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1.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103840, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964429

RESUMO

It is not just a rail driver but a "system" that drives a train and network controllers apply non-technical skills to facilitate their role as part of a team. However, because of siloed and distributed working, scenarios exist where network controllers may inadvertently increase operational safety risks. The aim of this study was to generate a better understanding of non-technical skill application in network controllers by identifying which skills and behaviours were associated with problematic ways of working, and which abilities were used to address error-producing scenarios, and thereby reduce risk. Use of a scenario technique and behavioural markers analysis of 61 scenarios generated from 55 network controllers in 8 organisations across Australia and New Zealand revealed a large and diverse application of non-technical skills. Careful consideration must be given to the way in which deficiencies in abilities and skills are addressed. Future research directions are given.


Assuntos
Segurança , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Austrália , Nova Zelândia
2.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103861, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998391

RESUMO

Simulated environments have become better able to replicate the real world and can be used for a variety of purposes, such as testing new technology without any of the costs or risks associated with working in the real world. Because of this, it is now possible to gain a better understanding of cognitive demands when working in operational environments, where individuals are often required to multitask. Multitasking often results in performance decrements, where adding more tasks can cause a decrease in performance in each of the individual tasks. However, little research investigated multitasking performance in simulated environments. In the current study we examined how multitasking affects performance in simulated environments. Forty-eight participants performed a dual visual search and word memory task where participants were navigated through a simulated environment while being presented with words. Performance was then compared to single-task performance (visual search and word memory alone). Results showed that participants experienced significant dual-task interference when comparing the dual-tasks to the single-tasks and subjective measures confirmed these findings. These results could provide useful insight for the design of technology in operational environments, but also serve as an evaluation of MRT in simulated environments.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105552, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166942

RESUMO

Slowing down responses after errors (i.e., post-error slowing [PES]) is an established finding in adults. Yet PES in young children is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated (a) whether young children show PES in tasks with different types of cognitive conflict and differing demands on executive functions, (b) whether PES is adaptive and efficient in the sense that it is associated with better task performance, and (c) whether PES correlates between tasks. We tested 4- to 6-year-old children on the Funny Fruits task (FF; n = 143), a Stroop-like task that incorporates semantic conflict and taxes children's inhibition skills, and the Hearts and Flowers task (HF; n = 170), which incorporates spatial conflict and taxes children's inhibition skills in its incongruent block and taxes both inhibition and cognitive flexibility (rule-switching) skills in its mixed block. A subgroup of children were tested on both FF and HF (n = 74). Results revealed that, first, children showed PES in FF and both blocks of HF, indicating that PES occurs in both types of conflict and under varying executive demands. Second, PES was associated with task accuracy, but only for FF and the mixed HF. Third, a between-task association in PES emerged only between FF and the mixed HF. Together, these findings indicate that PES is still a developing strategy in young children; it is present but only adaptive for, and correlates between, semantic inhibition and spatial flexibility.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Frutas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Flores
4.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103898, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115134

RESUMO

A dual task was designed to involve a tracking mission with various tracking speeds and a spatial compatibility task with various signal-key mappings and presentation modalities. This dual task was used to investigate the effects of workload and resource competition in distinct parts of the dual-task process. The results demonstrated that increasing the tracking speed adversely affected the tracking performance but led to positive arousal to the secondary discrete response task. Visual spatial signals gave the shortest reaction time due to the optimal time-sharing of the visual resources in the focal and ambient channels. Compared with visual spatial signals, spatial signals of auditory and tactile modalities did not lead to an improved performance because of their cross-modality nature. These findings provided practical design guidelines for dual tasks in which the operators need to complete a continuous monitoring task visually and elicit timely and accurate responses to spatial information.


Assuntos
Processamento Espacial , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Tato , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia
5.
Cognition ; 230: 105318, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356393

RESUMO

Dual-task costs are thought to reflect the architecture of the cognitive processes that guide voluntary action. Thus, manipulations that affect dual-task costs can provide insight into how we represent and select behavior as well as allow us to better design machines and controls for safer, more efficient performance. This line of research has revealed that the sensory events that follow the responses (i.e., action effects) can affect dual-task performance even though the sensory events occur after the actions are produced. The present study assessed three hypotheses regarding how action effects impact dual-task performance: a monitoring bottleneck, central stage shortening, and crosstalk. Across two experiments, we manipulated the content of two concurrently-performed tasks: a visual task that used either spatial or nonspatial stimuli (Experiment 1) and an auditory task that used responses with or without experimentally-induced auditory action effects (Experiments 1 and 2). In Experiment 1, dual-task costs were reduced when experimentally-induced auditory action effects were present, independent of the content of the visual task. In Experiment 2, the dual-task costs depended on the content of the experimentally-induced action effects, such that costs were larger when action effects emphasized ordinal (number) information, which overlapped with the unmanipulated action effects from the visual spatial task. Strikingly, dual-task costs were reduced when added, post-response events supported greater separation between task representations relative to when no post-response events were added. These results support the crosstalk hypothesis, as action effects appear to alter task representations so that they emphasize different types of information, reducing the degree of crosstalk.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105551, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152456

