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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(7): 252, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076112

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (C) and L-(+)-tartaric acid diethyl ester (L) were prepared and used in transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). The internal chemistry structure including the formation and changes of hydrogen bonds of choline chloride and L-(+)-tartaric acid diethyl ester DES was characterized via attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The stoichiometric ratio of choline chloride to L-(+)-tartaric acid diethyl ester as well as water content affected the viscosity, glass transition temperature (Tg), and drug solubility of the DES. The viscosity and glass transition temperature of the DES (CL14) prepared at the ratio of 1:4 of choline chloride to L-(+)-tartaric acid diethyl ester were 1.19 Pa·s and - 44.01°C, respectively, and decreased to 0.10 Pa·s and - 55.31°C when 10% water (CL1410) was added. Taking diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as model, drug solubility was as high as 60 mg/ml and 250 mg/ml in CL14 and CL1410, respectively. The cumulative amount of DDEA was 4.63 ± 2.67 µg/cm2 and 15.27 ± 4.63 µg/cm2 for CL14 and CL1410, respectively, at 8 h. The mechanism of percutaneous permeability by the DES may be the disturbance of stratum corneum (SC) lipids as well as changes in the protein conformations. CL14 and CL1410 were also verified as low-cytotoxic and nonirritant. Therefore, the DESs studied are promising to be used in drug solubilization enhancement and transdermal drug delivery system.


Assuntos
Colina , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Colina/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Solventes/química , Tartaratos , Água/química
2.
J Phys Chem A ; 126(36): 6244-6252, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057982

RESUMO

Tartaric acid and mucic acid are dicarboxylic acids (DCAs), a substance class often found in atmospheric aerosols and cloud droplets. The hydroxyl radical (•OH)-induced oxidation in the aqueous phase is known to be an important loss process of organic compounds such as DCAs. However, the study of •OH kinetics of DCAs in the aqueous phase is still incomplete. In the present study, the rate constants of the •OH reactions of tartaric acid and mucic acid in the aqueous phase were determined by the thiocyanate competition kinetics method as a function of temperature and pH. The following T-dependent Arrhenius expressions (in units of L mol-1 s-1) were first derived for the •OH reactions with tartaric acid─k(T, H2A) = (3.3 ± 0.1) × 1010 exp[(-1350 ± 110 K)/T], k(T, HA-) = (3.6 ± 0.1) × 1010 exp[(-580 ± 110 K)/T], and k(T, A2-) = (3.3 ± 0.1) × 1010 exp[(-1190 ± 170 K)/T]─as well as mucic acid─k(T, H2A) = (2.2 ± 0.1) × 1010 exp[(-1140 ± 150 K)/T], k(T, HA-) = (4.8 ± 0.1) × 1010 exp[(-1280 ± 170 K)/T], and k(T, A2-) = (2.1 ± 0.1) × 1010 exp[(-970 ± 70 K)/T]. A general trend of the •OH rate constant is found as kA2- > kHA- > kH2A. The pH- and temperature-dependent rate constants of the OH radical reactions allow an accurate description of the source and sink processes in the tropospheric aqueous phase.


Assuntos
Radical Hidroxila , Água , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Radical Hidroxila/química , Cinética , Açúcares Ácidos , Tartaratos , Temperatura
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076987

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread intracellular pathogen that infects humans and a variety of animals. The current therapeutic strategy for human toxoplasmosis is a combination of sulphadiazine and pyrimethamine. However, this combination still has a high failure rate and is ineffective against chronic infections. Therefore, it is important to discover a new anti-T. gondii drug that is safer and more effective in both humans and animals. In this study, we describe the anti-T. gondii activities of the 16-membered macrolide tilmicosin and acetylisovaleryltylosin tartrate (ATLL). Both tilmicosin and ATLL potently inhibited T. gondii with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 17.96 µM and 10.67 µM, respectively. Interestingly, tilmicosin and ATLL had different effects on the parasites. ATLL exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on intracellular parasite growth, while tilmicosin suppressed parasites extracellularly. By studying the lytic cycle of T. gondii after treatment, we found that ATLL potently inhibited the intracellular proliferation of tachyzoites, while tilmicosin affected the invasion of tachyzoites. Immunofluorescence analysis using ATLL-treated T. gondii showed morphologically abnormal parasites, which may be due to the inhibition of tachyzoite proliferation and division. In addition, tilmicosin and ATLL significantly delayed the death of mice caused by acute toxoplasmosis. Our results suggest that ATLL has potent anti-Toxoplasma activity both in vitro and in vivo and may be an alternative to toxoplasmosis in the future.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma de Células T do Adulto , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Tartaratos/farmacologia , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Tilosina/análogos & derivados
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 7878-7890, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965127

