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1.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 3, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, health technology assessment (HTA) has recently been adopted in pricing negotiation for medicine listing in the National Reimbursement Drug List. At present, how HTA is applied to inform the decision-making process remains underreported. In order to explore how the adoption of HTA was translated into listing and price negotiation results in light of the confidential nature of the negotiating process, this study aimed to compare the negotiated price and the clinical benefit of selected targeted anticancer medicines (TAMs) involved in the 2019 negotiation. MAIN TEXT: Among 16 TAMs successfully negotiated, only four TAMs representing four indication groups had appropriate reference medicines for comparison and were, therefore, included in the analysis. The price and clinical benefit of the four TAMs were compared against one or two reference medicines with the same initial indications. The sales prices for nine TAMs before and after the negotiation were extracted from the centralized medication procurement system. Clinical benefits were evaluated based on evidence from published articles and clinical guidelines. The results suggested that, despite the application of HTA, both rational and irrational decisions had been made about the reimbursement of TAMs in the 2019 negotiation, warranting further investigation. CONCLUSION: While the development and adoption of HTA has seen significant progress in China, actions are needed to ensure that the adoption of HTA is effectively applied in decisions on the reimbursement of medicines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Custos e Análise de Custo , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Negociação
2.
J Med Econ ; 25(1): 1-6, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the impact of different efficacy endpoints on reimbursement decisions made by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: European Medicines Agency (EMA) oncology product marketing authorizations were screened to identify products that completed review by 3 HTA bodies during 2016-2019: United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Germany's Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, and France's Haute Autorité de Santé. Each decision's endpoint information, including overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), was extracted. Each endpoint's influence on added benefits rating (the degree of added benefit as judged by the HTA agency) and full reimbursement (i.e. reimbursed population to label) decisions was tested using bivariate analyses. RESULTS: An increasing trend was observed toward HTA submissions with immature OS data (36.8% and 71.4% in 2016 and 2019, respectively), which was a predictor of limited added benefit (p < .001). Regarding data availability, 63% of submissions provided OS, 2% provided PFS without OS; and 35% provided neither. OS availability significantly influenced added benefit (p < .001) but not full reimbursement (p > .05) decisions, whereas PFS without OS had no significant impact compared with either OS or PFS data for either outcome (p = .99). CONCLUSIONS: The trend toward fewer products filing mature OS data over time suggests sponsors may be increasingly confident achieving reimbursement with surrogate endpoint data, although mature OS data provided the strongest correlation to positive reimbursement decisions. Notably, in some locally advanced settings, OS data maturity will take a long time to obtain. To expedite patient access to new medicines, payers should consider the acceptance of surrogate endpoints predictive of clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Humanos , Oncologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
4.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55364

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se describe el sesgo de publicación, sus causas más frecuentes, sus características, las herramientas regulatorias para evitarlo y algunas técnicas estadísticas para analizarlo. Se explican y aplican estas técnicas a tres intervenciones terapéuticas relacionadas con la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés): corticoides, ivermectina y tocilizumab; se detectó riesgo de sesgo de publicación para ivermectina y tocilizumab. Las revisiones sistemáticas y los metaanálisis son diseños de investigación secundaria que constituyen una referencia para guiar la toma de decisiones. Son propensos a distintos tipos de sesgo, que es una desviación sistemática en los resultados. Aun desarrollados con rigor metodológico, su validez puede verse amenazada por el sesgo de publicación. Este se define como el acto de ocultar o retrasar la publicación, retener datos surgidos de los estudios de investigación, o ambos. Hasta la mitad de los ensayos controlados que se realizan permanecen sin publicarse. Durante la pandemia por virus H1N1, el sesgo de publicación de estudios financiados por la industria llevó a recomendar y comprar en gran escala el fármaco oseltamivir que, luego se supo, no tenía efectos beneficiosos relevantes. Dos tercios del financiamiento de los estudios clínicos para COVID-19 provienen de la industria farmacéutica. En el contexto de la pandemia actual por COVID-19, se publican estudios a un ritmo acelerado, por lo que resulta de gran trascendencia conocer e identificar el sesgo de publicación. Para reducir el sesgo de publicación es necesario regular el registro y la publicación de ensayos clínicos, pero esto requiere una coordinación de los países y organismos internacionales. Es importante sospechar e intentar identificar el sesgo de publicación para la toma de decisiones.


