrast, As increased the hemoglobin content by inducing reactive oxygen species in rice. Under the influence of PSMP, PTFE, and As, the activities of soluble starch synthase and pyrophosphorylase in rice grains were inhibited, and starch accumulation decreased. Thus, PSMP, PTFE, and As reduced rice biomass and yield owing to their physiological toxicity and adverse impacts on root activity. Grain yields in soil with an As content of 86.3 mg·kg-1, 0.5% small particle-sized PSMP, and 0.5% small particle-sized PTFE decreased by 30.7%, 20.6%, and 19.4%, respectively, compared to the control. This study determined the comprehensive mechanism through which PSMP and PTFE affect As bioavailability, which is critical for managing rice biomass and low yields in As and microplastic co-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126678, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333410

RESUMO

Soil contamination by arsenic (As) presents a high risk to public health, necessitating urgent remediation. This study sought to develop an efficient strategy for the phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil. The effects of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni residue (SR) on the available As (A-As) concentration of soil and As extraction from the soil by Pteris vittata L. were studied by soil simulation, pot, and field experiments. The A-As concentration in the soil simulation experiment increased significantly by 84.20% after 20 days. The biomass, As concentration, and total extracted As of SR-treated P. vittata L. in the pot experiment increased significantly by 50.66%, 120.2%, and 171.2%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. The SR-treated rhizosphere soil in the pot experiment displayed a significant 21.72% decrease in total As concentration. In the one-year field experiment, treatment with SR resulted in a significant 191.1% increase in As extraction by P. vittata L. and a significant 10.26% reduction in rhizosphere soil As concentration compared to the control. This study proposes a potential mechanism for SR-mediated enhancement of P. vittata L. As extraction ability and provides a new, economic, and environmentally friendly method for As-contaminated soil remediation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Pteris , Poluentes do Solo , Stevia , Arsênio/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126731, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339987

RESUMO

Citric acid (CA) is the major exudate of rice roots, yet the effects of CA on arsenic (As) transformation and microbial community in flooded paddy soil have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, microcosms were established by amending CA to As contaminated paddy soils, mimicking the rhizosphere environment. Results showed that 0.5% CA addition significantly enhanced As mobilization after one-hour incubation, increased total As in porewater by about 20-fold. CA addition induced arsenate release into porewater, and subsequently formed ternary complex of As, iron and organic matters, inhibiting further As transformation (including arsenate reduction and arsenite methylation). Furthermore, the results of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) and network analysis revealed that CA addition significantly enriched bacteria associated with arsenic and iron reductions, such as Clostridium (up to 35-fold) and Desulfitobacterium (up to 4-fold). Our results suggest that CA exhibits robust ability to mobilize As through both chemical and microbial processes, increasing the risk of As accumulation by rice. This study sheds light on our understanding of As mobilization and transformation in rhizosphere soil, potentially providing effective strategies to restrict As accumulation in food crops by screening or cultivating varieties with low CA exuding.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Ácido Cítrico , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126684, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339989

RESUMO

Selenium is an essential trace element for humans, animals and microorganisms. Microbial transformations, in particular, selenium dissimilatory reduction and bioremediation applications have received increasing attention in recent years. This review focuses on multiple Se-reducing pathways under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and the phylogenetic clustering of selenium reducing enzymes that are involved in these processes. It is emphasized that a selenium reductase may have more than one metabolic function, meanwhile, there are several Se(VI) and/or Se(IV) reduction pathways in a bacterial strain. It is noted that Se(IV)-reducing efficiency is inconsistent with Se(IV) resistance in bacteria. Moreover, we discussed the links of selenium transformations to biogeochemical cycling of other elements, roles of Se-reducing bacteria in soil, plant and digestion system, and the possibility of using functional genes involved in Se transformation as biomarker in different environments. In addition, we point out the gaps and perspectives both on Se transformation mechanisms and applications in terms of bioremediation, Se fortification or dietary supplementation.