RESUMO

The effect of milk on bone health is controversial. In this study, the effects of yak milk in mice with retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis (OP) were evaluated. Yak milk was provided to OP mice as a nutrition supplement for 6 wk. The results showed that yak milk significantly reduced bone turnover markers (tartrate acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase). The yak milk treatment was also associated with remarkably increased bone mineral density, bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number, as well as improved biomechanical properties (maximum load and stress) of the tibia. Furthermore, yak milk mitigated the deterioration of the network and thickness of trabecular bone in treated OP mice compared with the OP model group. The results indicated that yak milk could improve bone mass and microarchitecture through the inhibition of bone resorption in OP mice.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Osteoporose , Doenças dos Roedores , Fosfatase Ácida/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina , Animais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Bovinos , Camundongos , Leite , Osteoporose/veterinária , Tartaratos/efeitos adversos , Tretinoína/efeitos adversos
5.
Anal Methods ; 14(34): 3323-3334, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969181

RESUMO

A variety of biomolecules with different functional groups play critical roles in almost all the processes occurring in living cells. Interaction of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) with various biomolecules generates a layer of molecules on their surface, and this biomolecular rich layer formed on the NP surface is described as a "biomolecular corona". The physicochemical properties of the NPs, including size, adsorption affinity, and charge on the particles' surfaces are the major factors influencing the characteristics of this corona. The formation of various biomolecular corona has been studied well, whereas the amino acid corona is relatively new by exploring their stability. In the present study, a novel formation of an amino acid corona with a fundamental interaction mechanism for a selective detection procedure using a colorimetric platform has been proposed. Herein, amino acid-coated silver NPs (AgNPs) have been used as a template with spectroscopic (steady state UV-Vis, FTIR) and imaging (HR-TEM, DLS) techniques. Our findings demonstrated that among different amino acid coronas, glutathione (GSH) stabilized AgNPs show a rapid reaction with tartaric acid. The extent and thermodynamics of the formed complex between the GSH/AgNPs and tartaric acid have also been studied and this suggested that the complex formed is spontaneous and energy releasing in nature.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Aminoácidos , Colorimetria/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Tartaratos
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 290, 2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: External root resorption is one of common complications of orthodontic treatment, while internal root resorption is rarely observed, and the difference between pulp and periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of orthodontic forces on histological and cellular changes of the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. METHODS: Orthodontic tooth movement model was established in Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats. The distance of orthodontic tooth movement was quantitatively analyzed. The histological changes of pulp and periodontal tissues were performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphate staining was used to analyze the changes of osteoclast number, immunohistochemistry analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the receptor of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. The width of tertiary dentine was quantitatively analyzed. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphate staining and the erosion area of osteo assay surface plate was used to evaluate osteoclast activity. RESULTS: The orthodontic tooth movement distance increased in a force dependent manner, and reached the peak value when orthodontic force is 60 g. Heavy orthodontic force increased the RANKL expression of periodontal ligament srem cells (PDLSCs) which further activated osteoclasts and resulted in external root resorption, while the RANKL expression of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) was relatively low to activate osteoclasts and result in internal root resorption, and the dental pulp tend to form tertiary dentine under orthodontic force stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy orthodontic forces activated osteoclasts and triggered external root resorption by upregulating RANKL expression in rat periodontal tissues, while there was no significant change of RANKL expression in dental pulp tissue under heavy orthodontic forces, which prevented osteoclast activation and internal root resorption.


