Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.004
Filtrar
1.
Cogn Process ; 22(3): 553-558, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231087

RESUMO

Superstitions and the placebo effect have each been found to influence human behaviour. The present study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between superstition and the placebo effect, and whether this relationship affects human cognition and behaviour. We hypothesized that more superstitious people would be more prone to the placebo effect and that it would improve their performance on cognitive tasks. Results showed that in the placebo condition, more superstitious people memorized more words than less superstitious people. However, in the control condition, less superstitious people memorized more words than more superstitious people. Overall, the findings supported our hypothesis. The findings of the study are important, as they draw a link between the placebo effect and superstition, and further show that these two elements impact human performance in cognitive ability tasks.


Assuntos
Efeito Placebo , Superstições , Cognição , Humanos
2.
J Psychol ; 155(5): 473-488, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983873

RESUMO

The overconfidence effect is a cognitive bias in which individuals' subjective confidence in their judgements is greater than their actual performance. Extending beyond a range of contributing factors in the emergence of the overconfidence bias, the present research examines whether superstition, an under-explored yet important factor, can influence people's perceived level of confidence. Drawing on previous findings regarding the consequences of superstitions, we propose that activating the good-luck-related superstitions can increase overconfidence in one's judgment. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 show that Chinese Han student and non-student participants, who were activated by different types of superstitions, displayed a higher level of overconfidence than those in the absence of superstition. Experiment 3 fully replicated the causal effect of superstition beliefs on the heightened overconfidence bias in a traditional population of Chinese Qiang people. Moreover, Experiments 1 through 3 consistently show that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between superstition and overconfidence. Taken together, these findings suggest that superstition strengthens people's belief in their own performance ability, which in turn boosts overconfidence.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários , China , Humanos , Estudantes , Superstições
3.
Palliat Med ; 35(7): 1356-1365, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, participation in advance care planning is low. Whilst a community action approach is advocated, what the public know and understand about advance care planning is unknown. AIM: To assess public awareness, knowledge and attitudes towards advance care planning and identify strategies to raise awareness within a public health framework. DESIGN: Sequential mixed methods comprising a cross-sectional survey and focus group/interviews. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A random representative sample of adults from one region of the United Kingdom (n = 1201; response rate 56%) completed a face-to-face survey. Twenty-five participants consented to an additional focus group/interview held in a secure accessible location or via telephone. RESULTS: Most participants (78.7%) acknowledged the benefits of advance care planning conversations, however, two thirds did not want to think about advance care planning or find out more at present. Respondents were reluctant to broach advance care planning as it was linked to end of life care and funeral plans, and they did not wish to cause distress to their loved one. Respondents trusted their family to respect their wishes and they considered having an advance care plan in place would be of assistance in the future. Top-down leadership, normalisation, and increased education were identified as potential approaches to overcome barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Advance care planning was recognised as important despite limited awareness, lack of knowledge and misperceptions. Whilst a community action approach to enhance understanding and engagement was supported, a 'one size fits all' approach will not work; rather bespoke targeting is required with educational and media messaging aligned.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Adulto , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Superstições , Reino Unido
4.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(3): 526-528, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528718

RESUMO

The caul is a fragment of amniotic membrane that is occasionally observed adherent to the head and face of a newborn child. A dried caul has been in The University of Adelaide Pathology Archive for a number of years. Beliefs in the supernatural powers of these detached membranes are found in the historical traditions of a wide variety of cultures, resulting in cauls being regularly dried out and sold as talismans. It was thought that lawyers could sway opinions in court more readily if they possessed a caul, and that such a token could either be used to facilitate black magic rituals or alternatively to thwart the machinations of sorcerers and witches. A pervasive belief was that a caul would guarantee that the owner would never drown resulting in cauls being sold for between £10 to £30 in the seventeenth century at a time when considerable naval warfare and maritime exploration were occurring. Thus, rather than illuminating pathophysiological processes occasional specimens in pathology archives may remind us of folk traditions and superstitions that have long since been forgotten in modern times.


