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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126708, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352521

RESUMO

The level and distribution of 16 USEPA Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in aquaculture farmed fish (Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis mossambicus) and shellfish (Corbicula fluminea Formosa and Meretrix lusoria) were determined in Taiwan and then assessed cancer and non-cancer risks for those consuming these kinds of seafood. Results indicated that C. fluminea Formosa accumulated the highest average concentration of total PAHs (43.0 ± 11.3 ng/g wet weight) while M. lusoria contained the lowest concentration (20.0 ± 5.8 ng/g) among all species. The low-molecular-weight PAHs were dominant for both fish and shellfish, which consistent with other studies. Notably, parts of high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in shellfish whereas that was little in fish. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of all PAHs were smaller than 1 and the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for Benzo[a]pyrene were below 1 × 10-5, suggesting that PAHs in the collected seafood could pose a low hazard to residents. Although the results indicated that the studied seafood is safe for human consumption, children and seniors post relatively higher risks, suggesting that it needs to continue monitoring and control the PAHs concentration in seafood and the associated environments.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Aquicultura , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Lagoas , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Taiwan
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 341-349, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, and tea is a popular non-alcoholic beverage in Taiwan. However, the levels of neonicotinoids in Taiwanese tea leaves remain unclear. Therefore, this study aims to understand the characteristics of neonicotinoid and metabolite residues in Taiwanese tea leaves. METHODS: In this study, 12 tea leaf samples were collected in Taiwan and extracted by solid-phase extraction before analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the levels of neonicotinoids were compared with the maximum residue level standards from other countries. RESULTS: In Taiwanese tea leaves, five neonicotinoids and seven metabolites were detected. Different tea species influenced the levels of neonicotinoids and their metabolites in the present study. Moreover, the levels of neonicotinoids and their metabolites in partially fermented leaves were higher than in completely fermented leaves. In Jin-Xuan tea, the levels of neonicotinoids and their metabolites in most winter-harvested teas were lower than in summer-harvested teas. CONCLUSION: The residue levels of neonicotinoids and their metabolites were detectable in Taiwanese tea leaves. Moreover, different tea species, manufacturing processes, and harvest seasons might influence the levels of these pesticides. Therefore, the government should monitor the use of neonicotinoids. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Taiwan , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Chá/química
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 163: 106457, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735886