Assuntos
Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Reabsorção da Raiz , Animais , Masculino , Osteoclastos , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reabsorção da Raiz/etiologia , Tartaratos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129232, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739752

RESUMO

Copper stress in the presence of exogenous methyl jasmonate and Serratia plymuthica in a complete trifactorial design with copper (0, 50 µM), methyl jasmonate (0, 1, 10 µM) and Serratia plymuthica (without and with inoculation) was studied on the physiological parameters of Phaseolus coccineus. Copper application reduced biomass and allantoin content, but increased chlorophyll and carotenoids contents as well as catalase and peroxidases activities. Jasmonate did not modify biomass and organic acids levels under copper treatment, but additional inoculation elevated biomass and content of tartrate, malate and succinate. Jasmonate used alone or in combination with bacteria increased superoxide dismutase activity in copper application. With copper, allantoin content elevated at lower jasmonate concentration, but with additional inoculation - at higher jasmonate concentration. Under copper stress, inoculation resulted in higher accumulation of tartrate, malate and citrate contents in roots, which corresponded with lower allantoin concentration in roots. Combined with copper, inoculation reduced catalase and guaiacol peroxidase activities, whereas organic acids content was higher. Under metal stress, with bacteria, jasmonate reduced phenolics content, elevated superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase activities. The data indicate that jasmonate and S. plymuthica affected most physiological parameters of P. coccineus grown with copper and revealed some effect on biomass.


Assuntos
Cobre , Phaseolus , Acetatos , Alantoína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos , Malatos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxilipinas , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Serratia , Solo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Svalbard , Tartaratos
8.
Int J Pharm ; 623: 121927, 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716979

RESUMO

This study was aimed to develop a fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet containing a low dose of evogliptin tartrate (6.87 mg) for immediate release combined with a high dose (1000 mg) of sustained-release (SR) metformin HCl appropriate for once daily dosing the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To prepare the FDC tablets, an active coating was used in this study, whereby evogliptin tartrate film was layered on a matrix core tablet containing metformin HCl. To overcome the problem caused by a low-dose drug in combination with a relatively large matrix tablet containing high-dose drug, it was also aimed to confirm the formulation and coating operation for satisfactory content uniformity, and to describe the chemical stability during storage of the amorphous active coating layer formulation in relation to molecular mobility. Furthermore, the in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of metformin HCl and evogliptin tartrate in the FDC active coating tablet were compared to those of the commercially marketed reference drugs, Diabex XR® (Daewoong, Seoul, Korea) containing metformin HCl and Suganon® (Donga ST, Seoul, Korea) containing evogliptin tartrate. In conclusion, the newly developed FDC active coating tablet in this study was confirmed to be bioequivalent to the reference marketed products in beagle dogs, with satisfactory content uniformity and stability.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Hipoglicemiantes , Piperazinas , Comprimidos , Tartaratos
9.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(26): 4984-4998, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708499

RESUMO

Smoking is a life-threatening habit; that is why many nicotine-replacement therapies (NRTs), which include chewing gums, nicotine patches, lozenges, mouth sprays, inhalers and nasal sprays that are usually administered for 8-12 weeks, have been reported for smoking cessation. We report the fabrication of patches comprising nanomicelles-in-coaxial nanofibers (NFs) for the transdermal delivery of varenicline (VAR) tartrate, a partial agonist of the α4ß2 receptor subtype, for smoking cessation. The cores of the fabricated coaxial NF structures are composed of polyethylene oxide, VAR-loaded Pluronic F127 nanomicelles (NPs) and free VAR, while the shell consists of a blend of cellulose acetate (CA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) in a ratio of 1 : 9 (w/w) that incorporates 50% (wt%) free VAR. The morphology and the coaxial structure of the NFs were investigated using TEM, SEM and fluorescent microscopy. The physicochemical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed using FTIR, DSC, DLS, TGA and a universal testing machine. SEM micrographs depict NFs with a size ranging from 793.7 ± 518.9 to 324.5 ± 144.1 nm. In vitro release of VAR reaches almost 100% after 3, 9 and 28 days for free VAR, VAR-loaded NPs and the NPs-in-NFs patches, respectively, while the ex vivo release tested using albino rat skin, over a period of 60 days, showed up to 94% sustained release of VAR. Besides, skin permeation, in vivo release and plasma concentrations of VAR from the NF transdermal patches were monitored via cyclic voltammetric measurements during the course of treatment. DFT calculations as well as mathematical release kinetic models were performed in order to study the release mechanism. The cell viability of human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells in the case of plain and VAR-loaded NFs was 75.09 and 32.11%, respectively. The in vivo results showed that VAR was being continuously released from the transdermal patch over a period of 14 days. Besides, the treatment with VAR-loaded patches did not cause any severe conditions in the studied animal model. The new fabricated NPs-in-NFs transdermal patch for VAR tartrate delivery is considered as an effective, economic, safe and long-acting NRT for smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Animais , Nanofibras/química , Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Tartaratos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
10.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 78(Pt 5): 314-321, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510438