RESUMO

Young children are generally overconfident in their abilities and performances, but the reasons that underlie such self-overestimation are unclear. The current cross-cultural experiment aimed to address this issue, testing the possibility that young children's overconfidence in task performance is, at least in part, motivated. We tested 89 Chinese children (49 % girls) and 104 Dutch children (50 % girls) aged 4 and 5 years and asked them to estimate how well they would perform on both a motor test and a memory task. They were randomly assigned to either an experimental condition (in which they were promised a reward for providing accurate performance estimates) or a no-incentive control condition, and then they performed the task. The incentive lowered Chinese (but not Dutch) children's performance overestimation on the motor task. Unexpectedly, children did not overestimate their performance on the memory task. Thus, this study supports the view that young children's self-overestimation can be motivated (rather than due to cognitive immaturity alone) but also reveals task contingencies and cultural differences.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Recompensa
7.
Physiol Behav ; 258: 114012, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effects of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on working memory in individuals with high and low aerobic fitness. DESIGN: The protocol adopted a between-subjects crossover design. METHODS: Forty healthy male college students (mean age = 19.59 ± 1.00 years) were assigned to high fitness (n = 20) or low fitness (n = 20) groups based on their estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in the 20 m shuttle run test. All participants were instructed to engage in three acute exercise interventions (10 min HIIE, 20 min HIIE, 20 min MICE) and a reading control intervention on separate days in a randomized order. A spatial 2-back task was performed before and after each intervention to assess working memory. RESULTS: Analyses of the 2-back task performance revealed that the working memory of high and low fitness participants benefited from different modalities of acute exercise. Specifically, reaction time in the 2-back task was significantly shorter after 20 min HIIE compared to pre-exercise in high fitness participants, whereas low fitness participants had significantly faster reaction time in the 2-back task after 20 min MICE and 10 min HIIE relative to pre-exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of acute aerobic exercise on working memory are modulated by a combination of exercise modality and aerobic fitness. This finding has important implications for providing experimental evidence that participants choose appropriate exercise to undertake based on their level of aerobic fitness to improve cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Memória de Curto Prazo , Masculino , Humanos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estudantes
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18897, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344568

RESUMO

Interpersonal coordination is important for many joint activities. A special case of interpersonal coordination is synchronization, which is required for the performance of many activities, but is also associated with diverse positive social and emotional attributes. The extent to which these effects are due to the reliance on synchrony for task performance or to its specific rhythmic characteristics, is not clear. To address these questions, we considered a more general form of interpersonal coordination, implemented during joint artmaking. This is a non-typical context for interpersonal coordination, not required for task success, and smoother and more loosely-structured than more standard forms of synchronous coordination. Therefore, comparing interpersonal coordination with non-coordination during shared painting, could help reveal general social-emotional reactions to coordination. To gain a more 'naïve' perspective we focused on children, and staged coordinated and non-coordinated art interactions between an adult and a child, asking child observers to judge various variables reflecting the perceived bond between the painters. We found an overall stronger perceived bond for the coordination condition. These results demonstrate that even a non-typical form of interpersonal coordination could be attributed with positive social and emotional qualities, a capacity revealed already in childhood, with possible implications for development.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Emoções , Percepção
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277099, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350826