RESUMO

The prevalence of motorcycle riding among novice riders in most Southeast Asia countries presents an alarming rate of traffic violations and fatal accidents. Since 2013, Taiwan's government has gradually required a road safety class (RSC) for the rider's licensing process. The RSC consisted of watching videotapes of motorcycle-involved crashes followed by lectures on safety measures. Our study tried to see whether a compulsory RSC could lower the likelihood and frequency of road accidents and traffic violations among novice riders. To avoid self-selection bias, we selected 480,114 novice riders aged 18-20 years, licensed one year before starting the trial period and one year after full implementation of RSC. Using the 2012-2018 data from the Taiwan Ministry of Transportation and Communication (MOTC), we applied the logistic model to evaluate RSC effects on the risk of violations and accidents. Then, we used the negative binomial regression to model their frequency in response to RSC exposure. Following the novice drivers 1-3 years after licensing, our results showed that the RSC has a short-term effect in lowering their traffic violations' likelihood by 12%∼17% and their frequency by 11%; however, the RSC effects only last two years in reducing the counts of motorcycle-involved offenses and accidents. The RSC reduction effect was lower for the tendency of accidents than the violations, probably because committing traffic violations was self-determined; in contrast, the collision occurrence was more or less related to the riders' own or other road users' carelessness. The RSC could be more effective if a certification test for road safety education were required or if a penalty is imposed on distracted learners during the training.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Motocicletas , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 640, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between teeth loss and nasogastric tube feeding dependency in older people. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2005, 2009, and 2013 in Taiwan. Participants were selected by a multistage stratified sampling method and baseline characteristics, including socioeconomic status and health habits, were obtained by well-trained interviewers. The NHIS was linked with the National Health Insurance research database 2000-2016 and the National Deaths Dataset, which contains all the medical information of ambulatory and inpatient care. Cox regression was used to examine the association between the number of teeth lost and nasogastric tube feeding dependency. RESULTS: There were 6165 adults older than 65 years old enrolled in the analysis, with 2959 male (48%) and the mean (SD) age was 73.95(6.46) years old. The mean follow-up duration was 6.5(3.3) years. Regarding the teeth loss categories, 1660 (26.93%), 2123 (34.44%), and 2382 (38.64%) of participants were categorized as having no teeth loss, loss of 1-9 teeth, and loss of 10-28 teeth, respectively. During 39,962 person-years of follow-up, new-onset nasogastric feeding dependency was recognized in 220(13.25%), 256(12.06%), and 461(19.35%) participants who were categorized as having no teeth loss, loss of 1-9 teeth, and loss of 10-28 teeth, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated significant findings (Log-rank P < 0.01). After potential confounders were adjusted, compared with those without teeth loss, older adults who had lost 10-28 teeth had significantly increased risks of occurrence nasogastric feeding dependency (AHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05-1.62; p-value = 0.02). Furthermore, a significant dose-response relation between the number of teeth lost and increased risk of nasogastric feeding was found (p for trend< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who had lost 10-28 teeth had a significantly increased risk of nasogastric tube feeding dependency. Early identification of the oral disease is crucial for the prevention of the occurrence of teeth loss and the following nutrition problems, which would reduce risk of nasogastric tube feeding dependency.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Idoso , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769900

RESUMO

Groundwater resources are abundant and widely used in Taiwan's Lanyang Plain. However, in some places the groundwater arsenic (As) concentrations far exceed the World Health Organization's standards for drinking water quality. Measurements of the As concentrations in groundwater show considerable spatial variability, which means that the associated risk to human health would also vary from region to region. This study aims to adapt a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) method to carry out more reliable spatial mapping of the As concentrations in the groundwater for comparison with the geostatistical ordinary kriging (OK) method results. Cross validation is performed to evaluate the prediction performance by dividing the As monitoring data into three sets. The cross-validation results show that the average determination coefficients (R2) for the As concentrations obtained with BPNN and OK are 0.55 and 0.49, whereas the average root mean square errors (RMSE) are 0.49 and 0.54, respectively. Given the better prediction performance of the BPNN, it is recommended as a more reliable tool for the spatial mapping of the groundwater As concentration. Subsequently, the As concentrations estimated obtained using the BPNN are applied to develop a spatial map illustrating the risk to human health associated with the ingestion of As-containing groundwater based on the noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic target risk (TR) standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Such maps can be used to demarcate the areas where residents are at higher risk due to the ingestion of As-containing groundwater, and prioritize the areas where more intensive monitoring of groundwater quality is required. The spatial mapping of As concentrations from the BPNN was also used to demarcate the regions where the groundwater is suitable for farmland and fishponds based on the water quality standards for As for irrigation and aquaculture.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial , Taiwan , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770192