Assuntos
Selênio , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Filogenia , Solo
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126647, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358970

RESUMO

Contamination of paddy soils by arsenic (As) is of great concern for human health and the environment. The impact of animal-derived biochar on As mobilization under fluctuating redox conditions in paddy soils has not been studied. Consequently, we investigated the effects of pig carcass-derived biochar (PB) on As (im)mobilization in a contaminated paddy soil under controlled redox potential (Eh) using a biogeochemical microcosm-setup. The addition of PB decreased the concentration of dissolved As at Eh = +100 and +200 mV by 38.7% and 35.4%, respectively (compared to the control), because of the co-precipitation of As with Fe-Mn oxides and the complexation between As and aromatic organic molecules. However, under reducing conditions (Eh = -300 mV), PB increased the dissolved As by 13.5% through promoting reduction and decomposition of As-bearing Fe minerals (e.g., ferrihydrite-As, Fe-humic-As). Under oxidizing conditions (Eh = +250 mV), PB increased the dissolved As by 317.6%, due to the associated increase of pH. We conclude that As mobilization in PB-treated paddy soils is highly affected by Eh. PB can be used to reduce the environmental risk of As under moderately reducing conditions, but it may increase the risk under highly reducing and oxidizing conditions in paddy soils.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Oxirredução , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126762, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364207

RESUMO

Phytoremediation can be a promising and sustainable strategy to recovery Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) contaminated soils. However, at the field level, this tool can be limited by many issues. Herein, we combined native plant species with different cover type (mono and poly culture) in an in-field mesocosm experiment for the remediation of multi-contaminated soils from Bagnoli brownfield site (Southern Italy). We preliminary gain insights about the physical, chemical and biological features of the soils and subsequently induced a potential variation in the soil microbiome. We found that polyculture better respond both in terms of pollutant phytostabilization efficiency and from a stress tolerance perspective. Among plant species, Festuca achieved the best performance due to the overexpression of metal transporters able in both PTEs influx and sequestration from the cytoplasm. We achieved a site-specific bio-factory, which represents a strategy for the sustainable and relatively fast recovery of large contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Festuca , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126755, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364213

RESUMO

Water and soil contamination due to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) represents a critical threat to the global ecosystem and human health. Naturally abundant resources have significant advantages as adsorbent materials for environmental remediation over manufactured materials such as nanostructured materials and activated carbons. These advantages include cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness, sustainability, and nontoxicity. In this review, we firstly compare the characteristics of representative adsorbent materials including bentonite, zeolite, biochar, biomass, and effective modification methods that are frequently used to enhance their adsorption capacity and kinetics. Following this, the adsorption pathways and sites are outlined at an atomic level, and an in-depth understanding of the structure-property relationships are provided based on surface functional groups. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of some emerging naturally abundant resources such as lignite are examined. Although both unamended and modified naturally abundant resources face challenges associated with their adsorption performance, cost performance, energy consumption, and secondary pollution, these can be tackled by using advanced techniques such as tailored modification, formulated mixing and reorganization of these materials. Recent studies on adsorbent materials provide a strong foundation for the remediation of PTEs in soil and water. We speculate that the pursuit of effective modification strategies will generate remediation processes of PTEs better suited to a wider variety of practical application conditions.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126789, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365235

RESUMO

Microbial communities inhabiting soil-water-sediment continuum in coastal areas provide important ecosystem services. Their adaptation in response to environmental stressors, particularly mitigating the impact of pollutants discharged from human activities, has been considered for the development of microbial biomonitoring tools, but their use is still in the infancy. Here, chemical and molecular (16S rRNA gene metabarcoding) approaches were combined in order to determine the impact of pollutants on microbial assemblages inhabiting the aquatic network of a soil-water-sediment continuum around the Ichkeul Lake (Tunisia), an area highly impacted by human activities. Samples were collected within the soil-river-lake continuum at three stations in dry (summer) and wet (winter) seasons. The contaminant pressure index (PI), which integrates Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkanes, Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and metal contents, and the microbial pressure index microgAMBI, based on bacterial community structure, showed significant correlation with contamination level and differences between seasons. The comparison of prokaryotic communities further revealed specific assemblages for soil, river and lake sediments. Correlation analyses identified potential "specialist" genera for the different compartments, whose abundances were correlated with the pollutant type found. Additionally, PICRUSt analysis revealed the metabolic potential for pollutant transformation or degradation of the identified "specialist" species, providing information to estimate the recovery capacity of the ecosystem. Such findings offer the possibility to define a relevant set of microbial indicators for assessing the effects of human activities on aquatic ecosystems. Microbial indicators, including the detection of "specialist" and sensitive taxa, and their functional capacity, might be useful, in combination with integrative microbial indices, to constitute accurate biomonitoring tools for the management and restoration of complex coastal aquatic systems.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Lagos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios , Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113820, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583281