RESUMO

Hydrothermal reactions of rare-earth cerium with L-tartaric acid afford a new coordination polymer, namely, poly[[triaqua(µ4-L-tartrato)cerium(III)] chloride], {[Ce(C4H4O6)(H2O)3]Cl}n, (1). The structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and further characterized by IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the compound is a new two-dimensional (2D) double-layered structure with one-dimensional left-handed helical chains. The different intermolecular interactions were confirmed using Hirshfeld surface analysis and molecular fingerprint plots. Molecular 2D fingerprint plots quantify the different interactions and highlight that H...H (24.8%), H...O/O...H (26.3%), Cl...H/H...Cl (19.6%), O...O (13.8%) and Ce...O/O...Ce (13.6%) interactions account for 99.8% of all contacts. Additionally, the photoluminescence properties of the compound were investigated in the solid state.


Assuntos
Cério , Tartaratos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 295: 115337, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605919

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The use of herbal and medicinal plants to treat male infertility is well known in history. Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and it is used in folk medicine to vitalize and also improve both physical performance and sexual function in men in addition to the protective effect of the gross saponins of TT against ischemic stroke and its clinical anti-inflammatory property. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effects of methanol extract of T. terrestris on nicotine hydrogen tartrate and lead-induced degeneration of sperm quality in male rats and to identify the volatile bioactive non-polar compounds thought to be responsible for its activity using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of T. terrestris on nicotine hydrogen tartrate and lead-induced infertility was evaluated in male rats. Fifty-four mature male albino rats weighing 220-250 g body weight were used. The rats were randomly divided into 9 equal groups (n = 6). Infertility was induced by administering nicotine hydrogen tartrate (0.50 mg/kg) through peritoneal injection (i.p.) or lead acetate (1.5 g/L) orally with drinking water for sixty days. Two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the animal) of T. terrestris were also used. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected. Hormonal analyses were carried out on the serum. The testicle, epididymis, and accessory sex organs (seminal vesical and prostates) were removed for histopathological analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methanol extract was also carried out to identify major volatile compounds in T. terrestris methanol extract. RESULTS: Nicotine and lead toxicity caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the number of sperm, motility, and an increase in the sperm abnormalities such as the reduction in weight and size of sexual organs (testis, epididymis, and accessory sex glands), reduction of diameter and length of seminiferous tubules. The administration of T. terrestris methanol extract, however, improved the semen quantity and quality, sexual organ weights, and fertility of male rats and, thus, ameliorated the adverse effects of nicotine and lead. Ten major compounds were found from the GC-MS analysis of the extract of T. terrestris methanol extract. CONCLUSION: Findings showed that T. terrestris plant methanolic extracts ameliorated nicotine hydrogen tartrate and lead-induced degeneration of sperm quality in male rats. The GC-MS analysis of the T. terrestris plant methanolic extracts revealed the presence of several important bioactive compounds which were thought to be responsible for the ameliorative effect. Further isolation and evaluation of the individual components would provide relevant lead to finding new drugs.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Chumbo , Nicotina , Extratos Vegetais , Tribulus , Animais , Peso Corporal , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Metanol , Nicotina/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Tartaratos/toxicidade , Tribulus/química
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(12): 7924-7934, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587516

