Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 333
Filtrar
1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2212780120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595673

RESUMO

Large projected increases in forest disturbance pose a major threat to future wood fiber supply and carbon sequestration in the cold-limited, Canadian boreal forest ecosystem. Given the large sensitivity of tree growth to temperature, warming-induced increases in forest productivity have the potential to reduce these threats, but research efforts to date have yielded contradictory results attributed to limited data availability, methodological biases, and regional variability in forest dynamics. Here, we apply a machine learning algorithm to an unprecedented network of over 1 million tree growth records (1958 to 2018) from 20,089 permanent sample plots distributed across both Canada and the United States, spanning a 16.5 °C climatic gradient. Fitted models were then used to project the near-term (2050 s time period) growth of the six most abundant tree species in the Canadian boreal forest. Our results reveal a large, positive effect of increasing thermal energy on tree growth for most of the target species, leading to 20.5 to 22.7% projected gains in growth with climate change under RCP 4.5 and 8.5. The magnitude of these gains, which peak in the colder and wetter regions of the boreal forest, suggests that warming-induced growth increases should no longer be considered marginal but may in fact significantly offset some of the negative impacts of projected increases in drought and wildfire on wood supply and carbon sequestration and have major implications on ecological forecasts and the global economy.


Assuntos
Taiga , Árvores , Canadá , Ecossistema , Florestas , Mudança Climática
2.
Science ; 378(6619): 532-537, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378957

RESUMO

Arctic fires can release large amounts of carbon from permafrost peatlands. Satellite observations reveal that fires burned ~4.7 million hectares in 2019 and 2020, accounting for 44% of the total burned area in the Siberian Arctic for the entire 1982-2020 period. The summer of 2020 was the warmest in four decades, with fires burning an unprecedentedly large area of carbon-rich soils. We show that factors of fire associated with temperature have increased in recent decades and identified a near-exponential relationship between these factors and annual burned area. Large fires in the Arctic are likely to recur with climatic warming before mid-century, because the temperature trend is reaching a threshold in which small increases in temperature are associated with exponential increases in the area burned.


Assuntos
Carbono , Aquecimento Global , Taiga , Incêndios Florestais , Regiões Árticas , Carbono/análise , Solo , Temperatura
3.
Oecologia ; 200(1-2): 231-245, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074302

RESUMO

Projected changes in precipitation regimes can greatly impact soil biota, which in turn alters key ecosystem functions. In moss-dominated ecosystems, the bryosphere (i.e., the ground moss layer including live and senesced moss) plays a key role in carbon and nutrient cycling, and it hosts high abundances of microfauna (i.e., nematodes and tardigrades) and mesofauna (i.e., mites and springtails). However, we know very little about how bryosphere fauna responds to precipitation, and whether this response changes across environmental gradients. Here, we used a mesocosm experiment to study the effect of volume and frequency of precipitation on the abundance and community composition of functional groups of bryosphere fauna. Hylocomium splendens bryospheres were sampled from a long-term post-fire boreal forest chronosequence in northern Sweden which varies greatly in environmental conditions. We found that reduced precipitation promoted the abundance of total microfauna and of total mesofauna, but impaired predaceous/omnivorous nematodes, and springtails. Generally, bryosphere fauna responded more strongly to precipitation volume than to precipitation frequency. For some faunal functional groups, the effects of precipitation frequency were stronger at reduced precipitation volumes. Context-dependency effects were found for microfauna only: microfauna was more sensitive to precipitation in late-successional forests (i.e., those with lower productivity and soil nutrient availability) than in earlier-successional forests. Our results also suggest that drought-induced changes in trophic interactions and food resources in the bryosphere may increase faunal abundance. Consequently, drier bryospheres that may result from climate change could promote carbon and nutrient turnover from fauna activity, especially in older, less productive forests.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Taiga , Animais , Carbono , Secas , Ecossistema , Florestas , Solo
4.
Oecologia ; 200(3-4): 349-358, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175692