RESUMO

Soil salinization is a widespread problem affecting global food production. Phytoremediation is emerging as a viable and cost-effective technology to reclaim salt-affected soil. However, its efficiency is not clear due to the uncertainty of plant responses in saline soils. The main objective of this paper is to propose a phytoremediation dynamic model (PDM) for salt-affected soil within the process-based biogeochemical denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model. The PDM represents two salinity processes of phytoremediation: plant salt uptake and salt-affected biomass growth. The salt-soil-plant interaction is simulated as a coupled mass balance equation of water and salt plant uptake. The salt extraction ability by plant is a combination of salt uptake efficiency (F) and transpiration rate. For water filled pore space (WFPS), the statistical measures RMSE, MAE, and R2 during the calibration period are 2.57, 2.14, and 0.49, and they are 2.67, 2.34, and 0.56 during the validation period, respectively. For soil salinity, RMSE, MAE, and R2 during the calibration period are 0.02, 0.02, and 0.92, and 0.06, 0.04, and 0.68 during the validation period, respectively, which are reasonably good for further scenario analysis. Over the four years, cumulative salt uptake varied based on weather conditions. At the optimal salt uptake efficiency (F = 20), cumulative salt uptake from soil was 16-90% for alfalfa, 11-70% for barley, and 10-80% for spring wheat. While at the lowest salt uptake efficiency (F = 40), cumulative salt uptake was nearly zero for all crops. Although barley has the highest peak transpiration flux, alfalfa and spring wheat have greater cumulative salt uptake because their peak transpiration fluxes occurred more frequently than in barley. For salt-tolerant crops biomass growth depends on their threshold soil salinity which determines their ability to take up salt without affecting biomass growth. In order to phytoremediate salt-affected soil, salt-tolerant crops having longer duration of crop physiological stages should be used, but their phytoremediation effectiveness will depend on weather conditions and the soil environment.


Assuntos
Salinidade , Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produtos Agrícolas , Desnitrificação , Água
12.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113837, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592668

RESUMO

The hyperaccumulating mechanism concerning heavy metal activation or passivation and plant response triggered by fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA) recruitments are investigated herein. We carefully examine the Cd activation effect by various FA and HA, tracing from pig, goat, and duck manure composts to straw compost and commercial materials (i.e., PC, GC, DC, SC, and CM), as well as their roles in plant growth promotion and Cd uptake. Our results indicate that due to the decrease of soil pH and their multiple functional groups, the contents of available Cd (AE-Cd) increased by 4.3-4.8% and 3.6-6.3% when all FA and HA sources were applied for 30 days. A 13.1-19.9% increase in AE-Cd was observed when CFA, DFA, and PFA were applied for five days, and a 9.5% increment was found when PHA was applied for 10 days. In the pot experiment, the Cd accumulation in plants increased by 2.78 and 2.17 folds with PFA and PHA applications, respectively, compared to the blank control group. This result can be attributed to the stimulative effects of the simultaneous Sedum alfredii growth and Cd phytoavailability. Notably, the Cd accumulation increased by 2.26 times with the SFA amendment due to the predominant stimulation effect to the phytoavailable Cd rather than plant growth. However, slight inhibitory effects were observed upon plant growth or Cd uptake, which led to the reduction of the Cd accumulation with DHA, SHA, and CHA employments. Consistently, the corresponding soil Cd removal efficiencies were 43.5% and 34.6% with PFA and PHA, respectively, which hold abundant O- and N-containing groups. Our research aims to gain insights into the ternary interaction in the presence of heavy metal, humic substances, and S. alfredii to simultaneously accelerate Cd activation and hyperaccumulation.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Sedum , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Substâncias Húmicas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113883, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601348