[ABSTRACT]. This article describes publication bias, its most frequent causes, its characteristics, the regulatory tools to avoid it, and some statistical techniques to analyze it. These techniques are explained and applied to three therapeutic interventions related to the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19): corticosteroids, ivermectin, and tocilizumab. Risk of publication bias was detected for ivermectin and tocilizumab. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are secondary research designs that provide a reference to guide decision-making. They are prone to different types of bias, i.e., a systematic deviation in the results. Even if carried out with methodological rigor, their validity can be threatened by publication bias. This is defined as the act of concealing or delaying publication, withholding data arising from research studies, or both. Up to half of controlled trials remain unpublished. During the H1N1 virus pandemic, publication bias from industry-funded studies led to the recommendation and large-scale procurement of oseltamivir, a drug that later proved to have no relevant beneficial effects. Two-thirds of clinical trial funding for COVID-19 comes from the pharmaceutical industry. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, studies are published at an accelerated pace, making it very important to understand and identify publication bias. To reduce publication bias it is necessary to regulate the registration and publication of clinical trials, but this requires coordination among countries and international bodies. It is important to suspect and attempt to identify publication bias for decision making.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo descreve o viés de publicação, suas causas mais frequentes, suas características, as ferramentas regulatórias para evitá-lo e algumas técnicas estatísticas para analisá-lo. Essas técnicas são explicadas e aplicadas a três intervenções terapêuticas relacionadas à doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19, na sigla em inglês): corticoides, ivermectina e tocilizumabe. Detectou-se risco de viés de publicação para ivermectina e tocilizumabe. As revisões sistemáticas e as meta-análises são delineamentos de pesquisa secundária que constituem uma referência para orientar a tomada de decisão. Estão propensas a diferentes tipos de viés, que é um desvio sistemático nos resultados. Mesmo tendo sido desenvolvidas com rigor metodológico, sua validade pode ser ameaçada pelo viés de publicação, que é definido como o ato de ocultar ou atrasar a publicação, reter dados de pesquisa ou ambos. Até metade dos estudos controlados realizados jamais são publicados. Durante a pandemia pelo vírus H1N1, o viés de publicação de estudos financiados pela indústria levou à recomendação e à compra, em grande escala, do medicamento oseltamivir que, mais tarde, ficou conhecido por não ter efeitos benéficos relevantes. Dois terços do financiamento para os ensaios clínicos referentes à COVID-19 vêm da indústria farmacêutica. No contexto da atual pandemia de COVID-19, os estudos vêm sendo publicados em ritmo acelerado; portanto, é fundamental conhecer e identificar o viés de publicação. Para reduzi-lo, é necessário regulamentar o registro e a publicação de ensaios clínicos, o que requer coordenação entre países e organismos internacionais. É importante suspeitar e tentar identificar o viés de publicação para a tomada de decisão.


Assuntos
Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática , Viés de Publicação , COVID-19 , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática , Viés de Publicação , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática , Viés de Publicação , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
5.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 38(1): e9, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As health services increasingly make investment decisions in digital health technologies (DHTs), a DHT-specific and comprehensive health technology assessment (HTA) process is crucial in assessing value-for-money. Research in DHTs is ever-increasing, but whether it covers the content required for HTA is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To summarize current trends in primary research on DHTs that manage chronic disease at home, particularly the coverage of content recommended for DHT-specific and comprehensive HTA. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Econlit, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library (1 January 2015 to 20 March 2020) were searched for primary research studies using keywords related to DHT and HTA domains. Studies were assessed for coverage of the most frequently recommended content to be considered in a nine domain DHT-specific HTA previously developed. RESULTS: A total of 178 DHT interventions were identified, predominantly randomized controlled trials targeting cardiovascular disease/diabetes in high- to middle-income countries. A coverage assessment of the cardiovascular and diabetes DHT studies (112) revealed less than half covered DHT-specific content in all but the health problem domain. Content common to all technologies but essential for DHTs was covered by more than half the studies in all domains except for the effectiveness and ethical analysis domains. CONCLUSIONS: Although DHT research is increasing, it is not covering all the content recommended for a DHT-specific and comprehensive HTA. The inability to conduct such an HTA may lead to health services making suboptimal investment decisions. Measures to increase the quality of trial design and reporting are required in DHT primary research.