RESUMO

Wind speed can have multifaceted effects on organisms including altering thermoregulation, locomotion, and sensory reception. While forest cover can substantially reduce wind speed at ground level, it is not known if animals living in forests show any behavioural responses to changes in wind speed. Here, we explored how three boreal forest mammals, a predator and two prey, altered their behaviour in response to average daily wind speeds during winter. We collected accelerometer data to determine wind speed effects on activity patterns and kill rates of free-ranging red squirrels (n = 144), snowshoe hares (n = 101), and Canada lynx (n = 27) in Kluane, Yukon from 2015 to 2018. All 3 species responded to increasing wind speeds by changing the time they were active, but effects were strongest in hares, which reduced daily activity by 25%, and lynx, which increased daily activity by 25%. Lynx also increased the number of feeding events by 40% on windy days. These results highlight that wind speed is an important abiotic variable that can affect behaviour, even in forested environments.


Assuntos
Lebres , Lynx , Sciuridae , Vento , Animais , Ecossistema , Lebres/fisiologia , Lynx/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Sciuridae/fisiologia , Taiga
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 851(Pt 2): 158062, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981579

RESUMO

Understanding boreal/hemi-boreal forest growth sensitivity to seasonal variations in temperature and water availability provides important basis for projecting the potential impacts of climate change on the productivity of these ecosystems. Our best available information currently comes from a limited number of field experiments and terrestrial biosphere model (TBM) simulations of varying predictive accuracy. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of annual boreal/hemi-boreal forest growth in Canada to yearly fluctuations in seasonal climate variables using a large tree-ring dataset and compared this to the climate sensitivity of annual net primary productivity (NPP) estimates obtained from fourteen TBMs. We found that boreal/hemi-boreal forest growth sensitivity to fluctuations in seasonal temperature and precipitation variables changed along a southwestern to northeastern gradient, with growth limited almost entirely by temperature in the northeast and west and by water availability in the southwest. We also found a lag in growth climate sensitivity, with growth largely determined by the climate during the summer prior to ring formation. Analyses of NPP sensitivity to the same climate variables produced a similar southwest to northeast gradient in growth climate sensitivity for NPP estimates from all but three TBMs. However, analyses of growth from tree-ring data and analyses of NPP from TBMs produced contrasting evidence concerning the key climate variables limiting growth. While analyses of NPP primarily indicated a positive relationship between growth and seasonal temperature, tree-ring analyses indicated negative growth relationships to temperature. Also, the positive effect of precipitation on NPP derived from most TBMs was weaker than the positive effect of precipitation on tree-ring based growth: temperature had a more important limiting effect on NPP than tree-ring data indicated. These mismatches regarding the key climate variables limiting growth suggested that characterization of tree growth in TBMs might need revision, particularly regarding the effects of stomatal conductance and carbohydrate reserve dynamics.


Assuntos
Taiga , Árvores , Florestas , Ecossistema , Canadá , Mudança Climática , Água , Carboidratos
6.
Nature ; 608(7923): 546-551, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948635

RESUMO

Unprecedented modern rates of warming are expected to advance boreal forest into Arctic tundra1, thereby reducing albedo2-4, altering carbon cycling4 and further changing climate1-4, yet the patterns and processes of this biome shift remain unclear5. Climate warming, required for previous boreal advances6-17, is not sufficient by itself for modern range expansion of conifers forming forest-tundra ecotones5,12-15,17-20. No high-latitude population of conifers, the dominant North American Arctic treeline taxon, has previously been documented5 advancing at rates following the last glacial maximum (LGM)6-8. Here we describe a population of white spruce (Picea glauca) advancing at post-LGM rates7 across an Arctic basin distant from established treelines and provide evidence of mechanisms sustaining the advance. The population doubles each decade, with exponential radial growth in the main stems of individual trees correlating positively with July air temperature. Lateral branches in adults and terminal leaders in large juveniles grow almost twice as fast as those at established treelines. We conclude that surpassing temperature thresholds1,6-17, together with winter winds facilitating long-distance dispersal, deeper snowpack and increased soil nutrient availability promoting recruitment and growth, provides sufficient conditions for boreal forest advance. These observations enable forecast modelling with important insights into the environmental conditions converting tundra into forest.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Picea , Taiga , Temperatura , Árvores , Tundra , Aclimatação , Regiões Árticas , Modelos Climáticos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Biológicos , Picea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Picea/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Neve , Solo/química , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/metabolismo , Vento
7.
Nature ; 608(7923): 540-545, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948640