RESUMO

Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) has been shown to mitigate sand erosion; however, few studies have applied MICP on loess soils. In this study, polyacrylamide (PAM) was added to the cementation solution, and combined MICP-PAM treatment was applied to improve the surface erosion resistance of loess-slopes. The freeze-thaw (FT) durability of MICP-PAM treated loess slopes was also studied. The obtained results showed that MICP-PAM treatment improved erosion resistance and addition of 1.5 g/L PAM achieved the best erosion control and highest surface strength. The high erosion resistance of MICP-PAM treated slopes could be attributed to the stable spatial structure of precipitation, and PAM addition conveyed stronger resistance to tension or shear force. With increasing number of FT cycles, the surface strength of MICP-PAM treated loess slopes decreased; however, slopes subjected to 12 FT cycles still only lost little soil. In MICP-PAM treated loess slopes, cracks and pores evolved with increasing number of FT cycles. With increasing number of FT cycles, porosity and fractal dimension increased, pore ellipticity decreased slightly, and the percentage of various pores changed slightly. The number of FT cycles had less effect on MICP-PAM treated loess slopes than on untreated slopes. MICP-PAM treatment significantly mitigated surface erosion of loess-slopes and improved FT weathering resistance, thus presenting promising potential for application in the field. In addition, based on the linear correlations between surface strength and rainfall-erosion resistance, surface strength could be measured to evaluate the rainfall-erosion resistance for MICP-PAM treated slopes in practical engineering applications.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Solo , Carbonato de Cálcio
14.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113812, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601350

RESUMO

Removing vegetation cover from hill-slope land increases risk for soil erosion and delivery of sediment to waterways. In New Zealand's productive landscapes, clear-fell harvesting of forestry blocks and winter forage grazing by agricultural livestock are two significant causes of vegetation removal. Bare ground exposed by these activities varies annually and seasonally in location and spatial extent. Modelling soil erosion therefore requires temporally and spatially explicit mapping of this bare ground. We have developed an automated mapping method using time-series satellite imagery, thereby enabling wide-area coverage and ease of updating. The temporal analysis identifies land use along with the period of vegetation removal. It produces results per land parcel (in vector format) for use in a Geographic Information System. We present a description of our method, national maps and statistics of bare ground extent in New Zealand's hill-country forestry and winter forage grazing land in 2018, and an assessment of accuracy. The attributes of the mapped land parcels are designed for input into a soil erosion estimation model such as the New Zealand Universal Soil Loss Equation.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Erosão do Solo , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Nova Zelândia , Solo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113888, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619584

RESUMO

In this study, chelating surfactant N-lauroyl ethylenediamine triacetate (N-LED3A) was used as strengthening agent for electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper (Cu) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) co-contaminated low permeability soil. The results indicated that negligible amount of N-LED3A would be adsorbed on the experimental soil. The synchronous elution efficiencies (SEEs) of Cu and BDE209 had reached 65.4% and 49.9%, respectively, when the concentration of N-LED3A was 4000 mg/L, and they kept almost unchanged as the concentration of N-LED3A further increased. Meanwhile, the optimal SEEs were obtained at the pH condition within 6-8. The removal efficiencies of Cu (55.3%-65.8%) and BDE209 (31.4%-46.4%) would be increased with the applied voltage gradient and concentration of N-LED3A. In addition, BDE209 and Cu contaminants were also detected in the catholyte and anolyte, respectively, and their concentrations still showed an uptrend by the end of the experiments. While in the control experiments, the removal efficiency of Cu was in the range of 18.2%-23.6%, and almost no BDE209 was migrated out. The electric current would be increased with N-LED3A concentration increased, further resulting in the enhancement of cumulative electro-osmotic flow (EOF). However, the increment of EOF was limited after an 8-day treatment due to the declined capacity of the soil water supply, and the removal efficiency of BDE209 did not change proportionally to the cumulative EOF as a consequence. The accumulated (21 days) energy consumption under the optimal operation conditions (voltage gradient 1 V/cm, N-LED3A 1 g/L) was 377.28 KWh/m3. Efficiently synchronous removal of BDE209 and Cu could be achieved by the N-LED3A enhanced EK technique, exhibiting a promising application potential in the organic pollutant and heavy metal co-contaminated soil remediation.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre/análise , Etilenodiaminas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Permeabilidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tensoativos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113849, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619586

