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PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301509, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935773


This paper presents new evidence on knowledge flows in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China, involving 43 cities (districts) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, based on the invention patent transfer data from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. First, the characteristics of technology flows in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region are analyzed in terms of changes in the number of flows, types of flowing subjects and spatial distribution characteristics. Then, a multi-level patent technology flow network in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was constructed, and the structural characteristics and node characteristics of each level network were explored separately. The key findings of the study are as follows. (1) The number of patented technology flows has been growing over time, showing obvious phase characteristics during the study period. As a whole, the intra-city (district) technology flow in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is higher than the inter-city (district). (2) The multi-level patent technology flow network in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shows dynamic characteristics, with more and more mobile subjects participating in the patent technology flow network, some network nodes becoming closer to each other, and the trend of small group technology flow increasing significantly. (3) Enterprises are the core hub of the patent technology flow network in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Individual invention patent technology transfer also occupies a high proportion and the participation of universities and colleges in the patent technology flow network in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is gradually increasing. (4) Over time, the flow of patent technology in the 43 cities (districts) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has gradually become active and no longer relies excessively on a particular city (district) for patent technology transfer.

Patentes como Assunto , Análise Espaço-Temporal , China , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , Cidades , Humanos , Tecnologia , Propriedade Intelectual , Transferência de Tecnologia , Invenções
Eval Health Prof ; 47(2): 154-166, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790107


In healthcare and related fields, there is often a gap between research and practice. Scholars have developed frameworks to support dissemination and implementation of best practices, such as the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation, which shows how scientific innovations are conveyed to practitioners through tools, training, and technical assistance (TA). Underpinning those aspects of the model are evaluation and continuous quality improvement (CQI). However, a recent meta-analysis suggests that the approaches to and outcomes from CQI in healthcare vary considerably, and that more evaluative work is needed. Therefore, this paper describes an assessment of CQI processes within the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Technology Transfer Center (TTC) Network, a large TA/TTC system in the United States comprised of 39 distinct centers. We conducted key informant interviews (n = 71 representing 28 centers in the Network) and three surveys (100% center response rates) focused on CQI, time/effort allocation, and Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures. We used data from each of these study components to provide a robust picture of CQI within a TA/TTC system, identifying Network-specific concepts, concerns about conflation of the GPRA data with CQI, and principles that might be studied more generally.

Melhoria de Qualidade , Transferência de Tecnologia , United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Gestão da Qualidade Total/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
Eval Health Prof ; 47(2): 167-177, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790109


It is important to use evidence-based programs and practices (EBPs) to address major public health issues. However, those who use EBPs in real-world settings often require support in bridging the research-to-practice gap. In the US, one of the largest systems that provides such support is the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA's) Technology Transfer Center (TTC) Network. As part of a large external evaluation of the Network, this study examined how TTCs determine which EBPs to promote and how to promote them. Using semi-structured interviews and pre-testing, we developed a "Determinants of Technology Transfer" survey that was completed by 100% of TTCs in the Network. Because the study period overlapped with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we also conducted a retrospective pre/post-pandemic comparison of determinants. TTCs reported relying on a broad group of factors when selecting EBPs to disseminate and the methods to do so. Stakeholder and target audience input and needs were consistently the most important determinant (both before and during COVID-19), while some other determinants fluctuated around the pandemic (e.g., public health mandates, instructions in the funding opportunity announcements). We discuss implications of the findings for technology transfer and frame the analyses in terms of the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation.

COVID-19 , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Transferência de Tecnologia , United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estados Unidos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(4): e00120023, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775575


Innovation is an essential element for development and growth, but it consists of a long process of knowledge accumulation, so technology transfer is used to accelerate this process. This study mapped the particularities of the technology transfer process for the COVID-19 vaccine between AstraZeneca and the Institute of Technology in Immunobiologicals (Bio-Manguinhos), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, and identified enablers, obstacles, and gaps. Our analysis investigated the process from selection of the most suitable partner to incorporation of the new technology based on a comprehensive literature review on this topic, combined with a case study. The results showed that, although many actions still have to be performed to maximize technology capacity gains, the lessons learned from the technology transfer process will be used in future and ongoing agreements.