Assuntos
Análise Ética , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Doença Crônica , Humanos
6.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 38(1): e11, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In England, the time gap between marketing authorization (MA) and guidance publication by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) can limit patients' access to new medicines. In this study, our aim was to identify medicine characteristics associated with the long time gap between MA and guidance publication and explore the influencing factors. METHODS: We identified 116 single technology appraisals from 2016 to 2020 using publicly available data, and extracted information on the year of appraisal completion, application type, experiences of similar appraisals, orphan medicinal products (OMPs), cancer medicines, and accelerated assessment. Multiple regression analyses were performed to analyze the associations between the medicine characteristics and key time periods related to health technology assessment and MA processes. RESULTS: OMPs were associated with a long period between MA and guidance publication. Specifically, OMPs and cancer medicines were associated with slow guidance publication after the final scope (FS) development. However, there was no association between OMPs and the period between validation of MA application and FS development. Non-double-blinded randomized clinical trials and the use of comparators not specified in the FS were associated with slow guidance publication after the FS development. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that OMPs are associated with a longer period between MA and guidance publication by the NICE than non-OMPs; this may be attributed to the slow guidance publication after the FS development. These findings indicate the necessity to shorten the appraisal process for OMPs.


Assuntos
Produção de Droga sem Interesse Comercial , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Tecnologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948945

RESUMO

In 2018, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution on improving access to assistive technology (AT), and mandated the WHO to prepare a global report on assistive technology based on the best available evidence and international experience. As limited data on access to AT at country and global levels were available, there was a need to conduct representative population surveys in order to inform the development of the global report, national AT programs, and global initiatives. The objective of this protocol is to describe a multi-country study of access to assistive technology in six self-reported areas: use, source, payer, satisfaction, unmet need, and barriers. In collaboration with WHO Regional and Country offices, Member States, and other stakeholders, the Assistive Technology Access team in WHO coordinates the study. Data are collected through household surveys using the rapid Assistive Technology Assessment (rATA) questionnaire. Findings from the surveys will be published in the global report.