RESUMO

Engine oil consists of hazardous substances that adversely affect the environment and soil quality. Bioremediation (employing organisms) is an appropriate technique to mitigate engine oil pollution. In the present study, the earthworm species, Drawida modesta (epigeic) and Lampito mauritii (anecic) were used to restore the soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from used engine oil. Four treatments were set up in addition to positive and negative controls. A maximum of 68.6% PAHs and 34.3% TPHs removal in the treatment with soil (1 kg), cow dung (50 g), used engine oil (7.5 mL) and earthworms was recorded after 60 days. Undoubtedly, earthworms effectively removed PAHs and TPHs from the oil-contaminated soil. PAHs were more strongly accumulated in D. modesta (16.25 mg kg-1) than in L. mauritii (13.25 mg kg-1). Further, histological analysis revealed the epidermal surface irregularity, cellular disintegration, and cellular debris in earthworms. The pH (6.3%), electrical conductivity (12.7%), and total organic carbon (35.4%) were significantly (at P < 0.05) decreased after 60 days; while, total nitrogen (62%), total potassium (76.2%), and total phosphorus (19.2%) were substantially increased at the end of the experiment. The seed germination assay with fenugreek indicates that germination percentage (95%), and germination index (179), were dramatically increased in earthworm inoculated treatments when compared to the negative control (without earthworms). The results reveal that there is a great scope for utilizing the earthworms, D. modesta and L. mauritii for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs and TPHs.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bovinos , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113886, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619594

RESUMO

The conversion of primary forests to cultivation brings a significant change in soil carbon (C) forms. In the foothills of the Eastern Himalayan Region of India (Manipur), such conversions are prevalent. However, little is known about the response of C forms, particularly in deep soil, to land use conversion in the region. We evaluated changes in soil C forms (total organic, inorganic, and pools) and microbiological properties (up to 1.0 m depth) mediated by C when the 45-year-old forest had been cultivated for 18-25 years. The cultivated land uses were tree-based agroforestry (LAF: legumes, NAF: non-legumes), horticultural fruits (WHF: woody, NHF: non-wood, mainly vegetables), and paddy agriculture system (AUS: upland, ALS: lowlands). Forest conversion significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the total carbon (TC) in the surface soil (0.0-0.15 m) from 4.88 % to 3.04-3.93 % in the tree-based land uses (LAF, NAF, and WHF). TC further declined to 2.05-2.81 % under seasonal crops (NHF, AUS, and ALS). Seasonal crop cultivation also caused a higher decline in microbial biomass carbon, soil enzymes, and carbon pools (active and passive) than the tree-based land use with the soil depth. The vertical distribution of C in the soil profile was inconsistent: organic C (including C pools) decreased, while inorganic C increased. The profile TC stock to a depth of 1.0 m in the forest was 358.8 Mg ha-1, of which 81 % were organic C, and 19 % were inorganic C. In comparison with forest soil, total soil C stocks (organic and inorganic) decreased more (-44.1 to -55.1 %) in seasonal crops than in tree-based (-15.4 to -36.3 %) land uses. The degradation index (DI) also confirmed that seasonal crop cultivation caused a larger decline in surface soil quality (DI: -423 % to -623 %) than tree-based land use (DI: -243 % to -317 %). The topsoil (up to 0.45 m) of seasonal crops was more degraded than that of the subsoil (>0.45 m-1.0 m). Forests converted to seasonal cultivation (upland rice and vegetables) caused higher degradation of soil C forms and overall soil health in the Himalayan foothills of northeastern India. We suggest the promotion of Agroforestry based on legumes (Parkia spp.) and woody fruits (mango/citrus/guava) in the uplands to minimize soil C degradation while ensuring nutritional security in the hill agro-ecosystems of the Indian Himalayas.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Florestas , Índia
18.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113811, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organic waste management in environmentally sustainable way is important not only to reduce the negative impacts on ecosystems but also valorizing the waste resources. Herein we evaluated the potential of wood ash (WA) and paper sludge (PS) wastes from a pulp and paper mill as potting media and their effects on the physicochemical properties of podzolic soil. METHODS: WA, PS and biochar (BC) was mixed in different combinations with a sandy loam podzolic soil. Potting media treatments included: T1-soil (negative control); T2-PromixTM (positive control); T3-50%soil+50%WA; T4-75%soil+25%WA; T5-50%soil+50%PS; T6-75%soil+25%PS; T7-75%soil+25%BC; T8-25%soil+50%WA+25%BC; T9-50%soil+25%WA+25%BC; T10-25%soil+50%PS+25%BC; T11-50%soil+25%PS+25%BC, T12- 25%soil+25%WA+25%PS+25%BC and replicated three times. RESULTS: Potting media treatments expressed significant (p < 0.00) effects on pH, bulk density, total porosity, field capacity, plant available water (PAW) and water retention curves. Potting media amended with WA showed high pH range (8-12) while PS amendments exhibited pH in range where most plant nutrients are available (6.5-7.5). Results depicted significantly lower bulk density, and increased total porosity and water holding capacity of potting media amended with WA and PS. BC addition further enhanced the water retention properties compared to combinations without BC. T6, T10 and T11 produced higher amounts of PAW with desired pH compared to T1 and T2. CONCLUSION: WA, PS and BC showed high potential for developing podzolic soil-based potting media, but their effects on plant growth and elemental uptake need to be investigated.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Ecossistema , Esgotos , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113857, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626946

