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1.
Conscious Cogn ; 98: 103269, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065351

RESUMO

Hypnotic suggestibility denotes a capacity to respond to direct verbal suggestions in an involuntary manner. Most research on responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions has focused on highly suggestible individuals but it remains unclear whether these individuals constitute a discrete subgroup (taxon) characterized by a distinct mode of responding from the remainder of the population or whether hypnotic suggestibility is better modelled as a dimensional ability. In this study, we applied taxometric analysis, a method for distinguishing between dimensional and categorical models of a psychological ability, to behavioural and involuntariness subscale scores of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form A (HGSHS:A) in a non-clinical sample (N = 584). Analyses of HGSHS:A subscale scores with different a priori taxon base rates yielded consistent evidence for a dimensional structure. These results suggest that hypnotic suggestibility is dimensional and have implications for current understanding of individual differences in responsiveness to direct verbal suggestions.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Humanos , Hipnose/métodos , Individualidade , Sugestão
2.
Behav Ther ; 53(2): 323-333, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227407

RESUMO

Recent meta-analyses have shown that psychological interventions have a small to medium effect on weight loss. We propose here a different approach to changing eating intentions. According to the Free Will literature, people decide to act before they acknowledge it, and they decide based on the reconstruction of previous experiences. The action can thus be inhibited immediately (max 100 ms) after awareness. We wanted to test if intervention based on this model, using hypnotic suggestions, can effectively change the intentions of eating. This study aims to identify which format of hypnotic suggestion can be more effective in changing eating intentions regarding high-calorie foods. Therefore, 88 healthy adult participants randomized in four groups received one session of hypnotic induction and suggestions or placebo. We measured the eating intentions through a computer task in which participants could choose pictures of low and high caloric food before, during, and after hypnosis. For the within-subject effect, results showed that two types of hypnotic suggestions significantly impacted the intentions of eating on high-calorie foods with large-effect, namely Cognitive Rehearsal (d = 0.81, p < .001) and Memory Substitution (d = 0.82, p < .001). After controlling for pretest ratings, we found a significant between-effect: the Cognitive Rehearsal group differed significantly from the Control in terms of intentions of eating (d = 0.85, p < .05). We conclude that hypnosis with Cognitive Rehearsal suggestions can help to positively impact the intentions of eating.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Intenção , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Hipnose/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Sugestão
3.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(4): 290-305, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259073

RESUMO

Hypnosis has been mysterious and controversial for hundreds of years. The legacy of this history is still with us. The philosophy of Ryle and of Dennett argue that the usual emphasis placed on states of consciousness and privileged access is misplaced. Cognitive neuroscience supports this by showing that unconscious processes explain much of our functioning and that what we call consciousness and privileged access is illusory. Attribution theory can largely account for the subjective states that have been seen as characteristic of and unique to hypnosis. Current models of hypnosis are reviewed and shown to have maintained classic and outdated views of dissociation and/or disconnected executive systems. Normative unconscious processes can account for much of hypnotic phenomena thereby showing hypnosis to be a normative phenomenon. An unconscious need to be absorbed into or become part of something beyond the self may underlie some of the individual differences in hypnotizability.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Hipnose , Humanos , Inteligência , Sugestão
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 223: 103511, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077952

RESUMO

Folk wisdom, advice columns, and pop culture suggest that when undecided, individuals may flip a coin - not to simply follow the suggestion, but to inspect their reaction to the outcome and then use the reaction to decide. While being intuitively appealing, it remains an open question whether this strategy results in advantageous decisions. Here we used an adapted version of the Iowa Gambling Task to test whether flipping a coin before making a decision may result in advantageous choices. Participants from the general public (N = 542) participated in the adapted Iowa Gambling Task. Results suggest that, under certain conditions, using a coin flip results in a higher likelihood to choose the objectively better option after 40 trials and a steeper learning curve throughout the game. Furthermore, after 40 trials, coin- compared to control-participants described themselves as more certain and the task as easier. This study is the first to show that flipping a coin may prove beneficial, objectively by leading to better decisions, and subjectively by resulting in reduced difficulty and higher certainty.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sugestão
5.
Exp Brain Res ; 240(2): 381-394, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797393