RESUMO

The sensitivity of forests to near-term warming and associated precipitation shifts remains uncertain1-9. Herein, using a 5-year open-air experiment in southern boreal forest, we show divergent responses to modest climate alteration among juveniles of nine co-occurring North American tree species. Warming alone (+1.6 °C or +3.1 °C above ambient temperature) or combined with reduced rainfall increased the juvenile mortality of all species, especially boreal conifers. Species differed in growth responses to warming, ranging from enhanced growth in Acer rubrum and Acer saccharum to severe growth reductions in Abies balsamea, Picea glauca and Pinus strobus. Moreover, treatment-induced changes in both photosynthesis and growth help explain treatment-driven changes in survival. Treatments in which species experienced conditions warmer or drier than at their range margins resulted in the most adverse impacts on growth and survival. Species abundant in southern boreal forests had the largest reductions in growth and survival due to climate manipulations. By contrast, temperate species that experienced little mortality and substantial growth enhancement in response to warming are rare throughout southern boreal forest and unlikely to rapidly expand their density and distribution. Therefore, projected climate change will probably cause regeneration failure of currently dominant southern boreal species and, coupled with their slow replacement by temperate species, lead to tree regeneration shortfalls with potential adverse impacts on the health, diversity and ecosystem services of regional forests.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Taiga , Árvores , Aclimatação , Biodiversidade , Modelos Climáticos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Biológicos , América do Norte , Fotossíntese , Chuva , Temperatura , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Ecology ; 103(11): e3805, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796420

RESUMO

As boreal forests rapidly warm due to anthropogenic climate change, long-term baseline community data are needed to effectively characterize the corresponding ecological changes that are occurring in these forests. The combined seasonal dynamics (SEADYN) and annual dynamics (ANNDYN) data set, which documents the vegetative changes in boreal forests during the snow-free period, is one such source of baseline community data. These data were collected by George H. La Roi and colleagues in Alberta, Canada from 1980 to 2015 within permanent sampling plots established in the Hondo-Slave Lake area (eight stands; 1980-2015) in central Alberta and the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) region (17 stands; 1981-1984) near Fort McMurray in northeastern Alberta. Various data were collected, with temporal and spatial coverage differing by data set. These data sets include, but are not limited to, cover of each identified vascular plant and bryoid (moss, liverwort, and lichen) species; forest mensuration; forest litter production; and soil temperature and moisture. Notably, permanent sampling plots were set up as a grid, which will facilitate analyses of spatial relations. These data can be used to analyze long-term changes in seasonal dynamics and succession within boreal forest communities and serve as a baseline for comparison with future forest conditions in unmanaged, managed, and reclaimed forests. Data are released under a CC-BY license; please cite this data paper when using the data for analyses.


Assuntos
Florestas , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Taiga , Alberta , Plantas , Estações do Ano , Árvores
9.
New Phytol ; 236(2): 684-697, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779014