RESUMO

A new type of binder was developed by grafting casein and ß-glucan to investigate its effect on tailings erosion and plant growth. 6% casein and 2% ß-glucan were recommended as the best ratio of the new biopolymer binder, which had the best effect on the soil utilization of iron tailings. The infrared analysis of the new binder demonstrated that casein and ß-glucan reacted adequately as raw materials. The results of physichemical properties and loss prevention of iron tailings showed that the binder-treated soils demonstrated lower erodibility compared with untreated iron tailings. The particle size of the tailings was increased after the addition of the binder. In treated soil, the content of soil organic matter increased significantly, which provided sufficient nutrients for the plants growing. Compared with natural tailings without binder, plant height, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activity (POD and SOD) were also significantly increased. This study overcame the current defects of biopolymer in soil improvement and provided an environmentally friendly method to prevent the loss of iron tailings and promote its soil utilization efficiency.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Biopolímeros , Ferro/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113916, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634723

RESUMO

The mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) is closely related to the emission of greenhouse gas into atmosphere and the stability of organic carbon in soil. The influence of minerals on SOM mineralization in the specific soil received very few attentions. The influence characteristics and potential mechanisms of oxides on the mineralization of SOM in the paddy soil were observed in this study by incubating soil with the addition (dosage: 10 g kg-1) of prepared gibbsite, goethite, ferrihydrite or birnessite for 60 days. A sequence control treatment (753 mg CO2-C kg-1) > goethite treatment (656 mg CO2-C kg-1) ≈ gibbsite treatment (649 mg CO2-C kg-1) > birnessite treatment (529 mg CO2-C kg-1) > ferrihydrite treatment (441 mg CO2-C kg -1) was found in the cumulative amount of released CO2 in 60 days of incubation. Oxides especially ferrihydrite significantly decreased the content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) but tended to increase the content of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The molecular structure of DOM in the paddy soil was simplified by gibbsite, ferrihydrite and birnessite after the incubation. Oxides especially birnessite and ferrihydrite reduced soil pH and the content of soil available N but increased soil redox potential (Eh). All examined oxides especially Fe oxides enhanced soil bacterial abundance but only birnessite significantly affected bacterial composition at phyla level. The stimulation on the immobilization and/or microbial assimilation of labile organic carbon, the modulation on soil basic properties (available N, pH, Eh), and the decrease of the relative abundance of some decomposing bacteria phyla such as Actinobacteria were the potential pathways of oxides in decreasing SOM mineralization.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Solo , Carbono , Ferro , Manganês , Óxidos , Microbiologia do Solo
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