RESUMO

Autosuggestion is a cognitive process that is believed to enable control over one's own cognitive and physiological states. Despite its potential importance for basic science and clinical applications, such as in rehabilitation, stress reduction, or pain therapy, the neurocognitive mechanisms and psychological concepts that underlie autosuggestion are poorly defined. Here, by reviewing empirical data on autosuggestion and related phenomena such as mental imagery, mental simulation, and suggestion, we offer a neurocognitive concept of autosuggestion. We argue that autosuggestion is characterized by three major factors: reinstantiation, reiteration, and volitional, active control over one's own physiological states. We also propose that autosuggestion might involve the 'overwriting' of existing predictions or brain states that expect the most common (but not desired) outcome. We discuss potential experimental paradigms that could be used to study autosuggestion in the future, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of current evidence. This review provides a first overview on how to define, experimentally induce, and study autosuggestion, which may facilitate its use in basic science and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Sugestão , Autossugestão , Cognição , Humanos
6.
Pract Neurol ; 22(1): 42-47, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389642

RESUMO

Clinical hypnosis is an important therapeutic tool with an increasingly understood cognitive and neurobiological basis, and evidence for efficacy. Hypnosis involves controlled modulation of components of cognition-such as awareness, volition, perception and belief-by an external agent (the hypnotist) or by oneself (self-hypnosis) employing suggestion. In this article, we describe what hypnosis is, how it can be used in clinical settings, and how it is done.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Cognição , Humanos , Sugestão
8.
Pain ; 163(3): 548-559, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232926

RESUMO

Pain and other somatosensory sensations, such as itch, can be effectively decreased by placebo effects and increased by nocebo effects. There are indications that placebo effects on pain generalize to other sensations and that nocebo effects generalize within itch modalities. However, it has not yet been investigated whether learned effects can generalize within pain stimulus modalities or from pain to itch. Our aims were to test whether placebo and nocebo effects can generalize within pain modalities, ie, from heat pain to pressure pain, and across somatosensory sensations with psychophysiological similarities, ie, from heat pain to cowhage-evoked itch. For this purpose, 65 healthy participants were randomized to either a placebo or nocebo group. All participants first underwent a conditioning and verbal suggestion procedure with heat pain stimuli. Subsequently, responses to heat pain, pressure pain, and cowhage-evoked itch stimuli were tested. Results showed altered levels of heat and pressure pain with the conditioned cue in both placebo and nocebo groups in the expected directions, but no significant difference in itch in both groups. In conclusion, placebo and nocebo effects on pain may generalize within but not across stimulus modalities. This study provides a novel perspective on the role that response generalization plays in physical symptoms.


Assuntos
Efeito Nocebo , Efeito Placebo , Humanos , Dor , Prurido , Sugestão
9.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 80: 101763, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902756

RESUMO

This article summarizes four federal criminal cases that illustrate how suggestibility can impact defendants with FASD in the criminal justice system. Four cases were identified via a Google Scholar search of "suggestibility" and "fetal alcohol" in the federal case law database. These cases are illustrative of how FASD can affect legal defendants, including vulnerability to peer pressure, being easily manipulated, insufficient comprehension of legal proceedings, difficulty in assisting legal counsel, learning impairment, acquiescence or higher levels of suggestibility, and difficulty understanding consequences. The cases presented here provided the most comprehensive discussion of FASD and suggestibility issues but are by no means an exhaustive review of case law. Because defendants with FASD are the focal point of this article, we intentionally excluded cases involving eyewitness suggestibility, the suggestibility of child witnesses, and the suggestibility of those under hypnosis. Therefore, this review has been developed to explicate and illustrate problems common to FASD defendants within legal settings, especially regarding risk for suggestibility. The information provided from this discussion may better guide legal professionals who regularly come into contact with persons affected by FASD on how to more readily detect this neurodevelopmental condition and mitigate the likelihood of injustice during criminal proceedings. Additionally, we include suggestions on how to attenuate miscarriages of justice as a result of faulty confessions, wrongful convictions, and vulnerability of suggestibility in persons affected by FASD.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Criança , Direito Penal , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Sugestão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Cognition ; 218: 104951, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801861

RESUMO

Central to the conceptual spaces framework is the thought that concepts can be studied mathematically, by geometrical and topological means. Various applications of the framework have already been subjected to empirical testing, mostly with excellent results, demonstrating the framework's usefulness. So far untested is the suggestion that conceptual spaces may help explain certain inferences people are willing to make. The experiment reported in this paper focused on similarity-based arguments, testing the hypothesis that the strength of such arguments can be predicted from the structure of the conceptual space in which the items being reasoned about are represented. A secondary aim of the experiment concerned a recent inferentialist semantics for indicative conditionals, according to which the truth of a conditional requires the presence of a sufficiently strong inferential connection between its antecedent and consequent. To the extent that the strength of similarity-based inferences can be predicted from the geometry and topology of the relevant conceptual space, such spaces should help predict truth ratings of conditionals embodying a similarity-based inferential link. The results supported both hypotheses.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Semântica , Humanos , Sugestão
11.
Behav Sci Law ; 40(1): 170-185, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904276