RESUMO

Periodontitis is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory oral disease that is characterized by tooth loss and is commonly associated with several systemic inflammatory diseases. Some epidemiological studies suggest that those suffering from periodontitis might be at a greater risk of developing gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection; however, evidence that showing the association between periodontitis and the risk of gastric Hp infection is less clear. We conducted a large-scale, population-based study in Taiwan with a 13-year follow-up period to evaluate the risk of gastric Hp in a periodontitis patient cohort. To conduct this study, we used epidemiological data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 2000 to 2013. We selected 134,474 participants (64,868 males and 69,606 females with a minimum age of 20 years), with and without periodontitis, and matched patient cohort groups for age, sex, index year, and co-morbidities. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the risk of gastric Hp infection in patients with periodontitis. Patients with periodontitis exhibited a higher risk of developing gastric Hp infection compared to those individuals/groups without periodontitis (1.35 vs. 0.87 per 1000 person-years, adjusted the hazards ratio (aHR 1.52), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.38-1.67, p < 0.001). The risk of gastric Hp infection persisted even after stratifying by age (aHR = 1.96 (1.79-2.13) for 50-64 years and 1.70 (1.49-1.94) for ≥65 years), gender (aHR = 1.20 (1.11-1.29) for men), and presence of comorbidities of hypertension (aHR = 1.24 (1.11-1.38)), hyperlipidemia (aHR = 1.28 (1.14-1.42)), COPD (aHR = 1.45 (1.31-1.61)), CLD (aHR = 1.62 (1.47-1.77)) and CKD (aHR = 1.44 (1.04-1.99)). Overall, our findings showed that periodontitis patients have a greater risk for gastric Hp than individuals without periodontitis. Clinicians should perform regular good oral hygiene practices, along with newer treatments, for patients with periodontitis, especially those at higher risk of gastric Hp infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Periodontite , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 650452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722429

RESUMO

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) often experience depression during treatment, negatively influencing their treatment compliance and clinical outcomes. Recently, the pay-for-performance (P4P) program for chronic diseases, with high-cost and high-risk feature, such as T2DM, has been implemented and has been operational for several years. Nevertheless, its effect on the risk of developing depression among T2DM cases is unknown. This study aims to explore the association of P4P use with the subsequent risk of developing depression among these patients. Methods: This cohort study used a nationwide health insurance database to identify patients 20-70 years of age newly diagnosed with T2DM who enrolled in the P4P program between 2001 and 2010. From this group, we enrolled 17,022 P4P users and then 17,022 non-P4P users who were randomly selected using propensity-score-matching. Enrolled patients were followed until the end of 2012 to record the occurrence of depression. The Cox proportional hazards regression was utilized to obtain the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for P4P use. Results: During the study period, a total of 588 P4P users and 1,075 non-P4P users developed depression at incidence rates of 5.89 and 8.41 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. P4P users had a lower depression risk than did non-P4P users (aHR, 0.73; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.65-0.80). This positive effect was particularly prominent in those receiving high-intensity use of the P4P program. Conclusion: Integrating P4P into routine care for patients with T2DM may have beneficial effects on curtailing the subsequent risk of depression.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Reembolso de Incentivo , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 718846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722435

RESUMO

Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of poisoning death worldwide, but associations between CO poisoning and weather remain unclear. Objective: To quantify the influence of climate parameters (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) on the incidence risk of acute CO poisoning in Taiwan. Methods: We used negative binomial mixed models (NBMMs) to evaluate the influence of weather parameters on the incidence risk of acute CO poisoning. Subgroup analyses were conducted, based on the seasonality and the intentionality of acute CO poisoning cases. Results: We identified a total of 622 patients (mean age: 32.9 years old; female: 51%) with acute CO poisoning in the study hospital. Carbon monoxide poisoning was associated with temperature (beta: -0.0973, rate ratio (RR): 0.9073, p < 0.0001) but not with relative humidity (beta: 0.1290, RR: 1.1377, p = 0.0513) or wind speed (beta: -0.4195, RR: 0.6574, p = 0.0806). In the subgroup analyses, temperature was associated with the incidence of intentional CO poisoning (beta: 0.1076, RR: 1.1136, p = 0.0333) in spring and unintentional CO poisoning (beta: -0.1865, RR: 0.8299, p = 0.0184) in winter. Conclusion: Changes in temperature affect the incidence risk for acute CO poisoning, but the impact varies with different seasons and intentionality in Taiwan. Our findings quantify the effects of climate factors and provide fundamental evidence for healthcare providers to develop preventative strategies to reduce acute CO poisoning events.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono , Adulto , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769541