Assuntos
Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Autorrelato , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(67): 1-76, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media is a painful infection of the middle ear that is commonly seen in children. In some children, the eardrum spontaneously bursts, discharging visible pus (otorrhoea) into the outer ear. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effectiveness of immediate topical antibiotics or delayed oral antibiotics with the clinical effectiveness of immediate oral antibiotics in reducing symptom duration in children presenting to primary care with acute otitis media with discharge and the economic impact of the alternative strategies. DESIGN: This was a pragmatic, three-arm, individually randomised (stratified by age < 2 vs. ≥ 2 years), non-inferiority, open-label trial, with economic and qualitative evaluations, supported by a health-record-integrated electronic trial platform [TRANSFoRm (Translational Research and Patient Safety in Europe)] with an internal pilot. SETTING: A total of 44 English general practices. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged ≥ 12 months and < 16 years whose parents (or carers) were seeking medical care for unilateral otorrhoea (ear discharge) following recent-onset (≤ 7 days) acute otitis media. INTERVENTIONS: (1) Immediate ciprofloxacin (0.3%) solution, four drops given three times daily for 7 days, or (2) delayed 'dose-by-age' amoxicillin suspension given three times daily (clarithromycin twice daily if the child was penicillin allergic) for 7 days, with structured delaying advice. All parents were given standardised information regarding symptom management (paracetamol/ibuprofen/fluids) and advice to complete the course. COMPARATOR: Immediate 'dose-by-age' oral amoxicillin given three times daily (or clarithromycin given twice daily) for 7 days. Parents received standardised symptom management advice along with advice to complete the course. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time from randomisation to the first day on which all symptoms (pain, fever, being unwell, sleep disturbance, otorrhoea and episodes of distress/crying) were rated 'no' or 'very slight' problem (without need for analgesia). METHODS: Participants were recruited from routine primary care appointments. The planned sample size was 399 children. Follow-up used parent-completed validated symptom diaries. RESULTS: Delays in software deployment and configuration led to small recruitment numbers and trial closure at the end of the internal pilot. Twenty-two children (median age 5 years; 62% boys) were randomised: five, seven and 10 to immediate oral, delayed oral and immediate topical antibiotics, respectively. All children received prescriptions as randomised. Seven (32%) children fully adhered to the treatment as allocated. Symptom duration data were available for 17 (77%) children. The median (interquartile range) number of days until symptom resolution in the immediate oral, delayed oral and immediate topical antibiotic arms was 6 (4-9), 4 (3-7) and 4 (3-6), respectively. Comparative analyses were not conducted because of small numbers. There were no serious adverse events and six reports of new or worsening symptoms. Qualitative clinician interviews showed that the trial question was important. When the platform functioned as intended, it was liked. However, staff reported malfunctioning software for long periods, resulting in missed recruitment opportunities. Troubleshooting the software placed significant burdens on staff. LIMITATIONS: The over-riding weakness was the failure to recruit enough children. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to answer the main research question because of a failure to reach the required sample size. Our experience of running an electronic platform-supported trial in primary care has highlighted challenges from which we have drawn recommendations for the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the research community. These should be considered before such a platform is used again. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12873692 and EudraCT 2017-003635-10. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 67. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Otite Média , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eletrônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Alta do Paciente , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
9.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(68): 1-114, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821547

RESUMO

TRIAL DESIGN: A randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study with health economic and nested qualitative studies to determine if mifepristone (Mifegyne®, Exelgyn, Paris, France) plus misoprostol is superior to misoprostol alone for the resolution of missed miscarriage. METHODS: Women diagnosed with missed miscarriage in the first 14 weeks of pregnancy were randomly assigned (1 : 1 ratio) to receive 200 mg of oral mifepristone or matched placebo, followed by 800 µg of misoprostol 2 days later. A web-based randomisation system allocated the women to the two groups, with minimisation for age, body mass index, parity, gestational age, amount of bleeding and randomising centre. The primary outcome was failure to pass the gestational sac within 7 days after randomisation. The prespecified key secondary outcome was requirement for surgery to resolve the miscarriage. A within-trial cost-effectiveness study and a nested qualitative study were also conducted. Women who completed the trial protocol were purposively approached to take part in an interview to explore their satisfaction with and the acceptability of medical management of missed miscarriage. RESULTS: A total of 711 women, from 28 hospitals in the UK, were randomised to receive either mifepristone plus misoprostol (357 women) or placebo plus misoprostol (354 women). The follow-up rate for the primary outcome was 98% (696 out of 711 women). The risk of failure to pass the gestational sac within 7 days was 17% (59 out of 348 women) in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, compared with 24% (82 out of 348 women) in the placebo plus misoprostol group (risk ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.98; p = 0.04). Surgical intervention to resolve the miscarriage was needed in 17% (62 out of 355 women) in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, compared with 25% (87 out of 353 women) in the placebo plus misoprostol group (risk ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.94; p = 0.02). There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups. A total of 42 women, 19 in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group and 23 in the placebo plus misoprostol group, took part in an interview. Women appeared to have a preference for active management of their miscarriage. Overall, when women experienced care that supported their psychological well-being throughout the care pathway, and information was delivered in a skilled and sensitive manner such that women felt informed and in control, they were more likely to express satisfaction with medical management. The use of mifepristone and misoprostol showed an absolute effect difference of 6.6% (95% confidence interval 0.7% to 12.5%). The average cost per woman was lower in the mifepristone plus misoprostol group, with a cost saving of £182 (95% confidence interval £26 to £338). Therefore, the use of mifepristone and misoprostol for the medical management of a missed miscarriage dominated the use of misoprostol alone. LIMITATIONS: The results from this trial are not generalisable to women diagnosed with incomplete miscarriage and the study does not allow for a comparison with expectant or surgical management of miscarriage. FUTURE WORK: Future work should use existing data to assess and rank the relative clinical effectiveness and safety profiles for all methods of management of miscarriage. CONCLUSIONS: Our trial showed that pre-treatment with mifepristone followed by misoprostol resulted in a higher rate of resolution of missed miscarriage than misoprostol treatment alone. Women were largely satisfied with medical management of missed miscarriage and would choose it again. The mifepristone and misoprostol intervention was shown to be cost-effective in comparison to misoprostol alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17405024. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 68. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Aborto Espontâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
10.
Ortop Traumatol Rehabil ; 23(5): 381-387, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734564