RESUMO

Individuals with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are estimated to be 19 times more likely to encounter the criminal justice system (CJS) in comparison to individuals without FASD. During encounters with the CJS, investigative interviews are employed to obtain accurate information from suspects, victims or witnesses of crime. A systematic search using PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify empirical studies published that have explored the questioning of the FASD population within the CJS and the vulnerabilities of FASD-impacted individuals during investigative interviewing. A total of 383 studies were identified from the databases searched and 7 further studies were identified from Google Scholar. After deduplication, abstract and title screening, the full text of 23 studies were assessed for inclusion and 5 were included in the narrative synthesis of results. Two papers were empirical studies focussed on the performance of FASD-impacted individuals during investigative interviewing. Whilst the first study found the FASD population susceptible to suggestions, the second (a case study), identified the ploys employed during investigative interviewing to obtain a confession. Three papers studied the wider vulnerabilities of FASD-impacted individuals and found diminished psycho-legal abilities, increased risk of recidivism and biological, psychological and social factors that render FASD-impacted individuals vulnerable to CJS encounters. Despite the greater likelihood of CJS encounters, the result of this review highlights the slim evidence base useful to establish the vulnerabilities of FASD-impacted individuals within the CJS.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Crime , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Narração , Gravidez , Sugestão
12.
Behav Sci Law ; 40(1): 186-217, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961964

RESUMO

Central nervous system damage resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol, often referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), commonly manifests as lacking cognitive functioning, problem solving, impulsivity, memory, executive functioning, and social skill deficits. For individuals with FASD, these brain-based deficits translate into impulsive behaviors and poorly thought-out decision-making, coupled with an inability to anticipate and recognize the sometimes very severe consequences of their behaviors. Not unexpectedly, individuals with FASD frequently find themselves disproportionately involved in the criminal justice system and mental health services. For some individuals with FASD, these behaviors can also include firesetting. First responders, like other health and legal professionals, are often unable to recognize the behavioral indicators of FASD, primarily due to a lack of training. As a result, firesetting behaviors are often attributed to deliberate, willful acts of delinquency, a desire to damage property, thrill seeking, or as attempts for personal gain, rather than being viewed as maladaptive attempts to solve problems by individuals who lack the tools to do this in more appropriate ways. These same skill deficits also present when individuals with FASD are interviewed about their involvement in such behaviors, sometimes resulting in confabulation, suggestibility, and false confessions. Further education and training in FASD are vital for first responders if they are to better support individuals with FASD and minimize their chances of becoming involved in firesetting behaviors. Furthermore, this training and education will help ensure that first responders can intervene in more appropriately when crisis situations do occur. This article will outline key behavioral symptoms of FASD as well as provide first responders with suggestions as to how to best support individuals when FASD is suspected. The brief quote that follows highlights some of the key challenges facing individuals with FASD and how poor decision-making and impulsiveness can result in severe consequences for the individual and those around them.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Adolescente , Direito Penal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Sugestão
13.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(1): 53-61, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748460

RESUMO

Hypnosis is a hetero-induced or self-induced altered state of consciousness that involves focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness. It is determined by response to suggestions and can be used in the management of various clinical conditions. Nowadays there is growing attention to the neurobiological correlates of hypnosis because of its future clinical applications. The greater attention is due to the wide range of applications that might stem from its knowledge. Functional neuroimaging studies show that hypnosis affects attention by modulating the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and other brain areas, modifying the conflict monitoring and cognitive control. During hypnoanalgesia, several changes in brain functions occur in all the areas of the pain network, and other brain areas. Among these, the anterior cingulate cortex is significantly involved in modulating the activity of pain circuits under hypnosis, both in the affective, sensory-cognitive, and behavioral aspects. The study of the functionality of the cingulate cortices, mainly the anterior and medial portions, appears to be crucial for better understanding the hypnotic phenomena, related to both the neurocognitive and somatosensory aspects.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo , Hipnose , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipnose Anestésica , Sugestão
14.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(1): 36-52, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748461