RESUMO

Oxygen vacancies play a vital role in the catalytic activity of layered double hydroxide (LDH) catalysts in wastewater treatment. However, the mechanism of oxygen vacancy-mediated LDH-activated oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) still lacks a reasonable explanation. In this work, a tartrate-modified CuCoFe-LDH (CuCoFe/Tar-LDH) with abundant oxygen vacancies was designed, which can efficiently degrade nitrobenzene (NB) under room conditions. The technical energy consumption is 0.011 kW h L-1. According to the characterization and calculation results, it is proposed that oxygen vacancies are formed because of the oxygen deficiency which is caused by the reduction of the energy between the metal ion and oxygen, and the metal ion transitions to a lower state. Compared with CuCoFe-LDH, the oxygen vacancy formation energy of CuCoFe/Tar-LDH decreased from 1.98 to 1.13 eV. The O2 bond length adsorbed on the oxygen vacancy is 1.27 Å, close to the theoretical length of superoxide radicals (•O2-) (1.26 Å). Radical trapping experiments and electron spin-resonance spectroscopy spectrum prove that •O2- is an important precursor of •OH. This work is dedicated to the in-depth exploration of the oxygen vacancy-mediated CuCoFe/Tar-LDH catalyst activation mechanism for molecular oxygen and the conversion relationship between ROS.


Assuntos
Oxigênio , Superóxidos , Hidróxidos/química , Nitrobenzenos , Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tartaratos
13.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35630614

RESUMO

The optically active dibenzoyltartaric acid, tartaric acid, and its sodium salts were successfully applied to the optical resolution of (1R,2S)(1S,2R)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol (EPH) and (1R,2R)(1S,2S)-2-amino-1-(4-nitrophenyl)propane-1,3-diol (AD) as resolving agents. It was observed that both compounds' resolution using a mixture of salts of quasi-racemic resolving agents showed a change in chiral recognition under the same conditions compared to the result of the use of the single enantiomeric resolving agent. The changes are followed by detailed analytical (XRD, FTIR, and DSC) studies. Meanwhile, the DASH indexing software package was also tested on powder XRD patterns of pure initial materials and intermediate salt samples of high diastereomeric excess.


Assuntos
Efedrina , Sais , Cloranfenicol/análogos & derivados , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Sódio , Tartaratos
14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(29): e202205633, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502463

RESUMO

Here, we combined the merits of emergent excitation-dependent (ExD) emission and circularly polarized luminescence to develop an excitation-dependent circularly polarized luminescence (ExD CPL) material showing unique features. A series of acylhydrazones based on a chiral tartaric skeleton was designed and found to self-assemble into helical nanostructures through non-covalent bonds. The helical assemblies showed ExD CPL due to the cooperation of chirality transfer and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Remarkably, not only the emission wavelength could be tuned by the excitation wavelength but the handedness of CPL could be modulated in an inverted or ON/OFF manner as well, thus leading to the first example of an ExD inverted or ON/OFF switchable CPL system. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were carried out to explain the inversion of ExD CPL. This work provided a new insight into the unprecedented handedness controllable ExD CPL, which showcased a new paradigm of the advanced CPL materials.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Tartaratos
15.
Chem Asian J ; 17(11): e202200263, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404509

RESUMO

A pair of enantiomeric ligands, (2R,3R)-dibenzyl-2,3-bis(isonicotinoyloxy)succinate ((R,R)-L) and (2S,3S)-dibenzyl-2,3-bis(isonicotinoyloxy)succinate ((S,S)-L), are designed and synthesized. Seven copper (II) coordination polymers {[Cu((R,R)-L)Br2 (THF)] ⋅ CH3 CN} n (1 a) and {[Cu((S,S)-L)Br2 (THF)] ⋅ CH3 CN}n (1 b), {[Cu((R,R)-L)Cl2 (THF)] ⋅ CH3 CN}n (2 a) and {[Cu((S,S)-L)Cl2 (THF)] ⋅ CH3 CN}n (2 b), {[Cu((R,R)-L)(NO3 )2 (CH3 CN)]}n (3 a) and {[Cu((S,S)-L)(NO3 )2 (CH3 CN)]}n (3 b), {[Cu((R,R)-L)2 (CH3 CN)2 ](ClO4 )2 ⋅ 3CH3 CN}n (4) were obtained through the assemblies with CuBr2 , CuCl2 ⋅ 2H2 O, Cu(NO3 )2 ⋅ 3H2 O, Cu(ClO4 )2 ⋅ 6H2 O, respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and circular dichroism analysis demonstrate that 1 a-3 a, 1 b-3 b have a mono chiral one-dimensional (1D) chain-like spiral structure, while 4 have 1D chain-like structure whose metal centers have chiral propeller coordination environment. Ligand structure, anions and solvent systems have a regulatory effect on the formation of chiral helical structure. Further investigation has proved that 1 a can be used as circular dichroism spectrum probe for monitoring L-/D-cysteine and L-/D-penicillamine configuration and concentration in aqueous media based on ligand interchange mechanism.