RESUMO

Analyzing the time course of eye movements during scene viewing often indicates that people progress through two distinct modes of visual processing: an ambient mode, which is associated with overall spatial orientation in a scene, followed by a focal mode, which requires central vision of an object. However, the shifts between ambient and focal processing modes have mainly been identified relative to changes in the environment, such as relative to the onset of various visual stimuli but also following scene cuts or subjective event boundaries in dynamic stimuli. The results so far do not allow conclusions about the nature of the two processing mechanisms beyond the influence of externally triggered events. It remains unclear whether people shift back and forth from ambient to focal processing also based on internal triggers, such as switching between different tasks while no external event is given. The present study therefore investigated ambient to focal processing shifts in an active task solving paradigm. The Rubik's Cube task introduced here is a multi-step task, which can be broken down into smaller sub-tasks that are performed serially. The time course of eye movements was analyzed at multiple levels of this Rubik's Cube task, including when there were no external changes to the stimuli but when internal representations of the task were hypothesized to change (i.e., switching between different sub-tasks). Results suggest that initial ambient exploration is followed by a switch to more focal viewing across various levels of task processing with and without external changes to the stimuli. More importantly, the present findings suggest that ambient and focal eye movement characteristics might serve as a probe for the attentional state in task processing, which does not seem to be influenced by changes in task performance.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Sacádicos , Humanos , Percepção Visual , Atenção , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429747

RESUMO

The patient perspective of dual-task (DT) impairment in real life is unclear. This review aimed (i) to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) on DT and evaluate their measurement properties and (ii) to investigate the usage of PROMs for the evaluation of DT difficulties. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science from inception to March 2022. Methodological quality was evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Six studies examined the measurement properties of DT PROMs. Nine studies used DT PROMs as the outcome measure. Five PROMs were identified, including the Divided Attention Questionnaire (DAQ), Dual-Task-Impact on Daily-life Activities Questionnaire (DIDA-Q), a Questionnaire by Cock et al. (QOC), Dual-Tasking Questionnaire (DTQ), and Dual-Task Screening-List (DTSL). Fourteen measurement properties were documented: five (35.7%) rated quality as "sufficient", six (42.8%) "insufficient", and three (21.4%) "indeterminate". The quality of evidence for each measurement property ranged from very low to high. While DT performance is investigated in many populations, the use of PROMs is still limited, although five instruments are available. Currently, due to insufficient data, it is not possible to recommend a specific DT PROM in a specific population. An exception is DIDA-Q, which has the highest quality of measurement properties in people with multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Lista de Checagem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429818

RESUMO

We examined the effects of background music on cognitive task performances using different musical arrangements from an excerpt of Mozart's Piano Sonata K.448. The participants were 126 university students: 70 music majors and 56 nonmusic majors. Three types of musical arrangements were used as background conditions: rhythm-only, melody, and original music conditions. Participants were asked to perform cognitive tasks in the presence of each music condition. The participants' percentage of completed items and accuracy on these tasks were compared for music and nonmusic majors, controlling for the effect of perceived level of arousal and their performance during no background music. Whether a participant's perceptions of background music predicted their cognitive performance was also analyzed. We found that music majors demonstrated decreased task performance for the original background condition, while nonmusic majors demonstrated no significant differences in performance across the arrangements. When pitch or rhythm information was modified, emotional valence and arousal were perceived differently. Perception of the complexity of the background music depending on the arrangement type differed between music majors and nonmusic majors. While the perceived complexity significantly predicted nonmusic majors' cognitive performance, its predictive effect was not found in music majors. The findings imply that perceptions of musical arrangements in terms of expectancy and complexity can be critical factors in determining how arrangements affect concurrent cognitive activity, while suggesting that music itself is not a facilitating or detrimental factor for cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Música , Humanos , Música/psicologia , Atenção , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Nível de Alerta , Cognição
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433495

RESUMO

The relevance of the study is confirmed by the rapid development of automation in agriculture, in particular, horticulture; the lack of methodological developments to assess the effectiveness of the introduction of robotic technologies; and the need to expand the functionality of mobile robots. The purpose of the study was to increase the level of autonomy of a robotic platform for picking apple fruits based on a new method, develop a system of factors to determine the effectiveness of the introduction of robots in horticulture, and develop a control system using integrated processing of onboard data. The article discussed the efficiency factors for the introduction of robotic systems and technologies in agricultural enterprises specializing in horticulture within the framework of projects with different budgets. The study sample consisted of 30 experts-enterprises that have implemented robotic platforms and scientists specializing in this field. Based on an expert survey of enterprise specialists, a ranked list of 18 efficiency factors was obtained. To select an evaluation factor that determines the effectiveness of robotization and the developed control system, a method for calculating the concordance coefficient (method of expert analysis) was applied as a measure of the consistency of a group of experts for each group of factors. An analysis of the results of the expert evaluation showed that three factors are the most significant: the degree of autonomy of work; positioning accuracy; and recognition accuracy. The generalized indicator of local autonomy of task performance was estimated based on the analysis of a set of single indicators. A system for controlling the movement of an autonomous robotic wheeled platform based on inertial and satellite navigation and calculation of the path to be overcome was developed. The developed software allows for the design of a route for the robotic platform in apple horticulture to automatically perform various technological operations, such as fertilization, growth and disease control, and fruit harvesting. With the help of the software module, the X, Y coordinates, speed and azimuth of movement were given, and the movement of the platform along the given typical turn trajectories in an intensive horticulture environment was visualized.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Horticultura , Software , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20308, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434040