Assuntos
Afogamento , Advogados , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Superstições
5.
J Gambl Stud ; 37(3): 927-945, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521910

RESUMO

A significant gap remains in the understanding of the psychosocial and cultural factors and processes in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling, gambling disorder, and problem gambling among the Chinese ethnic population living in the Western countries. This narrative reviews papers on gambling and pathological gambling among the Chinese ethnic group in Western countries to provide a deeper understanding of the cultural and psychosocial factors and processes that lead to the development and maintenance of pathological gambling, gambling disorder, and problem gambling. The factors leading to development of problem gambling, which also carry distinctive cultural differences, include acculturation process among Chinese migrants to western countries, their social learning patterns in gambling, the patterns and motivation seen in Chinese gamblers, their gambling-related cognitive bias and distortions as well as barriers to their help-seeking behaviours. The collectivistic oriental culture may explain for intrafamilial development of gambling behaviour and this strong male authority in the traditional Chinese family set-up also reinforces this influence. The Chinese culture is associated with increased risk-taking behaviour. Superstitious thinking is more prevalent in the Chinese culture and this can be manifested in individuals' perceptions of fate and luck. Future research projects studying pathological gambling and ethnic minorities in the UK should seek greater understanding and improved management of this condition in a small but highly relevant population.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , China , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Superstições
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 23, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing worldwide rates of cesarean section are of global concern. In recent years, cesarean births upon maternal request have become a hotly debated issue. Hence, this study aimed to explore maternal reasons for cesarean preference without medical indications. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted, using in-depth interviews with 27 pregnant women who preferred cesarean birth, attending antenatal care in Songklanagarind Hospital from September 2018 to June 2019. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Maternal reasons for cesarean preference were classified into six main categories: fear of childbirth, safety concerns related to health risk perceptions, negative previous birth experiences, positive attitudes toward cesarean birth, access to biased information and superstitious beliefs in auspicious birth dates. Most women had more than one reason for opting cesarean birth. CONCLUSION: Several reasons for cesarean birth preference have been elucidated. One striking reason was superstitious beliefs in auspicious birth dates, which are challengable for obstetricians to deal with. Obstetricians should explore the exact reasons why women request cesarean birth in order to prevent or diminish unnecessary cesarean births.


Assuntos
Cesárea/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto , Medo , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Superstições/psicologia , Tailândia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(1): 17-22, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075017

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the relationship and the effects of community problems on anxiety and suicide. Data were from a case-control psychological autopsy study (392 suicides and 416 community living controls) carried out in 16 rural counties from three provinces in China. The World Health Organization Suicide Prevention-Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal behaviors scale of community stress and problems and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure the community problems and trait anxiety. Spearman's correlation and multivariable regression methods were used to probe the effect of community problems on anxiety and suicide. There were 12 and 6 community problems correlated with anxiety (rs = 0.169, p < 0.001) and suicide (rs = 0.081, p = 0.022), respectively. Medical care, alcohol abuse, superstition, and job security were important community problems for anxiety and suicide. Community problems had stronger correlation with anxiety than suicide. It might be an effective method to reduce anxiety and suicide risk by solving different community problems.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Características de Residência , População Rural , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Superstições
8.
Psychol Rep ; 124(4): 1807-1823, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842854

RESUMO

This study shows that people are likely to consider themselves special after experiencing lucky events, which increases the motivation for self-enhancement, consequently prompting them to deviate from majority-endorsed options and express a need for uniqueness. Prior luck-related research has primarily explored the effects of perceived luck on superstition or the illusion of control. The present study explored whether incidental luck affects consumers' motivation to conform or stand out, specifically people's tendency to diverge from others by choosing minority-endorsed options. The results from three experiments supported the proposed hypotheses in this study. Experiment 1 revealed that a lucky event arouses people's need for uniqueness. Experiment 2 demonstrated that when people experience a lucky event and perceive that luck favors them after making a downward comparison, they consider themselves special and prefer minority-endorsed options. Experiment 3 revealed that self-enhancement is a mediator in the effect of lucky events on the need for uniqueness-seeking behavior. The findings of this research not only provide additional insight into the behavioral consequences of lucky events but also extend the understanding of uniqueness-seeking behavior.