RESUMO

Mycorrhizal fungi associated with boreal trees and ericaceous shrubs are central actors in organic matter (OM) accumulation through their belowground carbon allocation, their potential capacity to mine organic matter for nitrogen (N) and their ability to suppress saprotrophs. Yet, interactions between co-occurring ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ERI), and saprotrophs are poorly understood. We used a long-term (19 yr) plant functional group manipulation experiment with removals of tree roots, ericaceous shrubs and mosses and analysed the responses of different fungal guilds (assessed by metabarcoding) and their interactions in relation to OM quality (assessed by mid-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance) and decomposition (litter mesh-bags) across a 5000-yr post-fire boreal forest chronosequence. We found that the removal of ericaceous shrubs and associated ERI changed the composition of EMF communities, with larger effects occurring at earlier stages of the chronosequence. Removal of shrubs was associated with enhanced N availability, litter decomposition and enrichment of the recalcitrant OM fraction. We conclude that increasing abundance of slow-growing ericaceous shrubs and the associated fungi contributes to increasing nutrient limitation, impaired decomposition and progressive OM accumulation in boreal forests, particularly towards later successional stages. These results are indicative of the contrasting roles of EMF and ERI in regulating belowground OM storage.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Carbono , Florestas , Fungos , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Nitrogênio , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Taiga , Árvores/microbiologia
10.
Nature ; 608(7923): 534-539, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831499

RESUMO

Forest ecosystems depend on their capacity to withstand and recover from natural and anthropogenic perturbations (that is, their resilience)1. Experimental evidence of sudden increases in tree mortality is raising concerns about variation in forest resilience2, yet little is known about how it is evolving in response to climate change. Here we integrate satellite-based vegetation indices with machine learning to show how forest resilience, quantified in terms of critical slowing down indicators3-5, has changed during the period 2000-2020. We show that tropical, arid and temperate forests are experiencing a significant decline in resilience, probably related to increased water limitations and climate variability. By contrast, boreal forests show divergent local patterns with an average increasing trend in resilience, probably benefiting from warming and CO2 fertilization, which may outweigh the adverse effects of climate change. These patterns emerge consistently in both managed and intact forests, corroborating the existence of common large-scale climate drivers. Reductions in resilience are statistically linked to abrupt declines in forest primary productivity, occurring in response to slow drifting towards a critical resilience threshold. Approximately 23% of intact undisturbed forests, corresponding to 3.32 Pg C of gross primary productivity, have already reached a critical threshold and are experiencing a further degradation in resilience. Together, these signals reveal a widespread decline in the capacity of forests to withstand perturbation that should be accounted for in the design of land-based mitigation and adaptation plans.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Modelos Biológicos , Árvores , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Mudança Climática/história , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Florestal , História do Século XXI , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagens de Satélites , Taiga , Temperatura , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/metabolismo , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 846: 157322, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872207

RESUMO

Russia has the largest forest area on earth. Its boreal forests officially store about 97 Pg C, which significantly affect the global carbon cycle. In recent years, forest fires have been intensifying on the planet, leading to increased carbon emissions. Here we review how differences in fire control management of Russian forests affect fire related emissions. Carbon emissions due to fire were estimated using satellite data and compared to official reports for 2001-2021. We found that the relative areas affected by fire did differ between different fire protection zones, and 89 % of the area burnt was in forests controlled by fire-fighting aircraft or areas without protection. As a result, 417.7 Mha of poor or unprotected Russian forests (42 % of total) account about a half of total carbon emissions. According to our estimates, the average area of burnt forests in Russia was about 8.3 Mha per year between 2016 and 2021, resulting in annual carbon emission of 193 million metric tons (Mt) C emissions, and 53 % of them were from unprotected forest. These estimated carbon emissions are significantly higher than official national reports (79 Mt C yr-1). We estimated that net carbon uptake for Russia for 2015-2021 was about 333 ± 37 Mt C, which is roughly double the official estimates. Our results highlight large spatial differences in fire protection and prevention strategies in fire related emissions. The so-called control zone which stretches across large parts of Eastern Russia has no fire control and is the region of major recent fires. Our study shows that to estimate the Russian forest carbon balance it is critical to include this area. Implementation of some forest management in the remote areas (i.e., control zone) would help to decrease forest loss and resulting carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Carbono , Florestas , Taiga
12.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(8)2022 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671126