Assuntos
Cobre , Polímeros , Cobre/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Polímeros/química , Succinatos , Tartaratos
16.
Chemosphere ; 296: 134055, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196532

RESUMO

The phytoextraction potential of turnip and comparative effectiveness of three different organic ligands towards removal of lead (Pb) was investigated under field conditions. The 20 d old turnip seedlings were exposed to different Pb levels (0.0218, 2.42 and 4.83 mM Pb) spiked in the soil. After 10 d of Pb application, the soil was spiked with 2.4 mM concentration of different chelates viz. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA) and tartaric acid (TA). The 60 d old plants were harvested for growth analyses and determination of photosynthetic pigments, while Pb-concentration in different plant parts was determined from 60 and 90 d old plants. Yield attributes were recorded at the harvesting stage (HS, 90 d old plants). No suppression (rather a stimulation) in the root and shoot growth was evident upon Pb exposure whereas, a reduction in the chlorophyll content occurred at 4.83 mM Pb level. Soil amendment with TA improved chlorophyll contents irrespective of Pb levels while the effect of CA and EDTA was differential. A reduction in the root length while an increase in its diameter was recorded particularly at 4.83 mM Pb stress in 90 d old plants. The turnip retained maximum Pb-fraction in the roots at early growth stages, while EDTA application further increased its retention in root at 4.83 mM Pb regime. Nonetheless, only TA amendment promoted the transfer of Pb to shoot (∼30%) irrespective of Pb regimes. At the HS, application of both TA and EDTA caused substantial uptake of Pb in the root while the maximum shoot Pb-fraction was recorded again due to TA application, particularly at 4.83 mM Pb level. Above all, TA was identified as the most effective chelate that mobilized Pb from root to shoot leading to better growth possibly due to dilution effect, and thus enhanced phytoextraction efficiency in turnip.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila , Ácido Cítrico , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Chumbo , Solo , Tartaratos
17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 718: 109119, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016855

RESUMO

The enolase superfamily (ENS) has served as a paradigm for understanding how enzymes that share a conserved structure, as well as a common partial reaction (i.e., metal-assisted, Brønsted base-catalyzed enol(ate) formation), evolved from a common progenitor to catalyze mechanistically diverse reactions. Enzymes of the mandelate racemase (MR)-subgroup of the ENS share interdigitating loops between adjacent, 2-fold symmetry-related protomers of the tightly associated homodimers that comprise their quaternary structures. For the MR-subgroup members MR and d-tartrate dehydratase (TarD), the tip of the loop contributes a binding determinant to the adjacent active site (i.e., Leu 93 and Lys 102, respectively). To assess the role of Leu 93 of MR in substrate specificity and catalysis, we constructed L93 variants bearing hydrophobic (L93A, L93F, and L93W), polar neutral (L93N), acidic (L93D), or basic (L93K and L93R) residues at position 93. Gel filtration-HPLC revealed that wild-type MR and all L93 MR variants, apart from L93R MR (dimeric), were tetrameric in solution. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) was reduced in the R→S and S→R reaction directions for all variants, primarily due to reduced turnover (kcat). Substitution of Leu 93 by Lys or Arg to mimic Lys 102 of TarD enhanced the binding of malate and tartrate, with meso- and d-tartrate exhibiting linear mixed-type inhibition of L93K MR. Despite the striking 500-fold increase in the binding affinity of d-tartrate, relative to (S)-mandelate, L93K MR exhibited no TarD activity. MD simulations suggested that the failure of L93K MR to catalyze α-deprotonation (i.e., H-D exchange) arises from inappropriate positioning of the Brønsted base (Lys 166). Thus, a change in binding determinant on the interdigitating loop can play a significant role in governing substrate specificity within the ENS, but does not necessarily confer 'new' catalytic activity despite similarities in catalytic machinery.