RESUMO

Eye movements and other rich data obtained in virtual reality (VR) environments resembling situations where symptoms are manifested could help in the objective detection of various symptoms in clinical conditions. In the present study, 37 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 36 typically developing controls (9-13 y.o) played a lifelike prospective memory game using head-mounted display with inbuilt 90 Hz eye tracker. Eye movement patterns had prominent group differences, but they were dispersed across the full performance time rather than associated with specific events or stimulus features. A support vector machine classifier trained on eye movement data showed excellent discrimination ability with 0.92 area under curve, which was significantly higher than for task performance measures or for eye movements obtained in a visual search task. We demonstrated that a naturalistic VR task combined with eye tracking allows accurate prediction of attention deficits, paving the way for precision diagnostics.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Realidade Virtual , Criança , Humanos , Movimentos Oculares , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
14.
Exp Brain Res ; 240(12): 3141-3152, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241746

RESUMO

Existing methods for measuring implicit sequence-learning consciousness are conducted offline. Based on the traditional measurement of cued-generation task, this study implemented an online measurement method by converting a generation task into a forced-choice task to observe the dynamic changes of consciousness in the implicit sequence-learning process. In this study, we compared the performance of online measurement task and traditional sequence-learning tasks in 31 university students. The results revealed that the online indicators were significantly correlated with classic consciousness indicators and typical ERP components of consciousness. Without affecting the development of consciousness, the online measurement indicators were found to promptly and effectively reflect the gradually changing progression of consciousness in implicit sequence learning.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Aprendizagem Seriada , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Internet , Estudantes
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275535, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194613

RESUMO

In laparoscopy, a small incision size improves the surgical outcome but increases at the same time the rigidity of the instrument, with consequent impairment of the surgeon's maneuverability. Such reduction introduces new challenges, such as the loss of wrist articulation or the impossibility of overcoming obstacles. A possible approach is using multi-steerable cable-driven instruments fully mechanical actuated, which allow great maneuverability while keeping the wound small. In this work, we compared the usability of the two most promising cable configurations in 3D printed multi-steerable instruments: a parallel configuration with all cables running straight from the steerable shaft to the handle; and a multi configuration with straight cables in combination with helical cables. Twelve participants were divided into two groups and asked to orient the instrument shaft and randomly hit six targets following the instructions in a laparoscopic simulator. Each participant carried out four trials (two trials for each instrument) with 12 runs per trial. The average task performance time showed a significant decrease over the first trial for both configurations. The decrease was 48% for the parallel and 41% for the multi configuration. Improvement of task performance times reached a plateau in the second trial with both instruments. The participants filled out a TLX questionnaire after each trial. The questionnaire showed a lower burden score for the parallel compared to multi configuration (23% VS 30%). Even though the task performance time for both configurations was comparable, a final questionnaire showed that 10 out of 12 participants preferred the parallel configuration due to a more intuitive hand movement and the possibility of individually orienting the distal end of the steerable shaft.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(10): 717-724, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teleoperation enables performing tasks in hazardous or inaccessible environments. The relationship between spatial ability and teleoperation performance has been extensively studied; however, relatively few studies have considered examples wherein the specific influence mechanism between the two is examined. This study aims to explore how individuals' spatial ability affects teleoperation performance.METHODS: Forty subjects completed teleoperated expedition and escape tasks in a virtual unfamiliar environment according to the assigned requirements. After each expedition task, subjects' mental model about the unfamiliar environment was evaluated. The escape task performance was measured in terms of path length, completion time, and the number of collisions. The impact of spatial ability on escape task performance wherein mental model as a mediator was examined. The Bootstrapping method was used to examine the hypothesis regarding the mediating role of mental model in the influence of spatial ability on teleoperation performance.RESULTS: Subjects with higher spatial ability exhibited significantly better mental models and had fewer collisions. In addition, subjects with better mental models had significantly shorter path lengths and spent marginally less time on escape. In general, the mental model appeared important for path length and completion time, but not collisions.CONCLUSIONS: The combined results of the two tasks preliminarily proved that spatial ability affected path length of the escape task through the mental model after the exploration task. The findings are expected to aid in astronaut selection and teleoperation training for space station missions.Pan D, Liu D, Tian Z, Zhang Y. Performance influence mechanism of individuals' spatial ability in teleoperation. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(10):717-724.