RESUMO

Increasing fire frequency in some biomes is leading to fires burning in close succession, triggering rapid vegetation change and altering soil properties. We studied the effects of short-interval (SI) reburns on soil bacterial communities of the boreal forest of northwestern Canada using paired sites (n = 44). Both sites in each pair had burned in a recent fire; one site had burned within the previous 20 years before the recent fire (SI reburn) and the other had not. Paired sites were closely matched in prefire ecosite characteristics, prefire tree species composition, and stand structure. We hypothesized that there would be a significant effect of short vs. long fire-free intervals on community composition and that richness would not be consistently different between paired sites. We found that Blastococcus sp. was consistently enriched in SI reburns, indicating its role as a strongly 'pyrophilous' bacterium. Caballeronia sordidicola was consistently depleted in SI reburns. The depletion of this endophytic diazotroph raises questions about whether this is contributing to-or merely reflects-poor conifer seedling recolonization post-fire at SI reburns. While SI reburns had no significant effect on richness, dissimilarity between short- and long-interval pairs was significantly correlated with difference in soil pH, and there were small significant changes in overall community composition.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Taiga , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Florestas , Solo/química , Árvores
13.
Ambio ; 51(12): 2508-2523, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727486

RESUMO

This paper argues that Sámi reindeer pastoralism in Sweden is highly stressed during the critical snow cover periods due to large-scale human interventions, especially forestry, and that these have over time significantly worsened the ecological conditions for natural grazing-based responses to changing snow conditions caused by climate change. Informed by a literature review, the paper conceptualises two, overlapping ecological dynamics that shape the availability of lichen as key forage resources within a Sámi pastoral landscape perspective: the grazing dynamics of reindeer during snow cover periods as determined by climatic stochasticity, and the more predictable vegetation dynamics of lichen habitat formation, growth and sustenance based on structured forestry practices. This could help articulate an intervention ecology that pursues sustainable ecological conditions for natural grazing-based Sámi reindeer pastoralism, along with other goals. As such alternatives are likely to face political resistance, the article discusses the implications of its findings within a science-politics interface.


Assuntos
Rena , Humanos , Animais , Neve , Taiga , Suécia , Criação de Animais Domésticos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2118852119, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727987

RESUMO

Carbon storage and cycling in boreal forests-the largest terrestrial carbon store-is moderated by complex interactions between trees and soil microorganisms. However, existing methods limit our ability to predict how changes in environmental conditions will alter these associations and the essential ecosystem services they provide. To address this, we developed a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze the impact of nutrient enrichment on Norway spruce fine roots and the community structure, function, and tree-microbe coordination of over 350 root-associated fungal species. In response to altered nutrient status, host trees redefined their relationship with the fungal community by reducing sugar efflux carriers and enhancing defense processes. This resulted in a profound restructuring of the fungal community and a collapse in functional coordination between the tree and the dominant Basidiomycete species, and an increase in functional coordination with versatile Ascomycete species. As such, there was a functional shift in community dominance from Basidiomycetes species, with important roles in enzymatically cycling recalcitrant carbon, to Ascomycete species that have melanized cell walls that are highly resistant to degradation. These changes were accompanied by prominent shifts in transcriptional coordination between over 60 predicted fungal effectors, with more than 5,000 Norway spruce transcripts, providing mechanistic insight into the complex molecular dialogue coordinating host trees and their fungal partners. The host-microbe dynamics captured by this study functionally inform how these complex and sensitive biological relationships may mediate the carbon storage potential of boreal soils under changing nutrient conditions.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Micorrizas , Picea , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Florestas , Micorrizas/genética , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Picea/genética , Picea/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Taiga , Transcriptoma , Árvores/metabolismo , Árvores/microbiologia
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156550, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688252