RESUMO

This article has the form of a communication presenting recent legal changes in relation to medical devices. Until 26 May 2021, three medical directives were in force, namely Directive 98/79 / EC, Council Directive 93/42/ EEC and Council Directive 90/385 / EEC. They have been replaced by two regulations: Regulation (EU) 2017/745 on medical devices and Regulation (EU) 2017/746 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices. The article presents the reasons for introducing the changes and the new obligations that these changes bring for manufacturers of medical devices, in particular, products manufactured individually on a special order as necessary for the implementation of personalized therapies in clinical practice. There are also forecasts for the industry and end users of medical devices manufactured to order and used individually at medical centers.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , União Europeia , Humanos
11.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(62): 1-126, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is informal consensus that simple compression fractures of the body of the thoracolumbar vertebrae between the 10th thoracic vertebra and the second lumbar vertebra without neurological complications can be managed conservatively and that obvious unstable fractures require surgical fixation. However, there is a zone of uncertainty about whether surgical or conservative management is best for stable fractures. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial comparing surgical fixation with initial conservative management of stable thoracolumbar fractures without spinal cord injury. DESIGN: External randomised feasibility study, qualitative study and national survey. SETTING: Three NHS hospitals. METHODS: A feasibility randomised controlled trial using block randomisation, stratified by centre and type of injury (high- or low-energy trauma) to allocate participants 1 : 1 to surgery or conservative treatment; a costing analysis; a national survey of spine surgeons; and a qualitative study with clinicians, recruiting staff and patients. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged ≥ 16 years with a high- or low-energy fracture of the body of a thoracolumbar vertebra between the 10th thoracic vertebra and the second lumbar vertebra, confirmed by radiography, computerised tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, with at least one of the following: kyphotic angle > 20° on weight-bearing radiographs or > 15° on a supine radiograph or on computerised tomography; reduction in vertebral body height of 25%; a fracture line propagating through the posterior wall of the vertebra; involvement of two contiguous vertebrae; or injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament or annulus in addition to the body fracture. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical fixation: open spinal surgery (with or without spinal fusion) or minimally invasive stabilisation surgery. Conservative management: mobilisation with or without a brace. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recruitment rate (proportion of eligible participants randomised). RESULTS: Twelve patients were randomised (surgery, n = 8; conservative, n = 4). The proportion of eligible patients recruited was 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.63) over a combined total of 30.7 recruitment months. Of 211 patients screened, 28 (13.3%) fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Patients in the qualitative study (n = 5) expressed strong preferences for surgical treatment, and identified provision of information about treatment and recovery and when and how they are approached for consent as important. Nineteen surgeons and site staff participated in the qualitative study. Key themes were the lack of clinical consensus regarding the implementation of the eligibility criteria in practice and what constitutes a stable fracture, alongside lack of equipoise regarding treatment. Based on the feasibility study eligibility criteria, 77% (50/65) and 70% (46/66) of surgeons participating in the survey were willing to randomise for high- and low-energy fractures, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Owing to the small number of participants, there is substantial uncertainty around the recruitment rate. CONCLUSIONS: A definitive trial is unlikely to be feasible currently, mainly because of the small number of patients meeting the eligibility criteria. The recruitment and follow-up rates were slightly lower than anticipated; however, there is room to increase these based on information gathered and the support within the surgical community for a future trial. FUTURE WORK: Development of consensus regarding the population of interest for a trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12094890. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 62. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador , Fraturas Ósseas , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