Assuntos
Navegação Espacial , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Interface Usuário-Computador
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231736

RESUMO

Twelve healthy male students were recruited to investigate the physiological response to different noise exposure and mental workload (MW) conditions, while performing multi-attribute task battery (MATB) tasks. The experiments were conducted under three noise exposure conditions, with different sound pressure levels and sharpness. After adaptation to each noise condition, the participants were required to perform the resting test and the MATB task tests with low, medium, and high MW. The electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), and eye movement data were obtained, during the periods when participants were in the resting and task taking state. The results showed that subjects' physiological responses at rest were unaffected by noise exposure conditions. However, during the execution of MATB tasks, the elevated sound pressure level and increased sharpness were significantly correlated with increased mean pupil diameter and heart rate variability (HRV). These responses suggested that the human body defends itself through physiological regulation when noise causes adverse effects. If the negative effects of noise were more severe, this could damage the body's health and result in a significant drop in task performance. The elevated mental demands led to increased stress on the subjects, which was reflected in a considerable increase in theta relative power. Either high or low MW was related with reduced saccade amplitude and a decrease in weighted task performance, indicating an inverted U-shaped relationship between workload level and work performance.


Assuntos
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Carga de Trabalho , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294275

RESUMO

Drawing on the conservation of resources theory and the recovery step model our research expands on a cognitive (regulatory resources) mechanism that links human-animal interactions and employee performance. This study aimed to explore whether daily human-animal interactions during worktime would be conceived as a daily-recovery process that restores the individual's daily regulatory resources and, as a result, improves daily adaptive and task performance. To test this, a daily diary study during 10 working days, with 105 teleworkers was performed (N = 105 × 10 = 1050). Multilevel results demonstrated that daily interactions between human and their pets served to recover their daily regulatory resources that, in turn, improved daily task-and-adaptive performance. This research not only expands our theoretical understanding of regulatory resources as a cognitive mechanism that links human-animal interactions to employee effectiveness but also offers practical implications by highlighting the recovery role of interacting with pets during the working day, as a way to restore resources needed to be more effective at work.


Assuntos
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos
19.
Biol Psychol ; 175: 108431, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191864

RESUMO

Proportion compatibility effects, in which task performance for compatible stimuli is improved in blocks consisting of mostly compatible stimuli (MC blocks) and task performance for incompatible stimuli is improved in blocks consisting of mostly incompatible stimuli (MI blocks), are common in interference tasks. This study addressed proportion compatibility effects on visual mismatch negativity (VMMN) in the flanker task, which consisted of compatible, incompatible, and deviant stimuli. Compatible and incompatible stimuli were arrays of five black arrows. Deviant stimuli were created by the black central arrow and red surroundings of equal signs. The flanker task was conducted in MC and MI blocks, and blocks with an equal probability (EP blocks) of compatible, incompatible, and deviant stimuli. The posterior negativity from 200 to 250 ms for deviant stimuli was significantly more negative in the MC than in the EP blocks. However, there was no difference in the posterior negativity from 200 to 250 ms between MI and EP blocks. These results indicate that VMMN for deviant stimuli was observed in the MC blocks but not in the MI blocks. In addition, the posterior negativity for incompatible stimuli was modulated by the probability of incompatible stimuli. In contrast, modulation by the probability was not found in the posterior negativity for compatible stimuli. The results indicate that VMMN was elicited by incompatible stimuli but not by compatible stimuli. These findings suggest that proactive control in the MI blocks may attenuate processing in an irrelevant visual field.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Percepção Visual
20.
Cogn Sci ; 46(10): e13204, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251464

RESUMO

People working as a team can achieve more than when working alone due to a team's ability to parallelize the completion of tasks. In collaborative search tasks, this necessitates the formation of effective division of labor strategies to minimize redundancies in search. For such strategies to be developed, team members need to perceive the task's relevant components and how they evolve over time, as well as an understanding of what others will do so that they can structure their own behavior to contribute to the team's goal. This study explored whether the capacity for team members to coordinate effectively can be related to how participants structure their search behaviors in an online multiplayer collaborative search task. Our results demonstrated that the structure of search behavior, quantified using detrended fluctuation analysis, was sensitive to contextual factors that limit a participant's ability to gather information. Further, increases in the persistence of movement fluctuations during search behavior were found as teams developed more effective coordinative strategies and were associated with better task performance.


Assuntos
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Motivação , Movimento
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