Assuntos
Individuação , Motivação , Superstições , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino
9.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 93(6): 367-373, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200846

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Investigar la influencia externa tanto lunar como climatológica en la frecuencia de partos. Incluye fuerza gravitacional lunar mediante apogeo y perigeo lunar apenas investigado. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo mediante revisión de historias clínicas de todos los partos únicos de inicio espontáneo durante un periodo de 4 años (2015-2018). Se analiza estadísticamente la relación de los partos mediante coeficiente de nacimientos con variables cualitativas lunares (4 fases clásicas, apogeo-perigeo lunar y superlunas) y variables cuantitativas atmosféricas (presiones atmosféricas medias, temperatura media y velocidad media del viento). RESULTADOS: No se encontró relación entre las variables estudiadas y el coeficiente de nacimientos. Se encontró periodicidad de partos con más nacimientos en los meses de mayo y junio. CONCLUSIÓN: Pese al mito existente de la influencia meteorológica y, sobre todo, lunar en los partos, no se encuentra razón estadística que lo apoye. Además de las fases clásicas, la fuerza gravitacional lunar tampoco parece desencadenar el parto


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of external factors such as lunar and meteorological effects on the frequency of birth deliveries. It includes the lunar gravitational force using the scarcely investigated lunar apogee and perigee (furthest and closest distance to earth, respectively). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of all spontaneous single deliveries during a 4 year period (2015-2018). A statistical analysis was performed on the relationship of the deliveries using birth rates with qualitative lunar variables (four classic phases, lunar apogee- perigee, and super moons) and quantitative atmospheric variables (mean atmospheric pressures, mean temperature, and mean wind velocity). RESULTS: No relationship was found between the variables studied and the birth rate. There were periods with more births in the months of May and June. CONCLUSION: Despite the myth on the meteorological, and in particular, the lunar influence on birth deliveries, no statistical association was found to support this. Furthermore, the classic moon phases and the lunar gravitational force do not seem to trigger birth delivery either


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Lua , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Superstições , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravidez de Gêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1045-1053, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151851

RESUMO

The eyes and the gaze participate in a major way in our non-verbal language, even before the verb appeared. From the Bible to contemporary language, through Greek mythology, theater, literature or spoken language, a multitude of expressions and proverbs present the eye, what it sees and what it symbolizes.


Assuntos
Aforismos e Provérbios como Assunto , Expressão Facial , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Cultura , Olho , Humanos , Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo/fisiologia , Mitologia , Observação , Preconceito/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Superstições , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 111: 107257, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663785

RESUMO

Epilepsy remains one of the most common neurological diseases in the world but seems to be widely misunderstood, especially in low-income countries. Patients with epilepsy (PWE) can face considerable stigma in society, and there have been various studies that evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the population towards epilepsy. However, there was no study of this kind in Morocco. PURPOSE: Our aim was thus to assess knowledge, attitudes, and traditional practices specifically among relatives and caregivers of PWE in our community, in order to better evaluate their educational needs. METHODS: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out over a year long period in the outpatient neurology clinic of the Mohammed 6 University Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Marrakesh, Morocco. The respondents were relatives of PWE (usually parents and siblings) or spouses who attended the outpatient clinic alongside them. The interviews were carried out by the same investigator at the outpatient clinic during patient's visits, face-to-face using Moroccan Arabic or Darija, with an 18-item questionnaire. RESULTS: Responses of 100 participants were analyzed. The mean age was 40 years old and 5 months. Sixty-six percent of the respondents were women, 50% of rural origin and 76 % lived in an urban area. Forty-one percent were illiterate, and 74% were of low income. Only 65% of the participants knew the Arabic term for epilepsy. For 48%, epilepsy was linked with witchcraft or demonic possession. Seventy-five percent of the respondents had at least one prior consultation to a traditional healer. Only 5% in our study knew the first-aid basics to apply in case of a seizure. CONCLUSION: Despite having a relative with epilepsy, our participants' knowledge was very poor. The level of education and income seem to be the two major contributing factors. Cultural beliefs and superstition are very pervasive, and the majority of our sample had already used traditional healing and alternative medicine. Our study highlights the need for a more global intervention in Morocco encompassing healthcare policies, awareness campaigns, and educational reforms.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/etnologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Epilepsia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Pobreza/psicologia , População Rural , Superstições/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Bruxaria/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 35(2): 79-85, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273107