12.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(60): 1-72, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the optimal dose and duration of amoxicillin treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in children. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy, safety and impact on antimicrobial resistance of shorter (3-day) and longer (7-day) treatment with amoxicillin at both a lower and a higher dose at hospital discharge in children with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: A multicentre randomised double-blind 2 × 2 factorial non-inferiority trial in secondary care in the UK and Ireland. SETTING: Paediatric emergency departments, paediatric assessment/observation units and inpatient wards. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged > 6 months, weighing 6-24 kg, with a clinical diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, in whom treatment with amoxicillin as the sole antibiotic was planned on discharge. INTERVENTIONS: Oral amoxicillin syrup at a dose of 35-50 mg/kg/day compared with a dose of 70-90 mg/kg/day, and 3 compared with 7 days' duration. Children were randomised simultaneously to each of the two factorial arms in a 1 : 1 ratio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was clinically indicated systemic antibacterial treatment prescribed for respiratory tract infection (including community-acquired pneumonia), other than trial medication, up to 28 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes included severity and duration of parent/guardian-reported community-acquired pneumonia symptoms, drug-related adverse events (including thrush, skin rashes and diarrhoea), antimicrobial resistance and adherence to trial medication. RESULTS: A total of 824 children were recruited from 29 hospitals. Ten participants received no trial medication and were excluded. Participants [median age 2.5 (interquartile range 1.6-2.7) years; 52% male] were randomised to either 3 (n = 413) or 7 days (n = 401) of trial medication at either lower (n = 410) or higher (n = 404) doses. There were 51 (12.5%) and 49 (12.5%) primary end points in the 3- and 7-day arms, respectively (difference 0.1%, 90% confidence interval -3.8% to 3.9%) and 51 (12.6%) and 49 (12.4%) primary end points in the low- and high-dose arms, respectively (difference 0.2%, 90% confidence interval -3.7% to 4.0%), both demonstrating non-inferiority. Resolution of cough was faster in the 7-day arm than in the 3-day arm for cough (10 days vs. 12 days) (p = 0.040), with no difference in time to resolution of other symptoms. The type and frequency of adverse events and rate of colonisation by penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci were comparable between arms. LIMITATIONS: End-of-treatment swabs were not taken, and 28-day swabs were collected in only 53% of children. We focused on phenotypic penicillin resistance testing in pneumococci in the nasopharynx, which does not describe the global impact on the microflora. Although 21% of children did not attend the final 28-day visit, we obtained data from general practitioners for the primary end point on all but 3% of children. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic retreatment, adverse events and nasopharyngeal colonisation by penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci were similar with the higher and lower amoxicillin doses and the 3- and 7-day treatments. Time to resolution of cough and sleep disturbance was slightly longer in children taking 3 days' amoxicillin, but time to resolution of all other symptoms was similar in both arms. FUTURE WORK: Antimicrobial resistance genotypic studies are ongoing, including whole-genome sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, to fully characterise the effect of amoxicillin dose and duration on antimicrobial resistance. The analysis of a randomised substudy comparing parental electronic and paper diary entry is also ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76888927, EudraCT 2016-000809-36 and CTA 00316/0246/001-0006. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 60. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Pneumonia , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051812, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent and type of data redaction in all active technology appraisals (TA) and highly specialised technology (HST) evaluations issued by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) from its conception of the institute to September 2019. To propose policy recommendations for transparency. METHODS: Structured audit to establish extent of data redaction-proportion of appraisals and specific data categories and assess redaction by: indication, appraisal process, manufacturer, type of data-price, adverse events (AEs), clinical (excluding AEs), incremental quality-adjusted life-years. Longitudinal analysis over 20 years. RESULTS: All TAs with available documentation and active recommendations (n=408) and HSTs (n=10) published from March 2000 to 11 September 2019 have been assessed for data redaction. Overall, 333 TAs (81.6%) have data redaction, 86 (25.8%) of them are heavily redacted. Clinical data (excluding AEs) are redacted in 268 (65.7%) appraisals, AE data in 128 (31.4%), price in 238 (58.3%). In total, 87% of oncology appraisals have redacted data vs 78% of non-oncology appraisals. 91% of single TAs have redacted data vs 59% of multiple TAs. 25% of final guidance documents (e.g. Final Appraisal Determination - FAD) do not report one or more instance of clinical data. Data redaction increased substantially over time, and is currently at its highest level with 100% of TAs having at least some data redaction in 2019/2020, 96% of appraisals in 2018/2019% and 94% of appraisals in 2017/2018. All 10 HST evaluations have redacted data, with 4 of them being heavily redacted. CONCLUSIONS: Documents supporting NICE TA and HST recommendations are significantly redacted, thereby concealing clinical and economic data of importance to patients, clinicians and researchers. Documents remain redacted on the NICE website for years. Policy change is required to ensure transparency of data underpinning NICE's decisions.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Políticas , Reino Unido
15.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 39(12): 1455-1463, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, health technology assessment (HTA) agencies have not been at the forefront of decision making regarding the adoption of interventions for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Instead, policymakers have prioritised rapid action in response to the pandemic emergency, with no assessment of value for money. As COVID-19 vaccination coverage increases and healthcare systems begin to recover, HTA agencies will be expected to assess technologies for COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the key challenges when assessing therapeutic and diagnostic technologies for COVID-19, from the perspective of HTA agencies, and identify whether there is a case for novel HTA methods and/or processes to address them. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods approach, by conducting an online survey of HTA agencies, to collect data about the challenges faced when assessing or planning to assess diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for COVID-19. The online survey was followed by a 'roundtable' workshop of HTA agencies' representatives to discuss the results and to elaborate on their responses. RESULTS: We received 21 completed surveys (response rate of 45%) and 11 of the respondents joined the roundtable discussion. Five themes emerged from the responses: assessing clinical effectiveness (44%), assessing cost effectiveness (19%), practical (19%), political (11%), and decision making (11%) challenges. At the roundtable, attendees elaborated on the challenges and identified two additional themes: how HTA agencies have responded to the pandemic to date, and how their role might change over time. CONCLUSION: HTA agencies face both methodological and logistical challenges when assessing or planning to assess technologies for COVID-19. An interim best-practice HTA framework to address the key challenges would be valuable.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1825, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of public engagement in health technology assessment. However, there is still uncertainty regarding how the results should be recorded, analyzed, and used by decision makers. OBJECTIVE: Synthesize the contributions of the Brazilian public (women, health professionals, managers, educational institutions, and companies) about the implementation of the National Clinical Guidelines for Care in Normal Birth from the public consultation carried out in Brazil. METHOD: IRaMuTeQ software was used to organize and summarize the corpus based on three types of analysis: descriptive statistics; descending hierarchical classification; and specificities analysis. The public consultation was conducted in 2016 by the National Committee for Health Technology Incorporation (CONITEC) in the Brazilian public health system as part of the guideline development process. RESULTS: The corpus consisted of 303 texts, separated into 1233 text segments, 1081 of which were used, corresponding to retention of 87.67%. Five classes emerged from our analyses: mandatory presence of an obstetrician during labor and delivery in hospital settings; barriers and facilitators for guideline implementation; use of evidence-based practices by health professionals; progression of labor and delivery and women's rights; and mobilization to promote the guideline For each class, the most frequent words and sentences with the highest chi-squared scores were presented. Barriers were associated with lack of financial resources, training and professional motivation, and facilitators with training to change the practices of health professionals. Obstetric nurses emerged as an alternative for supervising normal births as well as the mandatory presence of an obstetrician during childbirth in hospital settings. CONCLUSION: Our findings summarize the contributions provided by the Brazilian public and shed some light on the barriers and facilitators of clinical guidelines for care in normal birth. These topics are not typically explored by quantitative studies. Including this information in the decision-making process would not only increase public engagement, but provide greater evidence for implementing the clinical guidelines nationwide.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Parto , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 64, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706040