RESUMO

Fires across the Arctic-boreal zone (ABZ) play an important role in the boreal forest succession, permafrost thaw, and the regional and global carbon cycle and climate. These fires occur mainly in summer with large interannual variability. Previous studies primarily focused on the impacts of local surface climate and tropical El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study, for the first time, comprehensively investigates the influence of summer leading large-scale atmospheric teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics on interannual variability of ABZ fires. We use correlation and regression analysis of 1997-2019 multiple satellite-based products of burned area and observed/reanalyzed climate data. Results show that eight leading teleconnection patterns significantly affect 63 ± 2 % of burned areas across the ABZ. Western North America is affected by the East Pacific/North Pacific pattern (EP/NP) and the West Pacific pattern (WP); boreal Europe by the Scandinavia pattern (SCA); eastern North America, western and central Siberia, and southeastern Siberia by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO); and eastern Siberia /Russian Far East by the East Atlantic pattern (EA). NAO/EA induces lower-tropospheric drier northwesterly/northerly airflow passing through the east of boreal North America/Eurasia, which decreases surface relative humidity. Other teleconnections trigger a high-pressure anomaly, forcing downward motion that suppresses cloud formation and increases solar radiation reaching the ground to warm the surface air as well as brings drier air downward to reduce surface relative humidity. The drier and/or warmer surface air can decrease fuel wetness and thus increase burned area. Our study highlights the important role of the extra-tropical teleconnection patterns on ABZ fires, which is much stronger than ENSO that was thought to control interannual variability of global fires. It also establishes a theoretical foundation for ABZ fire prediction based on extra-tropical teleconnections, and has the potential to facilitate ABZ fire prediction and management.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Regiões Árticas , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Estações do Ano , Taiga
16.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(8)2022 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749564

RESUMO

Microbial communities often possess enormous diversity, raising questions about whether this diversity drives ecosystem functioning, especially the influence of diversity on soil decomposition and respiration. Although functional redundancy is widely observed in soil microorganisms, evidence that species occupy distinct metabolic niches has also emerged. In this paper, we found that apart from the environmental variables, increases in microbial diversity, notably bacterial diversity, lead to an increase in soil C emissions. This was demonstrated using structural equation modelling (SEM), linking soil respiration with naturally differing levels of soil physio-chemical properties, vegetation coverage, and microbial diversity after fire disturbance. Our SEMs also revealed that models including bacterial diversity explained more variation of soil CO2 emissions (about 45%) than fungal diversity (about 38%). A possible explanation of this discrepancy is that fungi are more multifunctional than bacteria and, therefore, an increase in fungal diversity does not necessarily change soil respiration. Further analysis on functional gene structure suggested that bacterial and fungal diversities mainly explain the potential decomposition of recalcitrant C compare with that of labile C. Overall, by incorporating microbial diversity and the environmental variables, the predictive power of models on soil C emission was significantly improved, indicating microbial diversity is crucial for predicting ecosystem functions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Florestas , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Taiga
17.
Ecol Lett ; 25(8): 1869-1878, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763602

RESUMO

Increased nitrogen (N) inputs are widely recognised to reduce soil respiration (Rs), but how N deposition affects the temporal dynamics of Rs remains unclear. Using a decade-long fertilisation experiment in a boreal larch forest (Larix gmelini) in northeast China, we found that the effects of N additions on Rs showed a temporal shift from a positive effect in the short-term (increased by 8% on average in the first year) to a negative effect over the longer term (decreased by 21% on average in the 11th year). The rates of decrease in Rs for the higher N levels were almost twice as high as those of the low N level. Our results suggest that the reduction in Rs in response to increased N input is accelerated by high-level N additions, and experimental high N applications are likely to overestimate the contribution of N deposition to soil carbon sequestration in a boreal forest.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Solo , Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono , China , Florestas , Nitrogênio/análise , Respiração , Taiga
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 844: 156931, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772527