Assuntos
Racemases e Epimerases , Tartaratos , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Hidroliases/química , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
Dysphagia ; 37(3): 629-635, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977315

RESUMO

The tartaric acid nebulizer is a well-known cough test to evaluate cough function. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a cough-inducing method using tartaric acid (CiTA). Patients with dysphagia examined by videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing (VF) at a single institution from May 2017 to August 2017 were included in this retrospective observational study. Although undergoing VF, patients who had aspirated without reflexively coughing or who had coughed insufficiently, were instructed to cough voluntarily. Patients who could not cough voluntarily or had expectorated insufficiently underwent the CiTA method. The rate of cough induction and the effectiveness of expectoration using the CiTA method were evaluated. One hundred fifty-four patients (mean age 69.2 ± 16.8 years) were evaluated. Eighty-seven patients aspirated during VF. Of those patients, 15 were able to expectorate via the cough reflex, 18 were able to expectorate with a voluntary cough, and 12 required suctioning for removal of aspirated material. The remaining 42 patients underwent the CiTA method. Thirty-eight patients (90.4%) could reflexively cough, and 30 (71.4%) could expectorate the aspirated material. This novel method, CiTA, was effective for cough induction in patients with dysphagia, especially for those with silent aspiration.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Pneumonia Aspirativa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tosse/etiologia , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Tartaratos
19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 2): 1685-1695, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742083

RESUMO

Though the function of peptide based nanotubes are well correlated with its shape and size, controlling the dimensions of nanotubes still remains a great challenge in the field of peptide self-assembly. Here, we demonstrated that the shell structure of nanotubes formed by a bola peptide Ac-KI3VK-NH2 (KI3VK, in which K, I, and V are abbreviations of lysine, isoleucine, and valine) can be regulated by mixing it with the salt sodium tartrate (STA). The ratio of KI3VK and STA had a great impact on shell structure of the nanotubes. Bilayer nanotubes can be constructed when the molar ratio of KI3VK and STA was less than 1:2. Both the two hydroxyls and the negative charges carried by STA were proved to play important roles in the bilayer nanotubes formation. Observations of different intermediates provided obvious evidence for the varied pathway of the bilayer nanotubes formation. Based on these experimental results, the possible mechanism for bilayer nanotubes formation was proposed. Such a study provides a simple and effective way for regulating the shell structure of the nanotubes and may expand their applications in different fields.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Peptídeos , Nanotubos , Peptídeos , Tartaratos
20.
Ann Bot ; 129(1): 53-64, 2022 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Soil phosphorus (P) deficiency and salinity are constraints to crop productivity in arid and semiarid regions. Salinity may weaken the effect of P fertilization on plant growth. We investigated the interactive effects of soil P availability and salinity on plant growth, P nutrition and salt tolerance of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars. METHODS: A pot experiment was carried out to grow two cultivars of alfalfa in a loess soil under a combination of different rates of added P (0, 40, 80 and 160 mg P kg-1 soil as monopotassium phosphate) and sodium chloride (0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g NaCl kg-1 soil). Plant biomass, concentrations of P ([P]), sodium ([Na]) and potassium ([K]) were determined, and rhizosheath carboxylates were analysed. KEY RESULTS: There were significant interactions between soil P availability and salinity on some, but not all, of the parameters investigated, and interactions depended on cultivar. Plant growth and P uptake were enhanced by P fertilization, but inhibited by increased levels of salinity. Increasing the salinity resulted in decreased plant P-uptake efficiency and [K]/[Na]. Only soil P availability had a significant effect on the amount of tartrate in the rhizosheath of both cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: Increased salinity aggravated P deficiency. Appropriate application of P fertilizers improved the salt tolerance of alfalfa and increased its productivity in saline soils.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa , Salinidade , Fertilização , Fósforo , Raízes de Plantas , Sódio , Solo , Tartaratos/farmacologia
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