RESUMO

The youth of Health Technology Assessment (HTA), as an institutional policy at the national level, signals the need to reflect on how its implementation took place under the perspective of its insertion in health policy and the scientific field. At the end of its first decade, these questions arise: has HTA translated into a health policy informed by science? Has its scientific foundation been used in the service of politics? To understand this political process, we apply the multiple-streams framework formulated by John Kingdon. The use of science to inform policy and the political use of science present themselves in an unstable balance. The survival of this policy will depend not only on science but on the art of orchestrating the interests of various agents so that HTA becomes a health policy for strengthening and sustainability of SUS.


Assuntos
Formulação de Políticas , Política , Adolescente , Tecnologia Biomédica , Brasil , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
18.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 4174-4183, 2021 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677272

RESUMO

The Canadian Real-world Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration was established to develop a framework for generating and using real-world evidence (RWE) to inform the reassessment of cancer drugs following initial health technology assessment (HTA). The Reassessment and Uptake Working Group (RWG) is one of the five established CanREValue Working Groups. The RWG aims to develop considerations for incorporating RWE for HTA reassessment and strategies for using RWE to reassess drug funding decisions. Between February 2018 and December 2019, the RWG attended four teleconferences (with follow-up surveys) and two in-person meetings to discuss recommendations for the development of a reassessment process and potential barriers and facilitators. Modified Delphi methods were used to gather input. A draft report of recommendations (to December 2018) was shared for public consultation (December 2019 to January 2020). Initial considerations for developing a reassessment process were proposed. Specifically, reassessment can be initiated by diverse stakeholders, including decision makers from public drug plans or industry stakeholders. The reassessment process should be modelled after existing deliberation and recommendation frameworks used by HTA agencies. Proposed reassessment outcome categories include maintaining status quo, revisiting funding criteria, renegotiating price, or disinvesting. Overall, these initial considerations will serve as the basis for future advancements by the Collaboration.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Canadá , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497796

RESUMO

Introduction: The significant therapeutic potential of the advanced therapies (ATs) has predetermined the increased interests in their development mainly in the context of rare diseases most of which are genetically determined. However, there are still many challenges in front of the health insurance funds related to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact issues of these therapies. Our aim was to review and analyze the potential of low- and middle-income countries for health technology assessment (HTA) of advanced therapies focusing on Bulgaria, Romania and Poland as reference countries. A literature review of the existing good practices related to HTA of advanced therapies across the world and comparison with the national reality were performed. A list of challenges and issues from the point of view of the payer institution of all analyzed countries was performed. Pilot recommendations on how to overcome the barriers were created based on the existing practices and the potential of the national system. Discussion: 15 out of 80 articles identified in PubMed were found as applicable to the study scope as most of them were published in the period 2019-2021. Undoubtedly, the main challenges correspond to the high treatment costs, the uncertainty in clinical effectiveness, and poor HTA methodological approaches applicable for ATs worldwide. The issues identified for low and middle-income countries are similar having as well the lack of enough qualified health economists for the purposes of assessment and appraisal of HTA dossiers of the advanced therapies, lack of adequate existing separate financial programs for those therapies, and not preparedness of the health system and the society as a whole for such therapies. Conclusions: Despite the difficulties and challenges, the advanced therapies can be defined as a futuristic therapy for which great discoveries are yet to come. Therefore, each country should consider the implementation of reliable and nationally oriented programs for HTA and adequate financial coverage of these therapies.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Bulgária , Polônia , Romênia
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1402-1410, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495724

RESUMO

Researchers and policy makers in the US are exploring the implementation of health technology assessment and value-based pricing to negotiate drug prices and limit spending. Objections made to the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), the most frequently used health economic outcome for such assessments, are a barrier to the adoption of these tools. This literature review identifies and addresses the range of criticisms made against QALYs. Methods-based criticisms require attention from stakeholders to address well-known shortcomings of the QALY and ensure consistency. Ethical criticisms, however, do not apply only to the QALY and require political decisions about societal values. Understanding and overcoming criticisms of the QALY to enable its use as part of health technology assessment and value-based pricing will be crucial as US policy makers seek to address high drug costs and health care spending.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
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