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Risk management and patient safety are closely related, following this premise some industries have adopted measures to omit number 13. Healthcare is not left behind, in some hospital the day of surgery's or bed numbering avoid number 13. The objective was to assess whether it is necessary to redesign the safety policies implemented in hospitals based on avoiding 13 in the numbering of rooms/beds. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Mortality and the number of adverse events suffered by patients admitted to rooms/beds numbering 13 (bad chance) or 7 (fair chance) over a two-year period to Intensive Care Unit, Medicine, Gastroenterology, Surgery, and Paediatric service were registered and compared. RESULTS: A total of 8553 admissions were included. They had similar length-of-stay and Charlson Index scores (p-value=0.435). Mortality of bed 13 was 268 (6.2%, 95% CI 5.5-6.9) and 282 in bed 7 (6.7%, 95% CI 5.9-7.5) (p-value=0.3). A total of 422 adverse events from 4342 admissions (9.7%, 95% CI 8.9-10.6) occurred in bed 13, while in bed 7 the count of adverse events was 398 in 4211 admissions (9.4%, 95% CI 8.6-10.4) (p-value=0.6). Odds Ratio for mortality was equal to 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-1.1) and suffering adverse events when admitted to bed 13 versus bed 7 was 1.03 (95% CI 0.9-1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Bed 13 is not a risk factor for patient safety. Hospitals should pay attention to causes and interventions to avoid adverse events based on evidence rather than beliefs or myths.


Assuntos
Leitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Segurança do Paciente , Superstições , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(3): 829-849, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285308

RESUMO

Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by persistent betting even in face of accruing debts and psychosocial hardship. Gambling Disorder behavior has been linked to conditioning, cognitive distortions and superstitious behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that during response-outcome analytical tests (ROAT), non-gambling individuals are precluded from response extinction when failure feedback is suppressed, and develop superstitious behaviors and illusion of control instead. Gambling can be regarded as a ROAT paradigm in which disordered gamblers (DGs) fail to compute failure feedback; hence they do not perceive the independence between response and outcome. In order to investigate early phenomena on response and outcome processing in DGs, we developed two short ROAT versions, one with a controllable outcome and one with an uncontrollable outcome, both with explicit failure feedback. Twenty DGs and twenty healthy controls were assessed using this novel paradigm. Compared to controls, DGs reported higher distress during the controllable ROAT, less self-confidence in the uncontrollable ROAT, and more random responses and less use of analytical strategies in both tests, evidencing potential deficits in cognitive control. In contrast to previous findings, DGs did not demonstrate more superstitious beliefs, or illusion of control, and were generally more skeptical than controls regarding the controllability of both ROAT versions. Taken together, our findings provide some support for deficits in cognitive control in GD that precede illusion of control and superstitious behaviors.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Recompensa , Superstições/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Autoimagem , Enquadramento Psicológico , Meio Social
14.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 162(3): 31, 2020 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072536
15.
Br J Psychol ; 111(4): 840-852, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040216

RESUMO

Causal illusion has been proposed as a cognitive mediator of pseudoscientific beliefs. However, previous studies have only tested the association between this cognitive bias and a closely related but different type of unwarranted beliefs, those related to superstition and paranormal phenomena. Participants (n = 225) responded to a novel questionnaire of pseudoscientific beliefs designed for this study. They also completed a contingency learning task in which a possible cause, infusion intake, and a desired effect, headache remission, were actually non-contingent. Volunteers with higher scores on the questionnaire also presented stronger causal illusion effects. These results support the hypothesis that causal illusions might play a fundamental role in the endorsement of pseudoscientific beliefs.


Assuntos
Cognição , Ilusões/psicologia , Ciência , Superstições/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Burn Care Res ; 41(3): 652-656, 2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996923

RESUMO

Superstitious beliefs have been frequently encountered in our day-to-day practices among patients and caretakers. Though this is a common phenomenon, there is a paucity of data pertaining to these beliefs due to various reasons. Many of these beliefs are deep engraved into the culture and mindsets of the population. This is an observational study performed in Tertiary burn care center in India during period October 1, 2018 to January 31, 2019. Data from 100 patient units were collected through a set of questionnaires given to each of patient and their caregivers/family members and responses were collected and analyzed. In the food category of superstitions, there was a thought that white colored foods had to be avoided to avoid pus discharge and wound healing in 60% of the response; eating pomegranate or drinking the juice of pomegranate improves the hemoglobin in 80% of the response. Wearing various colored strings in various parts of the body seemed to be a dominant practice in 85% of the responses, wearing the hair with origin from human, donkeys, horses, and various animals was practiced in 45% of people and wearing peacock feathers was seen in 40% of patients. About 95% of the patients thought adversely to the idea of bathing or even contact of the water with the wounds. This study is an attempt to analyze the different parameters of superstition, misconception, and magical beliefs.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/psicologia , Superstições , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Unidades de Queimados , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(1): 183-206, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912382

RESUMO

Dual process theory suggests that people use two processing systems to filter information and form judgments that direct a course of action: an intuitive and an analytic system. While the intuitive system is necessary for efficient and effective daily functioning, reliance on fast, intuitive thinking when gambling is likely to result in biased or flawed decision-making. Those who gamble tend to endorse an array of fallacious or irrational beliefs that contribute to risky decision-making and excessive gambling. This paper argues that gambling beliefs may be developed and reinforced through underlying cognitive mechanisms described by dual process theory. More specifically, gamblers tend to apply assumptions and theories developed based on their understanding of the natural world to artificial gambling contexts where such rules do not apply. As a result, gamblers develop biased interpretations and understandings for how gambling works, which tend to align with personal schemas, experiences and gambling motivations. These beliefs are used in future gambling contexts to inform decision-making. Gamblers are often unlikely or unwilling to reflect on the veracity of beliefs as they are often used to justify gambling behaviours. Educating gamblers on how they make decisions and encouraging them to think more analytically may help to reduce the strength with which erroneous beliefs about gambling are endorsed, resulting in safer gambling decisions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Superstições/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa
19.
Psychol Rep ; 123(4): 1198-1206, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033416

RESUMO

There is anecdotal and empirical evidence for black cat bias, the phenomenon where cats (Felis silvestris catus) with black coats are viewed more negatively, adopted less often, and euthanized more often than lighter colored cats. Despite the anecdotal claims, there is scarce empirical evidence for black cat bias. Using evaluations of cat photos, the researchers examined differences in people's attitudes toward black and non-black cats of various colorations on measures of perceived aggression, perceived friendliness, and willingness to adopt. The researchers also explored whether participants' levels of religiosity, superstitious beliefs, and prejudicial racial attitudes were related to black cat bias. Finally, the researchers explored whether black cat bias was related to difficulties people had in reading the emotions of black cats compared to non-black cats. This study provided evidence of black cat bias in the sample. People exhibiting higher degrees of black cat bias had higher levels of superstition, but not religiosity or racial prejudice. Additionally, people who had difficulty reading the emotions of black cats tended to exhibit a stronger bias against adopting black cats.


Assuntos
Gatos , Preconceito/psicologia , Adulto , Animais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Religião , Superstições/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Behav Processes ; 170: 103979, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722232

RESUMO

Skinner's (1948) 'Superstition' in the Pigeon paper proposed that accidental response-reward contingencies, via adventitious reinforcement, could operantly condition the behaviors of pigeons under fixed-time (response-independent) schedules of food delivery. Skinner likened the behavior of pigeons under these fixed-time schedules to the superstitious behavior of humans and proposed that both response patterns were the result of contiguous pairings of rewards following some response. Alternative explanations of superstitious behavior have included Staddon and Simmelhag's (1971) stimulus substitution account and Timberlake and Lucas's (1985) elicited species-typical appetitive behavior account. Under both these alternative explanations of superstitious behavior, observations of pigeons under fixed-time schedules revealed a lack of idiosyncratic responding, which is a critical element in Skinner's explanation of superstitious behavior via adventitious reinforcement. The following study implemented 4 fixed-time schedule experiments to further study superstition. In Experiment 1, male and female pigeons were compared, which provided support for the disparity in response patterns observed in previous studies. Experiments 2-4 examined the behavior of roller pigeons, ring-necked doves, and bantam chickens. In all the above studies, a lack of idiosyncratic responding and emergence of species-typical foraging behavior was observed. The results provide additional evidence that the 'superstitious' behavior that emerges in pigeons and other organisms under response-independent food schedules is the result of elicited species-typical food getting behaviors, and that these behaviors emerge as a result of frequent food deliveries in environments that support such foraging repertoires.


Assuntos
Reforço Psicológico , Superstições/psicologia , Animais , Galinhas , Columbidae , Condicionamento Operante , Feminino , Alimentos , Masculino , Esquema de Reforço , Recompensa , Caracteres Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...