A inovação é um elemento fundamental para o desenvolvimento e crescimento, mas constituída por um processo demorado de acúmulo de conhecimento. Uma das formas de acelerar tal processo é por meio da transferência de tecnologia. Este artigo mapeou as particularidades da transferência de tecnologia para a vacina contra COVID-19, celebrado entre a AstraZeneca e o Instituto de Tecnologia em Imunobiológicos (Bio-Manguinhos), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, bem como reconheceu os seus facilitadores, seus entraves e suas lacunas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma análise desde a etapa da seleção do parceiro mais adequado até a incorporação da nova tecnologia. A metodologia utilizada se baseou em uma ampla revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema, aliada ao estudo de caso. Os resultados apontaram que, apesar de muitas ações ainda precisarem ser realizadas para que os ganhos de capacidade tecnológica sejam potencializados, as lições aprendidas com o processo de transferência de tecnologia servirão de aprendizado e serão utilizadas nos acordos futuros e em andamento.

La innovación es un elemento fundamental para el desarrollo y el crecimiento, pero consiste en un proceso de acumulación de conocimiento que requiere mucho tiempo. Una de las formas de acelerar este proceso es mediante la transferencia de tecnología. Este artículo mapeó las particularidades del proceso de transferencia de tecnología para la vacuna contra la COVID-19, celebrado entre AstraZeneca y el Instituto de Tecnología en Inmunobiológicos (Bio-Manguinhos), Fundación Oswaldo Cruz, además de reconocer los facilitadores, obstáculos y brechas. Para ello se realizó un análisis, desde la etapa de selección del socio más adecuado hasta la incorporación de la nueva tecnología. La metodología utilizada se basó en una amplia revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema, combinada con el estudio de caso. Los resultados mostraron que, si bien aún es necesario llevar a cabo muchas acciones para maximizar las ganancias de capacidad tecnológica, las lecciones aprendidas del proceso de transferencia de tecnología servirán como lecciones y se utilizarán en acuerdos futuros y en curso.

Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Transferência de Tecnologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Academias e Institutos , Brasil , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
Science ; 384(6695): 489, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687207


At the end of May, 194 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) will meet for the World Health Assembly. Negotiations underway now will determine whether they vote then to adopt a pandemic agreement. For the past 2 years, discussions have focused on articulating essential components of a robust and equitable architecture for pandemic preparedness and response. Despite this, talks have failed to produce sufficient consensus on a detailed draft, prompting the intergovernmental negotiating body to propose a "streamlined" version. The new text, released on 16 April, consolidates provisions for research and development, technology transfer, pathogen access and benefit sharing (including pandemic products such as medicines and vaccines), with many particulars deferred to future procedures. Ultimately, success of the agreement will depend on these details and implementation. Nevertheless, member states shouldn't bypass the consensus reached to date, but continue progress to adopt this agreement.

Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Humanos , Consenso , Negociação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Transferência de Tecnologia
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(5): 344-351, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38680466


The World Health Organization (WHO) set up the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) technology transfer programme in June 2021 with a development hub in South Africa and 15 partner vaccine producers in middle-income countries. The goal was to support the sustainable development of and access to life-saving vaccines for people in these countries as a means to enhance epidemic preparedness and global public health. This initiative aims to build resilience and strengthen local vaccine research, and development and manufacturing capacity in different regions of the world, especially those areas that could not access coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in a timely way. This paper outlines the current global vaccine market and summarizes the findings of a case study on the mRNA technology transfer programme conducted from November 2022 to May 2023. The study was guided by the vision of the WHO Council on the Economics of Health for All to build an economy for health using its four work streams of value, finance, innovation and capacity. Based on the findings of the study, we offer a mission-oriented policy framework to support the mRNA technology transfer programme as a pilot for transformative change towards an ecosystem for health innovation for the common good. Parts of this vision have already been incorporated into the governance of the mRNA technology transfer programme, while other aspects, especially the common good approach, still need to be applied to achieve the goals of the programme.