RESUMO

Circadian pattern influence on the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been demonstrated. However, the effect of temporal difference on the clinical outcomes of OHCA remains inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study in an urban city of Taiwan between January 2018 and December 2020 in order to investigate the relationship between temporal differences and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), sustained (≥24 h) ROSC, and survival to discharge in patients with OHCA. Of the 842 patients with OHCA, 371 occurred in the daytime, 250 in the evening, and 221 at night. During nighttime, there was a decreased incidence of OHCA, but the outcomes of OHCA were significant poor compared to the incidents during the daytime and evening. After multivariate adjustment for influencing factors, OHCAs occurring at night were independently associated with lower probabilities of achieving sustained ROSC (aOR = 0.489, 95% CI: 0.285-0.840, p = 0.009) and survival to discharge (aOR = 0.147, 95% CI: 0.03-0.714, p = 0.017). Subgroup analyses revealed significant temporal differences in male patients, older adult patients, those with longer response times (≥5 min), and witnessed OHCA. The effects of temporal difference on the outcome of OHCA may be a result of physiological factors, underlying etiology of arrest, resuscitative efforts in prehospital and in-hospital stages, or a combination of factors.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Idoso , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769592

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) can cause chronic inflammation. The occurrence of aortic aneurysm (AA) and aortic dissection (AD) may be associated with chronic inflammatory disease, but whether TB increases the risk of AA and AD remains to be determined. This study aimed to investigate the association between TB and the development of AA and AD. We conducted a population-based cohort study using data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. We selected 31,220 individuals with TB and 62,440 individuals without TB by matching the cohorts according to age, sex, and index year at a ratio of 1:2. Cox regression analysis revealed that the TB cohort had a 1.711-fold higher risk of AA and AD than the non-TB cohort after adjustment for sex, age, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.711; 95% confidence interval = 1.098-2.666). Patients with pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and miliary TB had a 1.561-, 1.892-, and 8.334-fold higher risk of AA and AD, respectively. Furthermore, patients with TB at <6 months, 6-12 months, and 1-5 years of follow-up had a 6.896-, 2.671-, and 2.371-fold risk of AA and AD, respectively. Physicians should consider the subsequent development of AA and AD while treating patients with TB.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico , Tuberculose , Aneurisma Aórtico/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dissecação , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
12.
Anticancer Res ; 41(11): 5425-5430, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) is a critical inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Along with MMPs, TIMP-2 regulates the breakdown and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membranes. This study investigated the role of genotypes of the TIMP-2 -418G/C (rs8179090) single nucleotide polymorphism on lung risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 358 lung cancer patients and 716 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Genotypes were identified via the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. RESULTS: The distribution of alleles and genotype frequencies of TIMP-2 -418G/C genotypes between the two groups were compared and no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found. The heterozygous and homozygous variant genotypes showed no differential distribution between the control and case groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: TIMP-2 -418G/C variants might not be associated with lung cancer susceptibility and could not serve as predictors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27496, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731131

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Using animal models and molecular biology researches, hyperuricemia has been shown to instruct renal arteriolopathy, arterial hypertension, and microvascular injury involving the renin-angiotensin system and resulting in renal function impairment. Nevertheless, the association between uric acid levels and the development of albuminuria has been under-investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes and regular outpatient visits were recruited from the Puli Branch of the Taichung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan since January 2014. Demographics, lifestyle features, and medical history were gathered by well-trained interviewers. All participants underwent comprehensive physical examinations, including a biochemical assay of venous blood specimens and urine samples after an 8-hour overnight fast. Participants were followed until June 2018. The primary outcome was the albuminuria incidence. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis were employed to explore the relation between uric acid and incident albuminuria. Uric acid cutoffs for incident albuminuria were determined with the receiver operator characteristic curve. We included 247 qualified subjects (mean age: 64.78 years old [standard deviation = 11.29 years]; 138 [55.87%] men). During a 4.5-year follow-up duration, 20 subjects with incident albuminuria were recognized. Serum uric acid was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident albuminuria (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.53-3.75; P < .001) with potential confounders adjustment. The uric acid cutoff point was 6.9 mg/dL (area under the curve 0.708, sensitivity 60.0%, specificity 84.58%) for incident albuminuria. Serum uric acid was associated with incident albuminuria among patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Idoso , Albuminúria/etiologia , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Incidência , Masculino , Camundongos , Microvasos/lesões , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27506, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731134

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that obesity might be associated with chronic periodontitis (CP); however, no clear conclusions have been reached so far. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity and CP by using a large population-based dataset in Taiwan.A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2010 (LHID2010) derived from the National Health Insurance Research database in Taiwan, from 2000 to 2013. Obesity and non-obesity groups were matched with sex, age, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, and the related comorbidities by using the propensity score method at a 1:2 ratio.An obese cohort (n = 4140) and a non-obese cohort (n = 8280) were included in this study, with an average age of 41.7 ±â€Š13.8 years and 42.0 ±â€Š14.0 years, respectively. The risk of CP for the patients with obesity was 1.12-fold compared with those without obesity (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.25). In the subgroup analysis according to age and sex, the hazard ratio of CP were 1.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.22) in the subgroup of age equal to or older than 65 years. The risk of CP showed no difference between obesity and non-obesity groups in both sex.This population-based cohort study demonstrated that obesity was associated with the development of CP in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Classe Social , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 6): 1954-1965, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738951

RESUMO

The optical design and performance of the recently opened 13A biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beamline at the 3.0 GeV Taiwan Photon Source of the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center are reported. The beamline is designed for studies of biological structures and kinetics in a wide range of length and time scales, from angstrom to micrometre and from microsecond to minutes. A 4 m IU24 undulator of the beamline provides high-flux X-rays in the energy range 4.0-23.0 keV. MoB4C double-multilayer and Si(111) double-crystal monochromators (DMM/DCM) are combined on the same rotating platform for a smooth rotation transition from a high-flux beam of ∼4 × 1014 photons s-1 to a high-energy-resolution beam of ΔE/E ≃ 1.5 × 10-4; both modes share a constant beam exit. With a set of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors, the X-ray beam is focused to the farthest SAXS detector position, 52 m from the source. A downstream four-bounce crystal collimator, comprising two sets of Si(311) double crystals arranged in a dispersive configuration, optionally collimate the DCM (vertically diffracted) beam in the horizontal direction for ultra-SAXS with a minimum scattering vector q down to 0.0004 Å-1, which allows resolving ordered d-spacing up to 1 µm. A microbeam, of 10-50 µm beam size, is tailored by a combined set of high-heat-load slits followed by micrometre-precision slits situated at the front-end 15.5 m position. The second set of KB mirrors then focus the beam to the 40 m sample position, with a demagnification ratio of ∼1.5. A detecting system comprising two in-vacuum X-ray pixel detectors is installed to perform synchronized small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering data collections. The observed beamline performance proves the feasibility of having compound features of high flux, microbeam and ultra-SAXS in one beamline.


Assuntos
Fótons , Síncrotrons , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Taiwan , Difração de Raios X , Raios X
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769764

RESUMO

Internet media may exacerbate public confusion and anxiety about COVID-19. New media health literacy (NMHL) is considered to play a protective role against health-related misinformation from the media for individuals to maintain their health. The current study aims to examine the relationship among Taiwanese adults' NMHL, health status, anxiety, and prevention behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey, and 342 responses were included in the analysis. The survey tools include Health Status, COVID-19-Related New Media Health Literacy, COVID-19 Anxiety, and COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors. The research showed that both functional and critical prosuming literacy had positive relationships with health status. Functional consumption literacy had a weak negative correlation with COVID-19 anxiety. Furthermore, critical consumption literacy had a positive relationship with COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Therefore, individuals' health, anxiety, and prevention behaviors are affected by different aspects of COVID-19-related new media health literacy. Compared to their consuming media literacy, Taiwanese adults have insufficient prosuming media literacy in regard to COVID-19 health issues.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770032

RESUMO

This study explored the important factors affecting drunk car/motorbike drivers' willingness to use and pay for alcohol interlocks. Data were obtained through a survey upon choice-based sampling conducted in central Taiwan. Questionnaires were distributed to the participants of drunk driving and road safety education courses from 17 August to 26 October 2020. All drunk drivers whose driver's licenses are revoked for drunk driving are mandated to participate in this course. Prior to the survey, the researchers explained the questionnaires, instructed the participants to complete the questionnaires, and then collected all the questionnaires. The socioeconomic characteristics of drunk drivers, awareness of alcohol interlocks and drunk driving, drinking patterns and health self-assessment before and after drunk driving ban enforcement, and changes in the number of trips were investigated. This study applied the double-hurdle model for data analysis to estimate the variables affecting drunk car/motorbike drivers. Results indicate that the respondents who were classified by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test as high-risk drinkers before and after drunk driving ban enforcement were more willing to use alcohol interlocks and to pay higher prices. Additionally, the respondents with declined health self-assessments were also more willing to use alcohol interlocks and pay higher prices. This study suggests offering subsidies for alcohol interlocks to families with financial difficulties, in order to increase the alcohol interlock installation rate. Moreover, since the current duration of license suspension and withdrawal is considerably long, drunk drivers avoid using and installing alcohol interlocks by reducing the number of trips. In other words, the willingness to install alcohol interlocks may be increased by reducing the duration of license suspension and withdrawal.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Condução de Veículo , Veículos Off-Road , Acidentes de Trânsito , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Automóveis , Humanos , Taiwan
19.
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211055415, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the collaboration between oncology pharmacists and anaesthesiologists for improving pain control management in cancer patients. METHODS: This retrospective case-control pilot study enrolled inpatients with active cancer and a pain score of >3 at least once per day for 3 consecutive days. The study group was selected from June 2018 to January 2019. Patients with the same inclusion criteria were selected between November 2017 and May 2018 to serve as the comparison group. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients that experienced pain relief within 7 days from initial pain attack. RESULTS: A total of 71 and 77 patients were enrolled in the study and comparison groups. More patients in the study group experienced pain relief within 7 days from the index date (78.9% [56 of 71 patients] versus 72.7% [56 of 77 patients], respectively). The service increased the rate of intervention from attending physicians within 4 days from index date and quality of opioid management. CONCLUSION: The collaboration between oncology pharmacists and anaesthesiologists for cancer pain management may be associated with an increase in the rate of pain relief in cancer patients with poor pain control.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Neoplasias , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacêuticos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1216, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taiwan will become a super-aged society by 2025, leading to the more frequent use of outpatient services by older adults for medical treatment compared with other age groups. Understanding the outpatient service consideration factors of older adults seeking medical treatment can improve health care quality. This study explored the selection factors and crucial considerations of older adults for outpatient services. METHODS: Qualitative study was conducted. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 16 older adults over 65 years of age with chronic disease who were patients of an internal medicine department and regularly returned for checkups. Data including reasons for receiving medical treatment, factors affecting their choice of hospitals, and health care and environmental considerations were collected through structured interviews. RESULTS: The older adults identified four factors. (1) The care of doctors: The doctors possessed professional skill, allocate sufficient consultation time, and undertake effective communication. (2) The care of other medical professionals: Other medical professionals provided services in a cordial manner. (3) The accessibility and convenience of outpatient services: Convenient transportation and registration as well as short consultation wait time. (4) Environment and equipment: The hospital had the novel facilities and satisfactory barrier-free equipment. CONCLUSIONS: The older adults cared most about the adequacy of diagnosis and treatment by doctors and other medical professionals. In addition, they reported having higher satisfaction with hospitals that provide comprehensive medical facilities, fast and convenient medical procedures, and short wait times.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Taiwan
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