RESUMO

Exploring psychophysiological changes during hypnosis can help to better understand the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon by characterizing its influence on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), in addition to its central brain effects. Hypnosis is thought to induce a relaxation response, yet studies using objective psychophysiological measures alongside hypnosis protocols show various results. We review this literature and clarify the effects of hypnosis on psychophysiological indices of ANS activity and more specifically of the stress/relaxation response, such as heart rate variability and electrodermal activity. Studies reporting psychophysical measures during hypnosis were identified by a series of Pubmed searches. Data was extracted with an interest for the influence of hypnotizability and effects of specific suggestions or tasks on the findings. We found 49 studies comprising 1315 participants, 45 concerning healthy volunteers and only 4 on patients. Sixteen compared high vs. low hypnotizable people; 30 measured heart rate, 18 measured heart rate variability, 25 electrodermal activity, and 23 respiratory signals as well as other physiological parameters. Globally, results converge to show reductions in sympathetic responses and/or increases in parasympathetic tone under hypnosis. Several methodological limitations are underscored, such as older studies (N = 16) using manual analyses, small sample sizes (<30, N = 31), as well as uncontrolled multiple comparisons. Nevertheless, we confirm that hypnosis leads to a physiological relaxation response and highlight promising avenues for this research. Suggestions are made for guiding future work in this field.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Psicofisiologia , Sugestão
15.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(1): 4-11, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748462

RESUMO

Most of the experimental investigations on hypnosis used to compare small samples of individuals with low or high responsiveness to hypnosis by systematically excluding medium responders. The present article underlines the limitations of this methodological approach that may have partially weakened the scientific impact of hypnosis research. In fact, the mediums-neglecting bias might be one of the reasons why some investigations suffer from low replicability and generalizability. Themes such as hypnotizability scales, suggestibility, statistical power, and research design are critically reviewed with the aim of proposing a more rigorous approach that boost up impact and reliability of hypnosis research. In particular, the recruitment of medium hypnotizables and the adoption of a within-instead of a between-subjects design currently seem to be some of the best recommendations for strengthening hypnosis research, as well as to renew the dialogue between clinical and experimental hypnosis.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sugestão
16.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(1): 20-35, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748464

RESUMO

The history of hypnosis has been marked by its effectiveness paralleled by prejudicial refusal, due to its ostensible incompatibility with the ruling Weltbild (picture of the world). Its interpretation has been mainly based on concepts like suggestibility, dissociation, hallucination, impairment of sense of agency, and free will. Nevertheless, little evidence and agreement has been reached so far on the nature of hypnosis and hypnotic ability, an uncertainty enhanced by the wide range of meanings and ambiguities of the used terms. This article analyzes the main epistemological implications involved in the topic.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Humanos , Conhecimento , Sugestão
17.
Conscious Cogn ; 99: 103289, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193060

RESUMO

Individuals differ in their responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. However, defining and measuring hypnotizability is contentious because standardized scales, such as the Harvard group scale (HGSHS:A), measure a mixture of general suggestibility and its alteration due to hypnotic induction (hypnotizability). Exploratory factor analyses (FA) of standardized scales indicated their multidimensionality; however, the number and nature of latent factors are debated. We applied Confirmatory FA to the HGSHS:A scores of 477 volunteers and tested several theory-driven models. Scores were best explained by a bifactor model consisting of a G-factor and three correlated minor factors. The presented bifactor model shows that two sources of variability affect HGSHS:A simultaneously. Structural equation modeling revealed that the challenge-ideomotor factor predicts the other two minor factors, implying these suggestions might require more fundamental processes than other types. These results demonstrate the multifaceted and bifactorial structure of hypnotic suggestibility and underscore the desideratum for developing more differentiated scales.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Hipnose/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Sugestão
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22903, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824326

RESUMO

Psychological and physiological evidence has demonstrated that the underlying mechanisms for empathy and for autobiographical memories were related to a great extent. However, whether the facilitative effect of empathy on memory also applied to misinformation was unknown. To test this, we used a misinformation paradigm on a sample of 51 participants aged 20-27. The participants viewed videos that evoked different degrees of empathy, and then were fed misleading information. The participants' susceptibility to misleading information was lower for the videos that provoked a high degree of empathy compared to the videos that provoked a low degree of empathy. Based on our data, we conclude that empathy can prevent people from being misled by false information.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Empatia , Memória Episódica , Repressão Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sugestão , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(2): 98-109, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723777

RESUMO

This is an extension of "The Future Orientation of Constructive Memory" published in 2008 (Rossi, Erickson-Klein & Rossi). In a context of neuroscience, questions were raised regarding retrospective functions of dreaming. This paper summarizes the ideas from the original article and provides updates relevant to studies that have been conducted in the interim. The 4-Stage Creative Process model is used to conceptualize the manner in which activity-dependent genomic stimulation contributes to future adaptive behaviors. Neurophysiological constructs are discussed with their relevance to clinical practice. Two case summaries illustrate the application of the 4-Stage Creative Process as a framework for therapeutic hypnosis and permissive suggestion. The collaboration between Ernest Rossi and Milton Erickson offers an increasingly relevant and nuanced understanding about the interface of behavior, genomic expression, and activity-dependent gene expression.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Neurociências , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sugestão
20.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(7): 701-703, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405601
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