RESUMO

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are common disturbance agents in tropical and subtropical latitudes. With global warming, TCs began to move to northern latitudes, with devastating effects on boreal forests. However, it remains unclear where and when these extraordinary events occur and how they affect forest structure and ecosystem functioning. Hence knowing which geomorphological features, landforms, and forest types are most susceptible to severe wind disturbance is vital to better predict the future impacts of intensifying tropical cyclones on boreal forests. In October 2015, catastrophic TC Dujuan hit the island of Sakhalin in the Russian Far East. With a wind speed of 63 m·s-1, it became the strongest wind recorded in Sakhalin, damaging >42,000 ha of native forests with different levels of severity. We used high-resolution RGB satellite images, DEM-derived geomorphological patterns, and the U-Net-like convolutional neural network to quantify the damaged area in specific landform, forest type, and windthrow patch size categories. We found that large gaps (>1 ha) represent >40 % of the damaged area while small gaps (<0.1 ha) only 20 %. The recorded canopy gaps are very large for the southern boreal forest. We found that the aspect (slope exposure) is the most important in explaining the damaged area, followed by canopy closure and landform type. Closed-canopy coniferous forests on steep, west-facing slopes (typical of convex reliefs such as ridges, spurs, and peaks) are at a much higher risk of being disturbed by TCs than open-canopy mountain birch forests or coniferous forests and broadleaved riparian forests in concave reliefs such as valley bottoms. We suggest that the projected ongoing poleward migration of TCs will lead to an unprecedentedly large area of disturbed forest, which results in complex changes in forest dynamics and ecosystem functioning. Our findings are crucial for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies under future changes in TC activity.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Taiga , Ecossistema , Florestas , Árvores
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3698, 2022 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760820

RESUMO

Under global warming, advances in spring phenology due to rising temperatures have been widely reported. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the advancement in spring phenology still remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of temperature during the previous growing season on spring phenology of current year based on the start of season extracted from multiple long-term and large-scale phenological datasets between 1951 and 2018. Our findings indicate that warmer temperatures during previous growing season are linked to earlier spring phenology of current year in temperate and boreal forests. Correspondingly, we observed an earlier spring phenology with the increase in photosynthesis of the previous growing season. These findings suggest that the observed warming-induced earlier spring phenology is driven by increased photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the previous growing season. Therefore, the vital role of warming-induced changes in carbon assimilation should be considered to accurately project spring phenology and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems under future climate warming.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Taiga , Carbono , Clima , Estações do Ano
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155761, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533858

RESUMO

Feather mosses are abundant cryptogams of the boreal forest floor and shelter a broad diversity of bacteria who have important ecological functions (e.g., decomposition, nutrient cycling). In particular, nitrogen (N2-) fixation performed by feather moss-associated diazotrophs constitutes an important entry of nitrogen in the boreal forest ecosystem. However, the composition of the feather moss bacteriome and its environmental drivers are still unclear. Using cDNA amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes and cyanobacterial biomass quantification, we explored the active global and diazotrophic bacterial communities of two dominant feather moss species (i) at the ecosystem scale, along a 500-km climatic and nutrient deposition gradient in the North American boreal forest, and (ii) at the plant scale, along the moss shoot senescence gradient. We found that cyanobacteria were major actors of the feather moss bacteriome, accounting for 33% of global bacterial communities and 65% of diazotrophic communities, and that several cyanobacterial and methanotrophic genera were contributing to N2-fixation. Moreover, we showed that bacteria were occupying ecological niches along the moss shoot, with phototrophs being dominant in the apical part and methanotrophs being dominant in the basal part. Finally, climate (temperature, precipitation), environmental variables (moss species, month, tree density) and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, molybdenum, vanadium, iron) strongly shaped global and diazotrophic bacteriomes. In summary, this work presents evidence that the feather moss bacteriome plays crucial roles in supporting moss growth, health, and decomposition, as well as in the boreal forest carbon and nitrogen cycles. This study also highlights the substantial effects of climate and nutrients on the feather moss bacteriome, suggesting the importance of understanding the impacts of global change on moss-associated bacterial growth and activity.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Cianobactérias , Briófitas/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Taiga
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...