L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) a lancé le Programme de transfert de la technologie de l'acide ribonucléique messager (ARNm) en juin 2021, assorti d'un centre de développement en Afrique du Sud et de 15 fabricants de vaccins partenaires dans des pays à revenu intermédiaire. L'objectif consistait à soutenir la pérennisation et l'accès à des vaccins d'importance vitale pour les populations de ces pays en vue d'améliorer la préparation aux épidémies et la santé publique mondiale. Cette initiative vise à accroître la résilience et à renforcer la recherche vaccinale locale, ainsi que les capacités de conception et de fabrication dans différentes régions du monde, en particulier dans celles qui n'ont pas pu obtenir des vaccins contre la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) en temps utile. Le présent document décrit l'actuel marché mondial des vaccins et résume les résultats d'une étude de cas consacrée au Programme de transfert de la technologie ARNm et menée de novembre 2022 à mai 2023. L'étude s'inspire de la vision du Conseil de l'OMS sur l'économie de la santé pour tous, qui consiste à construire une économie allant dans le sens de la santé selon quatre axes de travail: valeur, finances, innovation et capacité. En nous fondant sur les résultats de l'étude, nous proposons un cadre stratégique orienté vers un but précis: soutenir le Programme de transfert de la technologie ARNm en tant que projet pilote afin d'évoluer vers un écosystème d'innovation en matière de santé dédié au bien commun. Certains aspects de cette vision ont déjà été intégrés dans les principes de gouvernance du Programme de transfert de la technologie ARNm tandis que d'autres, en particulier l'approche liée au bien commun, doivent encore être appliqués pour atteindre les objectifs du programme.

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) creó el programa de transferencia de tecnología de ácido ribonucleico mensajero (ARNm) en junio de 2021 con un centro de desarrollo en Sudáfrica y 15 productores de vacunas asociados en países de ingresos medios. El objetivo era apoyar el desarrollo sostenible y el acceso a las vacunas que salvan vidas para la población de estos países como medio para mejorar la preparación ante epidemias y la salud pública mundial. Con esta iniciativa se pretende crear resiliencia y reforzar la capacidad local de investigación, desarrollo y fabricación de vacunas en distintas regiones del mundo, especialmente en aquellas áreas que no pudieron acceder oportunamente a las vacunas contra la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19). Este documento describe el actual mercado mundial de vacunas y resume las conclusiones de un estudio de caso sobre el programa de transferencia de tecnología de ARNm realizado entre noviembre de 2022 y mayo de 2023. El estudio se guió por la visión del Consejo de la OMS sobre la Economía de la Salud para Todos de crear una economía de la salud utilizando sus cuatro líneas de trabajo: valor, financiación, innovación y capacidad. A partir de las conclusiones del estudio, ofrecemos un marco político orientado a la misión para apoyar el programa de transferencia de tecnología de ARNm como piloto para un cambio transformador hacia un ecosistema de innovación sanitaria para el bien común. Algunas partes de esta visión ya se han incorporado a la gobernanza del programa de transferencia de tecnología de ARNm, mientras que otros aspectos, en especial el enfoque del bien común, aún deben aplicarse para alcanzar los objetivos del programa.

COVID-19 , Transferência de Tecnologia , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , África do Sul , Saúde Global
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(6): 8812-8827, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180671


Estimating the asymmetrical influence of foreign direct investment is the primary goal of the current study. In addition, further controlled variables affect environmental degradation in OIC nations. Due to this, current research employs the asymmetric (NPARDL) approach and the data period from 1980 to 2021 to estimate about viability of the EKC (environmental Kuznets curve) theory. The study utilized greenhouse gas (GHG) including emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and ecological footprint as substantial parameters of environmental quality. A nonlinear link between foreign direct investments, trade openness, economic growth, urbanization, energy consumption, and environmental pollution with CO2, N2O, CH4, and ecological footprint in the OIC nations is confirmed by the study's outcomes, which however reveals inconsistent results. Furthermore, the results also show that wrong conclusions might result from disregarding intrinsic nonlinearities. The study's conclusions provide the most important recommendations for decision-makers.

Dióxido de Carbono , Transferência de Tecnologia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Meio Ambiente
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 51(1): 123-131, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872261


Technology transfer centers (TTCs) facilitate the movement of evidence-based practices in behavioral healthcare from theory to practice. One of the largest such networks is the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) TTC Network. This brief report shares findings from an organizational network analysis (ONA) of the network conducted as part of an external evaluation. For non-supervisory TTCs (n = 36) across three focus areas (addiction, prevention, and mental health), the authors computed network density, harmonic closeness, and non-null dyadic reciprocity for five types of interactions (e.g., "collaborated in workgroups"), then, for each interaction type, used Welch's T-test to compare mean harmonic closeness of standalone TTC grantees versus multiple-TTC grantees. ONA identified potentially isolated regional TTCs as well as mismatches between some centers' desired scope and their network centrality and enabled investigation of broader questions around behavioral health support systems. The approach appears useful for evaluating TTCs and similar support networks.

Comportamento Aditivo , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Estados Unidos , Humanos , United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration , Transferência de Tecnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle